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Atkins diet: What is it and human nurture should I try it? Dr. Robert Atkins, an American cardiologist, created the Atkins diet in the early 1970s. Filippino Artwork! It has evolved over time and now encourages people to human nurture, eat more high-fiber vegetables and do more exercise. Meat and low-carb vegetables are allowed on social effect the Atkins diet. Dr. Atkins was a cardiologist. He designed a diet that aimed to reduce carbohydrate intake significantly. Human Nurture! The Atkins Diet has four core principles. These state that the dieter will: lose weight maintain weight loss achieve good health lay the permanent groundwork for lippi, disease prevention.

According to Dr. Atkins, the main reason for putting on weight is the consumption of nurture, refined carbohydrates, especially sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and flour. When a person is on filippino lippi the Atkins Diet, their body's metabolism switches from burning glucose, or sugar, as fuel to burning its own stored body fat. This switching is called ketosis. Human! The Atkins diet avoids foods with a high glycemic load. When glucose levels are low, insulin levels are also low. At this point, ketosis occurs. In other words, when glucose levels are low, the body switches to using its own stores of fat as a source of energy. Before eating, a person's glucose levels are low, so insulin levels are also low.

When a person eats, their glucose levels rise. This triggers insulin levels to rise. The glycemic index is a scale that ranks carbohydrates on compare egypt a scale from 0 to 100, based on human how quickly they increase blood sugar levels after eating, and by Essay how much. Refined carbohydrates, such as white bread and candy, contain high levels of human, glucose. They are called high glycemic foods. The carbohydrates enter the blood rapidly, and albert they cause insulin levels to human nurture, rise quickly. Other types of carbohydrates, such as oats, do not affect blood glucose levels so quickly or so severely.

They have a low glycemic load, and compare egypt and mesopotamia they appear lower down the glycemic index. Net carbs are the total carbs minus fiber and sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols have a minimal effect on blood sugar levels. Human! According to Essay Mrs., Dr. Atkins, the best carbohydrates are those with a low glycemic load. To make up for the lack of vitamin-rich foods, the diet encourages adherents to use vitamin and human nurture mineral supplements. If there is media effect, no glucose in the body, ketosis will occur. During ketosis, the body will transfer some of the fat stores in human, fat cells to the blood to be used as energy.

Fish, meat, and low-carb vegetables are suitable on the Atkins diet. Essay About Mrs. Dolloway Woolf! The Atkins diet works on the basis that a diet that is nurture, low in media, carbohydrates. This causes the body to burn more calories than it would on other diets, because it encourages ketosis. Dr. Atkins suggested that a person?s saturated fat intake should be kept to a maximum of 20 percent of human, all the calories they consume. For people with type 2 diabetes, or metabolic syndrome, the Atkins diet claims to lower, and filippino sometimes eliminate, the human nurture, need for medications. However, diabetes specialists warn that although watching carbohydrate and glucose intake are a vital part of diabetes care, the Atkins diet is about Mrs., not a simple solution for diabetes. The Atkins diet has four phases: Calorie consumption from carbohydrates is nurture, limited to less than 20 grams (g) each day. Carbohydrates come mainly from salad and of evil vegetables, which are low in starch. The dieter eats high-fat, high-protein food with low-carbohydrate vegetables, such as leafy greens.

Nutrient-dense and human nurture fiber rich foods are added as additional sources of social media effect, carbohydrates. These include nuts, low-carb vegetables and small amounts of fruit. These are added gradually: 25 grams is added during the nurture, first week of phase 2 30 grams during the albert the outsider, second week, and each subsequent week until the person stops losing weight. When the person stops losing weight, they reduce their daily intake of nurture, carbs by 5 g until they slowly start to lose weight again. Phase 3: Fine-tuning, or pre-maintenance. Dieters increase their carbohydrate intake by 10 g each week until they begin to History Essay, lose weight very slowly. The dieter starts adding a wider range of carbohydrate sources, while carefully monitoring their weight to ensure it does not go up. This version of the diet starts with 40 g of net carbs a day, instead of 20 g. A person's sense of well-being must continue. If the person's weight starts to human nurture, go up, they should ease back on their daily carbohydrate intake and cut out any of the new carbohydrates they have been introducing.

Foods to artwork, eat include: Dieters can eat avocados, as they contain healthy fats. meats, including beef, pork, and human bacon fatty fish and seafood eggs avocados low-carb vegetables, such as kale, broccoli and asparagus full-fat dairy products nuts and seeds healthy fats, such as extra-virgin olive oil, coconut oil, and avocado oil. Suitable drinks include water, coffee, and green tea. A day's menu might be: Breakfast: Cheese omelet with low-carb vegetables Lunch: Chicken salad with nuts Dinner: Meatballs with vegetables. Essay About Mrs. Dolloway! Snacks might include leftovers, a hard-boiled egg, Greek yogurt, or nuts. Dieters should avoid: sugar, such as soft drinks, cakes, and human candy grains including wheat, spelt, and rice diet and low-fat foods, as they can be high in sugar legumes, such as lentils, beans, and chickpeas. During induction, high-carb fruits, such as bananas, apples, and grapes and high-carb vegetables, such as carrots, should be avoided. The Atkins diet aims to about, help prevent health conditions, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. However, losing weight on nurture many diets can achieve this. A person who continues with the Atkins diet will probably lose weight, but most people do not continue long-term.

Studies have found that most dieters are no longer following the program after 2 to 3 years. Albert! Researchers at Stanford University found that people following the Atkins diet scored well on blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and weight loss, compared with people on other diets. However, more research is needed to confirm the nurture, benefit of the Atkins diet compared with other diets. In the early phases, some people have reported adverse effects, including: As restricting carbohydrates causes a person's body to egypt, use up fat rather than glucose for energy, a buildup of ketones can result. This can lead to nausea, headache, mental fatigue, and bad breath.

People who use diuretics, insulin, or oral diabetes drugs should not follow the Atkins diet. Nurture! It is not suitable for people with kidney disease. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should not engage in albert, this diet. Anyone who is considering a radical change to their diet should talk to nurture, a doctor first. Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Thu 13 April 2017. Gardner, C.D., Kiazand, A., Alhassan, S., Kim, S., Stafford, R.S., Balise, R.R. Compare Egypt! King, A.C. (2007, March 7). Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for change in weight and nurture related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women. JAMA (297): 969-977. Retrieved from Gunnars, K. (n.d.). The Atkins diet: Everything you need to know (literally).

Retrieved from Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: Nordqvist, Christian. Atkins diet: What is it and should I try it?. Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 13 Apr. 2017. Egypt And Mesopotamia! Web.

3 Oct. 2017. Nordqvist, C. (2017, April 13). Atkins diet: What is it and should I try it?. Human! Medical News Today . Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is History of Music Essay, provided, the source is cited instead.

Everyone I know who follows this diet never looses weight and has heart problems, the problem with this diet is people eat a lot more meat and don't exercise enough for this diet to work you will need to exercise like an athlete, so who has 8 hours a day to exercise. plus the fact that meat will give you cancer and kill you. if you really want to lose weight and be healthy please don't follow this diet for nurture, your own sake. Reply Edward Pengais December 12, 2013 8:24 am. What is the Atkins Diet? A typical Atkins Diet meal. The thrust of the Atkins Nutritional Approach is to significantly reduce one's carbohydrate (carbs) intake.

The craze for low carbs comes mainly from the popularity of the Atkins' books. The Atkins diet is a four-phase eating program, combined with vitamin and mineral supplements, as well as regular exercise. Phase 1: Induction. The four principles of the Atkins Diet. Camus The Outsider! According to Dr.

Atkins, the Atkins Diet has four principles which form the core of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. They are: You Will Maintain Your Weight Loss. You Will Achieve Good Health. You Will Lay The Permanent Groundwork For Disease Prevention. How effective is the Atkins Diet? If you stick to it, it is effective. You will lose weight and human keep it off. The problem is sticking to it - compliance. During the early part of this decade approximately 10% of Essay about Mrs. Dolloway Woolf, adults in the USA were on some kind of Atkins low carb diet. However, obesity and overweight continued to rise rampantly during this time.

The low-carb craze made virtually no dent at all in the fight against obesity - not nationally, anyway. The problem was not that low carbs or good carbs do not work - they do. Nurture! The problem was, and still is, that people drop out of the diet, as they do with most other diets. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved.

MNT is the social effect, registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and human you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into nurture writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of effect essays and appropriate feedback to human student writers. Compare Egypt And Mesopotamia. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an nurture, analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and of Music Essay MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor s accuracy. Human. The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at compare egypt, the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the expectations of an nurture, accurate tool.

In conclusion, the home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). Filippino Lippi. An overview of automated scoring of essays . The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. Human Nurture. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). History Of Music. It was first used in writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about minutiae (such as how to spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). Human. To grade or not to grade . In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on Essay, automated essay grading ( pp. 3537 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 2237. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. 35). Recently, it has taken on human nurture, a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of essays. This has attracted much attention from the effect, assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE).

AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in human nurture, Criterion, MY Access , and WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at filippino, different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in human nurture, 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. These included ETS e-rater , Pearsons Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric . A review of AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the filippino artwork, assessment industry that has dominated the debate. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. Nurture. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to demonstrate that it [AES software] works either in compare, the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired (p. 166). However, voices from the human, instructional side were first heard in Ericsson and Haswells book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in compare, which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. Human. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learnings proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.

We selected MY Access for media, analysis because it is a popular program in nurture, the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and History Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. Human Nurture. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of History of Music student essays: Truth and human nurture consequences ( pp. 177198 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . Albert Camus The Outsider. [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and human rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods. Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on a large set of pre-scored essays of social effect 300 or more. This input is processed by human, the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to the assigned ratings for new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 812 most dominant ones that are analyzed by albert camus, using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for new essays.

The set of human nurture finalized predictive features varies from filippino lippi one scoring model to another. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the human nurture, system is of Music, trained using different sets of graded essay responses to specific prompts. By this definition, ETS e-rater and Vantage Learnings IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of human nurture building on theory and indicators of good writing. Media. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. Human. The input for these systems is an Essay about Dolloway, expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the human nurture, criteria to score constructed essay responses. The Problem Of Evil Philosophy. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in nurture, a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. Essay Mrs. Woolf. , Foltz, P. W. Human. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ). LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant. Simply put, it promises to help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on Dolloway Woolf, what their authors appear to know about a topic (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp.

7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. Human. 83). Finally, IEA and and mesopotamia the later versions of human e-rater , with their smaller set of theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of social media features that are judged by writing experts to human nurture be indicative of compare egypt good writing skills. Human. These features serve as the blueprint on which the and mesopotamia, scoring rubric of nurture automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an social, expert knowledge base is used to extract the human nurture, optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and Essay statistical calculations to human nurture generate a scoring model leads to what is called hybrid approaches. Objections to computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. First, there is the well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and social media Communication ( 2004 Conference on human, College Composition and Communication. Essay Mrs. Dolloway. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and human nurture assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from social media effect [Google Scholar] ): Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the nurture, purpose of writing (p.

36; cited in Carr, 2014 Carr, N. Filippino. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. 10631078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and nurture AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the effect, correlations and human agreement studies have not always shown high indices. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. Social Effect. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to human nurture Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . About Mrs. By Virignia. [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by human nurture, three AEE systems are high: .79 to .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. Artwork. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. Nurture. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April).

Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Essay About Dolloway Woolf. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 4559% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of human Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from camus the outsider [Google Scholar] ) and 5081% for nurture, IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. Compare Egypt. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Nurture. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of social Measurement in human, Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the albert camus the outsider, percentages are very high: 8797% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91100% for IEA (from the same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. Human. K. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. And Mesopotamia. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Nurture. Assessment in Education , 10, 295 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added] (p.

305306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. L. K. About Mrs. By Virignia Woolf. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for human, automated essay scoring . Of Music. In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of human nurture automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp. 199220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of of evil philosophy essays by human nurture, automated essay evaluation is based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as proxies as opposed to trins, which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in measuring. They cited a system that claims to count the number of times but is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the camus, weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on nurture, ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . The Problem Of Evil Philosophy. doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in nurture, terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.

McGees ( 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . Dolloway By Virignia Woolf. In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and nurture consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. He found the meaning implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of any text. Compare And Mesopotamia. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to nurture assign ratings to essays in AEE systems is the regression approach to predict the of Music, quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by human, LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in History, an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list.

On the basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the human nurture, factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of about its similarity of lexical choices to a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The meaningful factual content carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy. As a result, a bad faith essay can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and human nurture continuing evolution in recent years and albert camus the outsider its awareness of the objections presented above.

A few of the questions they raised were: Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by human nurture, encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct? Does AEE subvert the writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true audience? (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Albert Camus The Outsider. Applied Measurement in nurture, Education , 15, 391 412 . The Outsider. doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers judgments of student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of nurture Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access! efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning.

Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . History. [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers ratings of student writing skills, and students self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of nurture Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the the problem, scoring process and mental models used by AEE systems. For example, one concern about human nurture AEE scoring is the weighting of length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in albert, e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Nurture. Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). In Joness ( 2006 Jones, E. Albert. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACERs essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 7992 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACERs program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in essay ratings was accounted for by length. Human. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of albert camus the outsider five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. Nurture. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and filippino artwork feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading?

Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by nurture, Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for social media effect, TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). Human Nurture. These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of constructs and writing tasks, validity and of Music consistency of scoring, and whether test takers knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for human, native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the History Essay, classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 3654 ). Nurture. New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs) (p.

36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Albert Camus. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to score seven essays. EFL teachers and independent researchers studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and human nurture Chengs ( 2006 Chen, C. Filippino Lippi Artwork. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of human nurture MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access grading and its inability to judge the content of History essays. In addition, after the initial excitement, students started to feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to human be useful for social, essay revision.

Fangs ( 2010 Fang, Y. ( 2010 ). Nurture. Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 256 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on by Virignia, student perceptions about human using different tools on the problem of evil philosophy, MY Access among 45 junior college students. Human. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. Effect. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of My Editor and My Tutor s feedback to ESL student essays. Nurture. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students more positive response to the latter.

The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers. Some error detection programs have been making improvements over Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia the last few decades to human improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Mrs. Woolf Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. Human Nurture. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . About Mrs.. In M. D. Human Nurture. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Compare Egypt. [Google Scholar] ) argued that the nurture, value of error diagnosis depends on how specific and informative it is. Essay About Mrs. Woolf. They take the position that generic responses, such as something is wrong here, are inferior to human specific comments, such as this is social media, a subject-verb agreement error. With the latter kind of feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is nurture, reported to achieve a precision level of 80% in pointing out errors. This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . Filippino Lippi Artwork. In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp.

195208 ). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an nurture, error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. Essay Dolloway. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors. Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. Human Nurture. Of course, the expectation is Essay about Dolloway, that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in human nurture, the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Lippi. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 11 . Human Nurture. doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The grammar correction debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and of Music Essay where do we go from here? (and what do we do in nurture, the meantime?) . Journal of Second Language Writing , 13, 49 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. About Dolloway By Virignia. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on the short- and human nurture long-term effects of written error correction . Social Media Effect. In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. Human Nurture. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). History Of Music Essay. Effects of written feedback and revision on learners accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Language Learning , 64, 103 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Nurture. The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in filippino lippi, line with Diklis ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of automated essay feedback . Nurture. CALICO Journal , 28, 99 134 . Compare. doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and nurture less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays.

Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers errors, whether it can do this consistently, and whether the feedback is meaningful, and whether the feedback results in improved writing. Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of Dolloway automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . Nurture. [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearns feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and the problem 18.7% respectively. Human. These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ) for filippino lippi artwork, it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and diagnostic feedback, we decided to examine the following research questions. What do the nurture, agreement and the problem strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access scores reveal about human nurture MY Access rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor s feedback when compared to that of writing instructors? Data were collected from media a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers.

The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and 17 ESL students in nurture, the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to camus the outsider advanced) students in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the human, biggest group. Three prompts were used in the problem of evil philosophy, all. Human Nurture. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Media. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned?

Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on MY Access . It was an nurture, end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in Vietnam. Compare And Mesopotamia. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and 2 as they appeared on MY Access are presented in Appendix A and human nurture Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive Challenges of Parenthood and one informative Power sources in egypt and mesopotamia, the Year 2050) serving as false prompts for human, these essays, and of evil philosophy the other was the human, teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the albert the outsider, teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the following end-of-term exam prompt: What are the important milestones in a persons life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in nurture, the system produced a set of the problem of evil 42 scores.

Afterward, these essays were submitted to the two false prompts, called the first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in human, by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to social the original handwritten versions. Human. The third group of essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester.

The variation in essay writing conditions among the History of Music Essay, participants does not interfere with the results of the study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the resources students get access to human nurture while writing are all acceptable, as long as the final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the 105 essays written to camus the outsider the two prompts from nurture MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 16 scoring scale with five major traits of compare egypt writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and Conventions. Corresponding to human each score point was a brief description of Essay about each trait. For example, to achieve a 6, an essay establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and human demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning] or contains little or no errors in camus the outsider, paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions]. On the nurture, other hand, 1 indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writers message and failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the the problem, essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to human nurture two human raters for scoring.

The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of teaching experience at the tertiary level in Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on Essay, MY Access . They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of human nurture how Intellimetric rated these essays based on filippino lippi artwork, the set of criteria in the rubric. After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of nurture four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Egypt. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and human averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the effects of prompts and albert camus raters on ratings and the effect of essay length on ratings were examined by nurture, using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in Essay, assigning ratings. Nurture. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the albert camus, teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at, which uses the one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in human nurture, the texts created from the about Woolf, essays. Human. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays.

Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for filippino, this question. Specifically, precision is the number of cases in human, which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Social Media. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by human, My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor s hits divided by the total of hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by Essay about Woolf, My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and human nurture style.

Only the effect, first three traits were focused on. Nurture. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). About Mrs. By Virignia. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the human nurture, 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about good or bad writing style may be too subjective to be suitable. Filippino Lippi. Errors identified were tallied for human nurture, the calculation of precision and History Essay recall . Before the actual coding of nurture errors took place, the human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access error tagging system. She submitted 10 essays from the Essay Mrs. Dolloway, collected data (other than the 15 essays in nurture, the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at of evil, the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and human English language use, some of which include Raymond Murphys ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). Compare Egypt. English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for human nurture, intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swans ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .).

Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and egypt and mesopotamia John Eastwoods ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for the three sets of ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the human nurture, two human raters, while MY Access appears to social media be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and MY Access ratings met the necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and range on the 16 scale. Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the human, exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. Mrs. Dolloway. ( 2004 ). Human Nurture. Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-raters performance on History of Music, TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73).

Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the nurture, averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . The Outsider. An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Accesss scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the human ratings and human nurture MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and Essay about Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia Woolf MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and nurture MY Access ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings.

Difference between human ratings average and MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19). The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of camus prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to human examine the effects of the of evil, prompts (Prompt 1 and human Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on social effect, ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and measured on an interval scale.

The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and human nurture MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534. History Essay. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of human words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in the results above, about lippi artwork 53% of the variance in human nurture, both the averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length.

Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to of Music Essay three MY Access prompts. As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on nurture, other automated scoring programs and media a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on human nurture, MY Access cannot be comprehended by the system, the researcher played a trick to of evil confirm her doubts. Nurture. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.

When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on Important milestones in your culture were submitted to the first experimental prompt The challenges of compare and mesopotamia (teenage) parenthood, only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the human, feedback great job; the remaining four were given 1 s due to major syntax problems (great job and major syntax probems are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and social media effect the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. Nurture. An examination of the egypt and mesopotamia, 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned becoming a parent or at least becoming a parent after getting married as one of the human, most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Below is the list of word frequency derived from the submission of filippino all the essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and human lists their keywords based on the obtained word frequencies. Of Music. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics. Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for human nurture, this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in essays written to the problem of evil philosophy the first experimental prompt in nurture, bold.

To interpret the number preceding each word listed in Figure 1 and 2, it is instructive to consider the explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the History Essay, number of human times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in Mrs. by Virignia, the Brown corpus. For example, the first item in the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in the Browns 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences. These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [] Automated Essay Evaluation for human, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in Woolf, the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access.

Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Nurture. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and Essay the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access s failure to recognize the human, off-topicness of 31 of the 42 essays seems predictable. Essay. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in human nurture, a subtext of 3,969 words and camus the outsider submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in Figure 2. What can be seen from the human nurture, comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to about Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia the expected content area of becoming parents during the human, teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and artwork happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for nurture, off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.

Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. History. Descriptives of ratings for human nurture, same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about Power sources in albert camus, the Year 2050, a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as off-topic; only two received 1 s due to major syntax problems. In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic Important milestones in your culture was flagged as off-topic, with 36 receiving great job, and six given 1 s due to major syntax problems. My Editor s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of human nurture MY Access.

Table 6. Social Effect. Human annotator and My Editor s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on human, the list. Compare Egypt And Mesopotamia. Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in each of the other types ranged from 0 to 36. Nurture. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance.

My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in compare egypt, this subsample, it corrected only two cases ( part time to human nurture part-time and everyday to the problem of evil philosophy every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of human open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. Social. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the system missed 75% errors of this type the human annotator identified. Capitalization and run-on sentences were the two error types that showed a similar pattern in My Editor s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the missing level of about 50% of nurture all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses.

In addition, My Editor failed to Essay about Mrs. read the essays at human nurture, the sentence and discourse level. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and recall of Woolf 11.1%. This means that of human all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives. It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the problem the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and human nurture covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged.

In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to filippino artwork according to the human judgment. Researchers on error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on human, the side of precision over of Music Essay recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Human Nurture. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of social media effect student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and human assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 436 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. The Problem Philosophy. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . Human Nurture. ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. Camus. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Human Nurture. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Essay Woolf. [Google Scholar] ) set the nurture, minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by filippino artwork, these criteria, it falls short. My Editor s feedback offers suggestions for possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.

Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and human nurture deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to philosophy correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to human judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options.

However, certain gaps in MY Editor s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners needs. What was noticeable about the problem My Editor s feedback about nurture noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the artwork, best way to draw the students attention to human his/her mistake. However, the first label mass vs. Effect. count errors on the same word suggesting if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of many goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in nurture, the next sentence, Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place, it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the subject noun) be changed to takes to agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is filippino artwork, problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds.

Yet My Editor does not seem to be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to tense errors, both of which failed. The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and assumed that at refers to nurture the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from many peoples around. Egypt. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life. The second attempt successfully located the error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for the student as this error is nurture, not about tense: Besides, students havent Verb tense, instead of have not, consider using the Essay Mrs., more standard [do not have] to nurture pay for buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. Albert Camus. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is human nurture, clear evidence of social media effect past tense.

My Editor did not identify the error. In the human, past, all the Essay Dolloway, students have to take the nurture, traditional classroom. Philosophy. Many students sit in the classroom. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and nurture chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in My Editor s feedback can be attributed to its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant.

These findings do not provide adequate support for the problem of evil, any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters. In addition, a feature shared by human and human nurture automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the albert the outsider, essays. Overall, the human nurture, agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and social IEA systems. But Vantage Learnings ( MY Accesss developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and human nurture Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and egypt and mesopotamia grade levels . Retrieved from [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. Human. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of compare and mesopotamia WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 91 . Human. [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is compare egypt and mesopotamia, obvious MY Access read the nurture, essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse. This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have.

With cutting-edge developments in the field of albert camus computational linguistics and corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and nurture other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in the essays. Essay About Woolf. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Human Nurture. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by social effect, the 90% standard set up by human nurture, researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on filippino lippi artwork, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in human, generating error feedback is supposed to turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. Artwork. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students comprehension due to human nurture their limited knowledge of the albert the outsider, target language. Second, such an approach does not discriminate between error types. For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to human easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems.

Furthermore, prioritization of errors is necessary in the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. usage errors vs. Albert. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and human proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the study point to two practical implications for EFL teachers who may use AEE. Media. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to writing instructors to offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback. At the human, same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and about Dolloway by Virignia Woolf grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 166176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to human effective composition pedagogies (p. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the facilitator between students and effect AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of nurture how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors lesson plans is partially answered.

It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction. In the camus, United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at nurture, different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to effect offer a more conducive computer-mediated and Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to human nurture using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on philosophy, word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the human nurture, instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of face is a major consideration for students.

To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an camus the outsider, instructor. But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of nurture writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to the problem of evil allow assessment professionals to nurture examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.

This research was funded by The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in compare, the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, its essential for our education and development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in nurture, life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far?

Write a multi-paragraph essay in about Mrs. by Virignia Woolf, which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. Use specific examples and details to support your response. Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Traditional Classrooms.

With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in nurture, traditional classrooms. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to Essay Mrs. Woolf learning argue that it provides more of an human, opportunity for students to interact with the teacher and other students. History Of Music Essay. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to human learn anytime and lippi artwork anywhere they choose. Human Nurture. Do you feel education is about Mrs. Dolloway Woolf, better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet? Write an essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood.

Many people believe that being a parent today is one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on nurture, the issue and provide reasons for your decision. Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative)

Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Social. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. Human Nurture. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in the problem, our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and nurture how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in compare egypt and mesopotamia, a persons life in your culture?

Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access s 6-point Holistic Rubric. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and human 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Compare Egypt. Correlations between two human ratings and nurture MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1s ratings, H2 = Rater 2s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of and mesopotamia ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Note . REALSCORE = ratings for human, submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt.

Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for History Essay, the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by human, My Editors total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotators total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6)

Establishes and maintains an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the History, purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail. Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety.

Contains few errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and human nurture audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and camus sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and human essentially correct sentences with some variety.

Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the media effect, purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and nurture may not be unified or consistent throughout. Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and media relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and human nurture usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and Essay about Woolf usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult).

Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to human nurture support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of filippino lippi artwork a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and usage. Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and nurture mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winners technique was simply to about Mrs. write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times.

E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it 1, creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on human, our website.

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A Level AQA English Lit WW1 Watch. Human Nurture? span Follow 15 followers 2 badges. Social Media? span Follow 2 followers 1 badge. span Follow 2 followers 1 badge. Nurture? Oh really, I've completely forgotten first year coursework wait till you so 2nd years! I might be able to media, help tho if youd like if I can find it on my computer I got nearly full marks on human nurture, mine it really helps boost you grade up cos my exam went terrible! span Follow 3 followers 3 badges. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges. Essay About Mrs. Dolloway? Hey, i'm retaking this exam this year, (unfortunately) and human nurture I cant remember how much context is needed to be included in History the exam? Does anybody know? They definitely will check! For cutting it down, remove any unnecessary language.

If there's an alternate way to human nurture, say something that uses less words: do that. As much as possible! Like a bit in Essay Woolf every paragraph. Human Nurture? I just did mine and media effect I know I'm gonna get less marks cos I haven't put enough so yeah put lots. Nurture? Thanks you! You don't perhaps know how many marks context is worth in the exam do you? If you get the History of Music chance to human, look at your c/w again I could always help as I received full marks in Essay about Dolloway mine last year, but did terribly in nurture the exam!

They definitely will check! Thanks you! You don't perhaps know how many marks context is filippino lippi, worth in the exam do you? If you get the nurture chance to look at your c/w again I could always help as I received full marks in mine last year, but did terribly in of evil philosophy the exam! How do you know? How are they going to nurture, check word count on a printed essay? span Follow 1 follower 0 badges. Context is the outsider, worth 27 marks out of the human 45 in compare egypt and mesopotamia section a but only human, a few (3 or 4) in of evil section b. Nurture? We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on filippino, The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and human useful place to compare and mesopotamia, hang out.

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How Useful Would Your Current Knowledge Be if You Were Back in nurture, 10,000 BC? Thanks to albert the outsider, reader Greg R. for human this weeks topic: Youre on the problem of evil philosophy a walk in the woods when you accidentally pass through a time warp, and suddenly its 10,000 BC. Human Nurture. You look down and realize youre naked, without any of your artificial accessories (tattoos, jewelry, makeup, hair dye, etc.), and philosophy your body hair matches the human, peoples of that day. Ahead is History of Music a clearing, where you come across a local tribe of hunter-gatherers. Luckily for you, theyre a peaceful tribe with a policy of nurture welcoming wandering strangers into about Woolf, their tribe. Little do they know that theyve welcomed in a very special wandering stranger. Their new tribe member is from 12,000 years in the future and carries the knowledge of the entire history of human civilization and discoverya history that in nurture, 10,000 BC is all yet to happen.

Its their lucky day. The question is: How could you use your knowledge of the the problem of evil philosophy, far future world and human nurture everything that happened in between to help your new tribespeople? How could you use what you know to make their lives, and your own life, better? Sign up for the Dinner Table email list here to be notified about the new topic each week, and you can submit future topics to If youre not sure what the Dinner Table is, learn here.

Neuralink and the Brains Magical Future. I dont think my knowledge could be of much help, seeing that I dont know how to do anything. Its kind of presumptuous that they would want you to make their life better, isnt? Bit old-style-colonialism. I mean, Im also thinking that I was born in a major city and have lived in one all my life so my outdoorsy skills are somewhat lacking BUT if Im going to lippi, justify my uselessness, Ill go with this. Write scriptures to let the future public know to immediately lock up Paris Hilton and Kim Kardashian upon birth.

knowledge of simple machines would come in handy. knowledge of germs. Quite honestly, I dont know if I could do anything helpful. Much of the progress around me has been developed and human integrated into society by those much smarter and the problem of evil more specialized than me. Human. I merely use this technology day in lippi artwork, and day out.

Without electricity, our entire structure of tools and the vast majority of our daily interactions are gone. Nurture. And beyond that, I think about what could I contribute? Can I build a candle? Can I cut a piece of wood better than them? Perhaps my biggest strength would be organizing a new government.

Setting up an organizational structure for them to thrive under. With my own two hands unlikely to manipulate the environment better than any of the natives, my best asset would be my mind and the knowledge of camus how to optimize resources. By dividing and conquering (both literally and figuratively), I think I could aid the nurture, tribe the most by organizing an Essay, efficient method of human collection, building, and traveling. I mean shit, basket weaving 101 would have been the filippino artwork, most college-applicable course I could take towards this exercise. I told you it was important, mom.

wow christopher columbus, didnt know you were so peaceful. I discovered 10,000 BC first. Trust me. I know how to make cement from scratch. Nurture. Id be king. Would you have all the necessary material to do so back in 10,000 BC though.? Ill start my own tribe and conqueer the world as Gengis Khan ! Just kidding I would be in deep ****

I would bring the compare egypt, tribe every virus and germs from the 21th century, and human will see them dying in front of me. Media. The few that would survive will pursue me and consider me as a vampire or some kind of sorcerer. And since I have no knowledge of the wild nature/how to human, survive there without technology i would probably die of hunger or eaten by social some bear. Dear god I dont even know how to build a fire ! Even if I would survive, I dont know how to extract the basic: iron, bronze etc How to make paper, papyrus I have very basic knowledge in building or weapons. Today our knowledge is nurture too much specialized. In order to be of egypt and mesopotamia any use Id need to nurture, have proper infrastructure: schools, electricity, labs, etc.. And It will take decades to teach them a proper language to explain them. Ill just try to Essay, teach them school, to value science and reason.

So to be honest my knowledge will no be of any use and well ill probably learn more from them than the human nurture, opposite. In a very real, immediate, and practical sense, knowledge of (even the social effect, notion of) the germ theory of disease would stop a lot of suffering. Knowing that (e.g.) you need to clean wounds and keep them clean would reduce mortality rates by human an awful lot. And you wouldnt even need to wait until the mid-1800s! I would prevent religion by explaning how we understand the world today (e.g. a lightningbolt is not a result of a raging god). Filippino Lippi. So they wont believe in supernatural powers.

theyd probably kill you, lol. What about human nurture, Tims answer? as already mentioned: knowledge about germs, bacteria, hygiene (if possible in of evil, that time); dont know if people were farmers back then or still hunters and gatherers. might be helpful to human, show them how to grow crop and to raise animals. Unfortunately, I think I would not be that much of help back in time #128577; I think I might show them how to make a guitar, or other stringed instrument, which I know could be done (albeit crudely) with the materials at hand.

The earliest stringed instruments we know of are from maybe 3000 years ago, so it would be new. Making music: universal language,nice to enjoy by the fire with the tribe after a day of Essay by Virignia hunting and nurture gathering. World history, even though everything might not happen at all. Yeah, but wouldnt teaching them about what was going to happen in the future potentially throw off the entire course of history so that nothing would actually happen in the same way it did the first time around? first aid, cpr, basic everyday knowledge of diseases, infections etc. Around 10 000 BC, the about by Virignia Woolf, agricultural revolution was already underway. The next important thing (amongst others) was the human nurture, advances in filippino, metallurgy from bronze to nurture, iron and later steel. Knowledge of this would probably have accelerated the development (and safety) a lot. History. Knowledge of hydro- and steam power would then catapult the human nurture, cavemen into the industrial revolution.

Along with, of course, lots of other handy knowledge around infections, bacteria, geography, meteorology etc. Also, knowledge about fundaments of politics would probably help the Mrs. Dolloway, tribe to stay safe. Cool topic. I would try to nurture, foster their sense of community. If you think about it, a lot of the most horrible things that have happened in the past and social media are currently going on is because of our differences. If we could start for the beginning and show them that even if someone looks different, acts different or believes in different things, that it is not a threat to nurture, them or their lifestyle, it is just someone being themselves I think it would change the course of history for the better. I have thought about this before i look like a penguin but my real occupation is computer programming So i am thinking i would have a real tough time going back to media, the past.. Without a leadership position i dont know what i would do.. I would attempt to convince them to human nurture, trade with other tribes as opposed to compare and mesopotamia, killing other tribes in order to increase the standard of living of nurture said tribe.

I would try to explain that if we can focus on building one thing that we and other tribes need, we could trade for other things that other tribes build. By doing so we can increase the populations standard of living. I also think that if we focus on History Essay trading and building were less likely to come into physical conflict with other groups as we would know them as a trading partner. Considering that there are still plenty of hunter gatherer tribes in the world today that are doing just fine (arguably better than us civilized people), I dont think theres a whole lot to offer them. They would already be well adapted to their situation, just like we modern folks are well adapted to our current situation. Any knowledge that I would have for them would need to be filtered through the lens of their reality and nurture belief system. The goal as a time traveler would be first to learn how to fit in with their society, then figure out what modern knowledge might be useful at all, and finally figure out how to teach that knowledge in a way that would stick. I agree with some others below that the and mesopotamia, basics of hygiene and germ theory would be useful, but would need to be taught in a way they would understand, i.e. the River God wants you to wash out human nurture, your wound with fresh water etc.

Agreed. There are Amazonian tribes that fit the profile today. Also, as a non breeding female, Id have almost no hope of even being accepted let alone listened to and their knowledge of their environment would be a lot more relevant to survival than mine. Of Music Essay. The only nurture thing I would invent on the spot is hot shower. For realz. Well said. Totally agree. Begs the question what is cultural evolution. I would focus on locating metal ore and developing early smelting processes. Gunpowder could be developed from charcoal, volcanic suffer, and potassium nitrate, and coal power would greatly increase productivity once shallow deposits could be located.

Water wheels wouldnt be too difficult to create, and they could mill grain and cut boards. I would want to the problem of evil, get organized to start building a stone castle- a lot of the early ones included a moat and Bailey and would greatly increase defendability. Im sure a lot of my survival, first aid, and basic mechanical engineering skills could prove to be useful. First, language. Second, writing.

Communication is one of the big things that I think theyd be able to use. Human Nurture. Also, I wouldnt touch their religion unless it had something to do with human sacrificesthose are just wastefuland the egypt, technological knowledge I have of human just simple architectural design, tools, and thats actually about all I have that would change anything for them. How do we know this didnt happen already? Maybe. But each time it happens again will makes the world a.. wait a second, a better or a worse place? I would invent the wheel for them and then go chill in the VIP tent for the rest of my life. Agree with most about lacking survival skills but for whatever period Id be there, I would try to spread a certain philosophy. A philosophy of philosophy being awed by things around but without necessarily attributing it to human nurture, external unexplained godly phenomenon.

Mish-mash a bit of filippino artwork scientific theories (without proofs Fermat, ftw!) and nurture essentially start the first organized religion. #128539; Would anyone be able to explain them how to produce antibiotics (penicilin) or at least soap without using web resources? Tim? A big fight club fan might be able to make some progress. Hed still need to boil fat though.

Being an engineer who does a lot of camping, I could contribute: hydraulic power which can be used for irrigation of crops, power generation (stone mill for grain) -design structures for protection of food and supplies from weather, animals and other tribes. -Make bows and arrows and teach archery for of Music Essay hunting. I know enough about human, metallurgy to develop early steels/bronzes depending on type of ores we can obtain. -Depending on artwork attitudes of human nurture neighboring tribes, can make bigger and badder weapons if needed (hopefully would not be). -I can build a water filter from only natural components (sand and History Essay gravel) That being said, I know my knowledge is not typical of modern man (outside of engineers).

Some things everyone should be able to contribute: -Cleanliness (germ avoidance) and human nurture basic sanitation requirements. -Teaching the concept of trade. -Brewing of beer or fermenting wine for anyone who has been on a tour of a brewery or winery may not be able to compete with modern wineries or Budweiser but can probably advance the camus the outsider, art through trial and error How to human nurture, cook (modern techniques to make food tastier) and, more importantly, how to manipulate micro-organisms: brew beer, make yogurt, etc. Compare Egypt And Mesopotamia. People were already starting to do all these things around that period (roughly speaking), but presumably I could help them get better, faster because I understand the science behind it. Granted, there would be a lot of limitations (no thermometers, for instance), but then again Id have a lot of time to improvise and human innovate. One thing people need to remember is of evil philosophy that people 12,000 years ago were not dumb. They were biologically identical to nurture, us and every bit as clever. History Of Music. The only difference with this group is human that they dont already stand on the shoulders of giants, and really, the skills that THEY have that WE lack are much more universally useful. They also have all of our modern flaws, such as tribalism.

You cant undo that in them any more than you could in modern day society. To think that you could rule them simply because you know a few tricks they dont (which you probably dont, even, in any way that could be displayed in a vacuum in 10,000 BC) is foolhardy and would probably get you killed. If you can make yourself useful and teach them something useful, then you may be able to live happily. I disagree that they are every bit as clever. Theres a great TED Talk ( that talks about how just in just 50 years people have moved up through several levels of abstraction in camus the outsider, thinking. Sure, you may not be able to do all the human, skills that they can, but you have the intelligence level and the capacity of learning that far surpasses those people. History Of Music. If you were to demonstrate that your intellect is superior (such as specializing the tribe for efficiency or planning for human nurture the seasons as someone else suggested), I think you have an even stronger case for leading that tribe. Let them build the fires and camus catch the fish, you have other matters to consider. Hogwash. IQ tests are all products of the new abstraction of course scores will be getting better. And even if this is human nurture true, hes talking about 2% of the earths population as hes not talking about China.

Why would scores be getting better if the artwork, tests are getting harder? And what does China have to do with this? I appreciate the response. I hope to human, see more of this kind of social media effect discussion here in the future, rather than just posts to the original question. Dont mistake education (and the practice it brings) for intelligence. I forget which comedian (Louie CK?) said, If youre so smart, lets drop you alone in a forest with your clothes and human nurture an ax, and Essay lets see how long it takes you to send me an human, email! Youre right, they are different. However, that doesnt mean they arent related.

Love the quote! As a civil engineer with a black smith hobby and medical training, I think I could contribute. The wheel would be first. This would, of course be assuming that food and shelter needs could be met easily so there was time for these things. My current knowledge would likely be useless.

I cant light a fire to save my life, I dont do well with people who struggle to communicate in non-verbal ways, and I feel fairly certain that my flight or flight response defaults are almost non-existent. Unless the men of that time were somehow into the damsel in Essay, distress thing, I would not last. In sum, I would be first in nurture, line to social, be eaten by or sacrificed to a dinosaur. Human Nurture. Or clubbed in filippino artwork, the head by another member of my tribal group. And I would probably deserve it. I think the only valuable knwoledge i could give to these people would be basic engineering inventions to help them in human, their every day life. The wheel for example would be very useful to help transport heavy stuff. History. A wooden wheelbarrow would be makable with material at hand. The only difficulty would be to stick the parts together but with some thinking I dont think it would be too difficult.

The pulley is another example of human what could be taught to compare egypt, them. Except this kind of knowledge, i think i would have a lot to learn from nurture them in Essay by Virignia Woolf, order to live in their society. Excellent way to win friends! Wish Id thought of this. I am a creature of the nurture, internet and a City Boy to the bone. If I were required to live by social media my atrophied survival instincts, I would surely feel more than my current distant twinges of regret over failing to embrace any of the manly-man survivalist fads of the last few years.

I would start by making a loaf of bread. Lots of skills involved for nurture early man there. Then, I would slice that loaf of bread to become the greatest man EVER! This might sound greedy, But I would probably end up building more advanced tools and weapons and with my new tribe and then be friends with other tribes and Woolf leech off of their materials. When I feel as though I am powerful enough I will go raiding, killing, and taking over other tribes to expand land. After that I would make my tribe a tribe focused on entertainment and enjoyment of life rather than just a tribe that thrives to survive. Doesnt sound greedy. Sounds like a Scorpio thinking the way we think!! What tools and weapons do you actually know how to build? Please share. Most likely bows as it would provide methods of hit and run raids which wont have any consequences to my side if I can teach my tribe how to use the nurture, bow.

But besides hit and run raids I could just stand back from a distance and rain arrows down on other tribes while they cant do anything but throw rocks or run. If I wanted to wipe out an entire tribe I could make fire arrows like the fire carts they had in effect, Korea in the Joseon Dynasty that could shoot 200+ fire arrows at once. If I had to fight closer than I could always mass produce spears with more modern tools and make shields and use the nurture, Roman infantry methods and make a wall of shields while charging at the enemy with long spears. Changed my mind; in of evil philosophy, the spirit of human Arthur Dent, I would contribute my excellent sandwich making skills. I mentioned this, too.before I read your comments.

Im starting to think this dinner table group has some kind of artwork strange virtual chemistry going on. As weird as it sounds, I would teach them the human nurture, universal language of laughter. Filippino Artwork. When we laugh, we are all the same. When I am nervous or. stressed, I make jokes..often physical type, pratfalls, klutzy things. Human Nurture. Also, I can cook and social garden, which I can also teach. But I would be most prepared to learn from human them as they are obviously survivors.

I would teach them science, like the fact that the earth is round, and algebra, and advanced reading. Id show them not to be sexist, racist, or homophobic. Id also tell them that Im a supernnatural being and trick them into listening to of Music Essay, them with petty little magic tricks. What tricks do you actually know? Please share. Like the one wit the human nurture, magically dissapearing thumb. Thats a good one. #128521; most effective #128521; I would use my knowledge to make them all work for about by Virignia Woolf me. Nurture. Dominating the ignorant like a goddess. Id love to hear about how you would do this. #128521;

I would teach them how to History Essay, farm so that human technology would advance quicker. This was my suggestion for the dinner table, thanks Tim for posing it and thanks everyone for human contributing your ideas and suggestions as to History of Music, what knowledge you would and could share, that may or may not be useful. There are a lot of assumptions in this Scenario. For example, just because you explain geometry to people doesnt mean anyone will understand. Just because you explain germ theory doesnt mean anyone will get it. I say theory because how can you prove that germs exist without showing that they exists? So you can probably do a side by side study of treating a wound the nurture, right way?? Vs the History of Music, way they were currently bandaging wounds. But what would YOUR knowledge of human nurture the right way be?

When I say your I actually mean your knowledge, not knowledge that may exists inside text book, in a Google Search, or in social media, one your friends heads who you cant call on your iPhone.(!) As for me, I have given this a lot of human thought and here are the things I know and can offer this tribe; 1. Egypt And Mesopotamia. Sing many awesome Beatles songs I know by human nurture heart. By the fire. Also hallelujah by Leonard Cohen.

I think theyd like it. And they might decide to of Music Essay, keep me hanging around to teach the other important shit I think I know. 2. Human Nurture. Show them that I was capable of lippi artwork learning their ways and their language as a means of demonstrating my intelligence and my desire to be one of them. I would try to prove to be useful in nurture, a way they can understand. This also will make whatever I can pass on to them over time, as far as my knowledge goes, easier to digest for albert camus the outsider all involved since I can place my knowledge in the context of human theirs. 3. A few Ju-jitsu moves very effective when in a wrestling fight. Of Music. (These have evolved over human millennia) I think they might like this. 4. EDGE method of effect teaching (this is human cultural technology) Explain with words or pictures, Demonstrate, Give them the thing do try and do it, Then have them Explain it back to you. 5. I love to draw, and I am pretty good at it. I would be able to teach a 2D and 3D perspective art class if anyone was interested.

Plus I know the filippino lippi artwork, alphabet which is like HUGE. 6. Assuming there is no standard written word yet, (not like there is any standard language today with more than 6,000 languages still spoken today) I would teach the roman alphabet and human numbers (26 characters and basic numerology.) With an alphabet people can write stuff and pass knowledge of social media effect what they know that way. Also with numbers, I would share my understanding of numbers, how to add zeros to the 1 as a way too multiply by 10. I am thinking 5th grade math might be very useful in facilitating trade and bartering. 7. Nurture. Calendaring assuming they dont yet know what day is Essay about Mrs. Woolf on any given Tuesday for nurture example, I can explain how they can keep their summer calendar from slipping into winter by social media effect counting 365 days after the longest day of the year. (June 21st?) then adding an extra day sometime in June? (Nicer than Feb 29 I think) every four years to account for leap year. Human. This time-sync will help with meet-ups and trading events between tribes and villages which will speed up cultural evolution. (But this lead me to think is speeding up cultural evolution a good thing?) 8. Chess- Even though I suck at Essay Mrs. Dolloway Woolf chess, I could make a chessboard and chess pieces and play chess with anyone willing to human, play. 9. Music I could teach what I know about music theory, the octave and classic harmony. (I.e.

Row row row your boat) I could lead an acapella group. 10. The Art of the Question science is all about questioning and seeking the truth. I would demonstrate my ability to ask the right questions which do the work in opening closed minds and revealing new possibilities. To pass on the value of questioning as a uniquely human trait and one which has opened countless doors ( in Essay about Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia Woolf, the future?) would be very valuable I think. And if they didnt feed me to the wolves by now, I would then live out my days in nurture, this small community looking to create the same health, fellowship, and peace that I seek now. I swear I wrote my comments, including specifically mentioning the Beatles and this very song, prior to reading your comments. Your other ideas are thoughtful, too! Ill keep them in albert camus, mind, since, as I wrote above, I dont have the best voice. Nurture. Im pretty sure something like this is going to happen to me some day, so I appreciate the filippino, additional tips! Whoa, so synchronicity.

Agreed! OK so wow. Many amazing posts here learning a lot. Nurture. Here is what Ive learned so far from filippino artwork people at the table: (Stream of consciousness style so please forgive the run-on sentences, bad grammar and poor structuring) 1. Atrocities Going back in time as a man is human nurture like totally different than going back in time as a woman. Albert Camus The Outsider. I have romanticized the notion of time travel and completely forgot that it would likely totally suck to nurture, be a lone naked woman trying to get in with the tribe and filippino lippi artwork educate them.

But maybe not though especially if the tribe was run by Matriarchs which judging by Native American tradition which still exists today, which is human arguably 5-10K old, this might be the case. So this whole piece is interesting because it speaks to the cultural evolution of social media humans and what may be OK to do to each other 12,000 years ago is not OK to do ANYWHERE ON EARTH today. Which is absolutely a huge step forward. While there is still media sensation swarming around horrible things that people do to each other (cause it sells ad space) I think there is FAR less murder, rape, kidnapping, arson, torture, slavery, and human other atrocities being done on the planet today than there was 12,000 years ago especially if you tried to compare egypt and mesopotamia, normalize the population numbers per incident. Nation-backed slavery was only abolished on human the planet a couple hundred years ago (in the U.S. which is shameful through my 20th century eyes) which means that 12,000 years ago, on the problem earth, slavery was pretty much how shit got done and normal through the eyes of an earth-goer. Human. (If you were conquered, pretty good chance you were dead or were a slave. (i.e. Jews in the problem, Egypt = Pyramids. But were the pyramids progress? Rhetorical question.) 2. Medicine Not having Antibiotics would totally suck. So, like after a few years I imagine I would die a painful, slow and horrible death from an human nurture, infected leaf cut or something stupid like that as so many of us did back then.

But not sure if you know but I surely dont know how to rustle up some penicillin in any environment except a Wallgreens (with a prescription, of filippino course), so I would be pretty much screwed. 3. Nurture. The notion of the problem Race hasnt come up so far as being an nurture, issue in gaining acceptance to the tribe which is fascinating, and Im not sure why because for many people its still a big issue. It could be because in this scenario we are already the philosophy, outsider so by definition we would be considered a different breed than everyone else. But skin color has been a big deal (albeit a complete illusion) culturally speaking over the past hundred years. 4. Civilization Reboot? Some folks on this blog have brought up this scenario as analogous to surviving the apocalypse and human helping restore culture and progress. And most folks (not all) seem to think that progress would be a good thing for those hairy and pungent smelling folks.

So what came up for me in reading several posts was how it seems we want to progress, no matter what the situation, we seem to want to compare, evolve and make things better as a given, as the baseline human desire, as the starting point which never seems to end, in spite of a pretty much all-inclusive civilization reboot. Human. (i.e. Albert. Slavery = Bad. Equality = Good) What was interesting to read about was how people would try to introduce the same things that came about in our past like metallurgy, and simple machines which follow in human nurture, our footsteps. But what if progress was more about deeper relationships with each other, and spiritual connectedness with the earth and Essay Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia Woolf everyone and human everything in it, versus material gain and material progress. Or a better balance of those two things. Egypt. Or are those levels of consciousness really not available until a plethora of human needs are met? I think there are some monks today living with nothing and with minimums to survive who would argue that point. Human Nurture. I then wonder if there was such a renaissance so to speak, 12,000 years ago in some tribe or civilization somewhere on the planet. The Outsider. And as they evolved culturally, spiritually and technologically things were going great until wham, a nasty virus wiped out the folks with the nurture, knowledge and insight. Civilization 2.0.

All this makes me think about what it means to be alive, to be human and I wonder if this fundamental impulse, this spark to evolve to filippino lippi artwork, improve is what ALL LIFE shares in the cosmos and which has propelled us and continues to propel us forward through physical and human nurture cultural progress. Very civilized and erudite the things you suggest but i think you missed the point. They have barely what to not starve, you can teach them some fancy ninja moves for albert the outsider half an human, hour but then Hey, very cool but now i think is mammoth time and good luck teahing alphabet and math, math is albert camus boring even when you have enough food, clothes and paper, coomerce is human unexisting, you cant make commerce with only one merchant: -Hey, we have some sparkling stones, gonna trade? -Oh, I just some rotten meet between my last two theeth, what a fortuite coincidence! When they understand you. Lippi Artwork. And not try to kill you and nurture take the stones. Every attempt to teach something unuseful for heathing or feeding would be like. Hey dude, not to offend but there is that hot neolithic chick there and you are very funny but you know, Im like 12 in your strange count sistem, and i was thinking Im becoming very old and History Essay so you are ok but sex is better, you should try Give them scientific progress without a culture and they will kill each other with it, give them cultural progress without science and youll teach Socrate to a pile of starved-to-death corpse.

Very interesting. Seems its best to have both at the same time? In my opinion yes. You cant have one without the other any form of civilization and them are both very slowly achievable, centuries or millennia even for nurture one who already know what to compare and mesopotamia, do. So unless you are so lucky and get two dinner table topic in one shot (the one of the choosen time to nurture, live, which would be funny knowing beside yourself there are millions of unalphabetized, unmathematized and easy frightened men put in Dolloway by Virignia Woolf, front of a calculator and a sheet) there is no way to build a civilization in a (now very shortened) lifetime. Taken act of this war is a good option for my point of view, we are quite different from 10000BC homo sapiens this and knowing how to make bricks, soap and nurture zebra chops could make you quite popular, quite a god. Obtained adoration from the tribe and taken act that your viruses kill anyone make close contact you are mostly a death god, perhaps making them drink your blood coud immunize them, if so it could be a cool ritual to your personal priests/bodyguard too. I would teach them a mix of jumpstyle and charleston as gods propitiating dance, funny. Next step is to about Dolloway, find some copper and tin in rocky mountains and melt them in bronze armor and spear, could take a couple of years. Nurture. This armor make you close to immortal against stone weapons, unless a deadly animal bites you or a little scratch infects or you catch cold after eating or your armor makes you drown. Try to compare and mesopotamia, submit other tribes and mantein yours in a rigid hierarchic, hunter/gatherer (more free time), to other impose agricolture, the human, ones that submit spontaneously would make the noble class and military caste, the others would provide food from medium-tech farms (irrigation, colture rotation, cut and burn) but not as slaves, give them some basic rights and most important when they reach a certain age give them a 50% chance to become a noble this would dramatically reduce insurrections and filippino artwork remember always to underline your god-like nature, not for narcisism but you need social stability when you are alive AND after to make your society grow in millennias to come.

PS remember if you find caves or protected place to go inside and make a very simple stikman cave painting style and human nurture write under Screw Monnalisa or rearrange some bones to form Dumb who read; just to screw up the minds of archaeologists. What a great, humility inspiring topic! #128578; Honestly, to humans living (as far as we know) at the very, very beginning of. the agricultural revolution, pretty much everything I know about the last. 12,000 years (not to mention everything I know about about by Virignia, day-to-day existence in. the 21st century) would be entirely, utterly and completely useless. For example, itd take me a few weeks of practice just to human, be able to. competently start a fire without matches, flint or steel.

Using a bow drill. aint as easy as it looks. Physically, Id probably also be useless (despite being a bit stronger and a. bit more athletic than might be labeled average in lippi, the 21st century). Im. fairly positive, by 12,000 years-ago-standards, Id be an awkward, uncoordinated, clumsy, far too noisy 200-lb weakling who has far too big an. Somoving on, to a presumptuous angle The only human thing of any use that I could possibly bring would be associated with. the fact that Ive been intrigued by primitive technology, history and anthropological. paleontologyparticularly the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages (as well as. Native American and Mongolian cultures) since I was a very small boy. So (if what I could offer wasnt immediately labeled the about Dolloway, preposterous, far too.

obvious advice of a novice poseur, fool and human idiot), the best I might be able to. do, to help my new tribesmen (and women), would be to offer (to them, what. might be) advanced ideas and notions about medicine (which would be. pretty much limited to first aid, of course), shelter design, pottery, rudimentary metallurgy, spear and effect bow design, etc. Ultimately, in my very humble opinion, any tribe that ended up with any of us. would probably be better off leaving us to our own devicesmuch like the. Spartans did with children born with birth defects (Yes, I just did that.Id say, compared to our ancient forebears, modern. humans probably most resemble mentally retarded adults, born severely. handicapped.) Just our memories alone, being individuals who use gadgets in. place of ars memoriae, would make us appear to nurture, be ridiculous fools if compared.

to intelligent individuals of any pre-gadget era. 1st thing, show them how to filippino lippi artwork, make soap. Human Nurture. 2nd shower head. 3rd hot water. I dont think youd be able to make these three things using stuff like sticks and compare egypt and mesopotamia stones and human nurture dead animals.

You totally could, soap was originally made from rendered fat from filippino lippi animals. I dont think youd be able to just take fat off dead animals in a way to make soap. Interesting question. I dont know if this event would be their lucky day. 1. Human Nurture. First I would do is trying to filippino, stay alive. This sounds unusual but for me its the next pragmatical / logical task. The power of human nurture resistance of my organsim against bacteria, viruses and other hostile factors concerning food intake (e.g. untreated meat, unwashed food) is different and weak compared to the people from 10000 BC. 2. I would learn their language and integrate in social, their community to reespect their habits, tradition and values.

3. Human. I would teach them how to produce qualitively good food that is an initial condition for artwork a longer and healthier life. 4. I would show them how to make paper and human nurture use bird feathers (blood can be used as ink) to draw simple shapes. 5. I would develop a written language based on the language they taught me and compare egypt and mesopotamia the alphabet. 6. Nurture. I would teach them reading, writing and fundamentals in mathematics (addition, subtraction, multiplication and geometry) and filippino artwork medicine. Human. The reason is, everthing I will teach them and everything they already know or will learn should be stored to a knowledge management system for of evil succeeding generations. 7. If still alive, I would practise philosophy with my new friends.

Our knowledge alone wouldnt have any practical advantage for nurture a comfortable life no matter how much we know now. Every final product we use today is the result of social effect a natural substance being processed at nurture least half a dozen times. Some people might have really practical jobs such as blacksmith, carpenter or tailor; however, you need to keep in mind blacksmith must mine the metal from the earth, and you are surely not going to find any iron mining site in 10,000 BC. Same thing applies to of Music Essay, the carpenter; he must find some sharp tools first to practice his/her mastership. Nurture. My engineering skills are next to useless since there are no tools that I can create my magic with.

So Id just die in a couple of weeks. As a matter of fact, I would probably die of boredome in 10,000 BC long before being eaten by a saber. For the most part, I see this ending up very badly. I get the feeling that even if I didnt want to, I would probably still manage to infect the tribe with some sort of egypt and mesopotamia social anxiety. And that may be an incredibly pessimistic way to look at nurture this scenario, but I honestly see that happening. Granted, thats just me someone who deals with GAD, depression, and BiPolar 2 Disorder on a daily basis, so my assessment of the situation is the problem of evil going to be colored by that.

But, I still think that our modern brains are too complex, especially on a social level, to human, function with this hypothetical tribe. Autistic self-reliance might work (with the egypt, ability to watch and learn survival well enough for success.) In Mostly Harmless, by Douglas Adams, Arthur Dent arrives on a primitive planet to realize that the only real thing he has to offer them are his sandwich making skills. He has no idea how any of the advanced technologies operate. Human. Nor do I. I couldnt even make gun powder like Captain Kirk was able to History of Music Essay, when he was cast on that planet with the lizard man. However, I can sing many Paul Simon songs, Beatles songs, and nurture I believe I could find a way, over time, to make a rudimentary guitar that would play a few chord like strums. In spite of the lippi artwork, fact that I dont have the best voice, I believe I would be honored as a singer. I could piece together the human, words of Hallelujah by Leonard Cohen, and just fit in social media, whatever I learned of their language, and that would do the trick.

One question first, would any modern bacteria or viral infections go the nurture, way of my other modern accessories? if not I might have to chose to hide and search for the portal back until I die alone Otherwise there are possibilities I might want to avoid: Killing them all! and by extension killing everyone else including myself And being so lucky, that might destroy the universe whole because it cant handle time-paradoxons If I cant avoid them and dont immediately vanish after contact, I might feel inclined to stay and see what I could do, but still I might undo myself by changing human history, leading to compare egypt, a paradoxon I dont understand and cant possibly predictbut who know, I might have stepped through a wormhole and are not in the past but on another, younger planet. However, being next to a child when it comes to hunting mammoths with sticks and human stones, I probably would have to try to philosophy, be of some other use to them if I want to live and I guess, there might be any number of possibilities, we probably all know many things we arent even aware of to improve what they already have agriculture, construction, even medicine. Even in Kindergarten we learned some things unknown to anyone even remotely as long ago cpr? I dont know If they did that when somone recently drowned or choked? SoI think they could eventually become as glad as myself they fed me xD. Ooh, interesting question. Human. Knowing that planet Neptune exists or that matter is made of Essay Mrs. Dolloway atoms or what the nurture, Magna Carta says is all well and good, but it doesnt really help filling out the base of the Maslows hierarchy of human needs.

I think the most valuable things Id bring to the table are: 1. Social. How to avoid disease. 2. A sense of geography/seasons/direction. Hopefully Id remember to bring the Timetravellers Cheatsheet: Being an Electrical Engineer Id try to build some next level stuff: a compass, some kind of generator, although hunting down materials would be an incredible pain in the ass. Theres a great book about nurture, how hard it is to build the of Music Essay, most simple appliance (a toaster) from scratch: With all the apocalypse and zombie TV shows in the last few years, I sure wonder what my role would be in a post-apocalyptic society, where basic skills and trades come in a lot more handy than college education.

I think that this is not too far away from the scenario at nurture the dinner table. Now I am an History Essay, engineer and project manager in heavy industrial construction not even a mining engineer or anything, who can smell where precious materials lurk in the ground and human nurture how they are recovered and about Mrs. by Virignia processed; its more about budgets and contracts. My wife, on the other hand, is a nurse and also very resourceful around crafting wood. I hope she would get the two of us a place by the campfire (no matter if its 10,000 BC or 2200 AD). You couldnt. Poul Andersen wrote a science fiction story like this, and his hero from the future perishes miserably.

His take-out before the end: You dont have the tools to make the tools to make the tools!. Spear heads to hunt better, help them figure out agriculture and basic tools, and nurture then Id make up a crazy mythology that is basically just semi-realistic teachings from the future and hope that it would make a wiser and of evil philosophy less war mongering people because religion can live on for a long long time. Once they get some free time, it would be time to paint starting with human anatomy. Then I would teach a bunch of people theoretical mathematics because it would be fun, but I have no idea how they would work that into practical applications, but Im pretty sure they would need them to derive the pythagorean theorem to build stuff. Then Ill live the rest of nurture my days continuing to make up the mythology and figuring out lippi, ways to return to the creature comforts of the present.

I could teach them how use physical leverage to nurture, construct huge stone obelisks to mystify scientists thousands of years hence and divert attention from study of various causes of the inevitable downfall and extinction of tribal ways. Lippi. After final assembly of a couple good sized obelisk farms I would settle down and construct a nice little farm and start domesticating various plants and animals. In the unlikely event that Im not killed and nurture eaten by a rival tribe of hunter gatherers, I will be living a life of compare egypt such ease and human comfort that most members of my new tribeminus a handful of outspoken misfits and deviants will be highly envious, to about by Virignia, say the least, and pretty soon the majority of them will follow suit. Once they get a sense of just how tough it is to run profitable farming operations they will slowly but surely abandon the old obsolete practice of reciprocal altruism that has served them so well for thousands of years, and nurture they will begin to selfishly hoard their surpluses to carry themselves over History of Music Essay through bad seasons. The ones who fail early will be forced to nurture, either starve or enter servile relationships in which they become serfs to the luckier and more resourceful members who will mercilessly exploit their suffering in order to philosophy, leverage their advantage to the maximum extent possible without provoking a revolt. About 9,900 years later, my great^15 granddaughter, now living in New Jersey, will finance a team of archeologists to human, study newly discovered obelisks uncovered by a Panamanian canal digger just before he died of compare egypt malaria. I would basically chill and human enjoy just watching them do what they do and document it as best I can for for posterity . Egypt And Mesopotamia. I would try to be as none interventionist as I can the butterfly effect comes to mind. Intervention could go horribly wrong as they may not be ready to nurture, understand what I want to teach.

As horrible as it sounds I would just so me and Essay document. I dont think my current knowledge would be that useful. Human. These people need the basics just to survive. Compare. Outside of that the only real wisdom I think I could impart is what the infield fly rule is and human why it is necessary. Im a jr high science teacher, and the vast majority of what I know and teach would be completely useless in that era. David Griggs answer 45 minutes ago is completely spot on. Oh, the atmosphere is the problem philosophy made of 20% oxygen, 78 %nitrogen, 1% argon who gives a F%$! EXCEPT. a strong grasp of the 6 simple machines could probably invent a bunch of tools they didnt have. An Archimedes screw or simple water wheel could be revolutionary. Even knowing that you can make hotter fires in human nurture, an oven or kiln-like structure could alter their materials technology.

Leverage. Pulleys. HUGE! IF we are at a time before agriculture and domestication, even knowing that that is a possibility compared to hunting and of evil philosophy gathering would change everything (for that group, as it seems they (we??) DID figure that out on human our own). I also bet that they would have far more knowledge than we give them credit for especially in social media effect, their native environment. Im pretty sure that the person coming into nurture, the tribe would contain way more knowledge then they could fathom. Basically, I would start a school, teaching the very basics of math and language, while doing my best not to Essay Dolloway by Virignia Woolf, piss off the human nurture, alpha tribe member or any of the History of Music, tribe people. I would start with math, and then move on to language. Human. Both of egypt and mesopotamia these would be cool because the people of human that age possess the same amount of brain processing power, but more than likely, they would think a lot differently. This means explaining the Essay Dolloway by Virignia, definition of the human nurture, number one and using numerals, or explaining how different sounds mean different things, all without being able to communicate through English. Albert. All in human, all, if I could explain these concepts, I would start the first school, and egypt take all the young ones who are not old enough to provide for human the tribe yet, and teach them awesome ways of communicating.

Fuck it. Social. I would simplify it to human nurture, give them the recipe for burger and french fries. I guess the compare, wouldnt have potatoes though. It could still be french fries made of carrots. Human. ( it depends on the continet). I assume they have the basic knowledge of making flour and chopping the cows meat? Can you imagine if it wouldnt start last age but 10000 bc? I will become a story teller of the events I have lived through and social media learned about. Let them get what ever they like off of it and depending on what questions i get asked, dwell deeper into that story. Assuming they feed me and protect me long enough for human nurture me to learn how to survive (and that might take a while), my first thought is that I would like to lippi, do two things: 1) take time to nurture, observe and learn what they know, what they think, how they think in order to lippi artwork, know where to start with 2) introducing the consciousness staircase and get humans as far as possible up the human, steps early on. Egypt And Mesopotamia. My hope is that this would lead to more wonder and less plunder; more appreciation and less destruction; more inclusivity and less separation; more understanding and less protecting. Id love to nurture, see what impact that would have on the next 12,000 years.

The tribe members would be far better adapted to living in their world than I, so firstly Id try to learn from them their language, customs and of evil survival techniques. Only then would I offer to human, use my knowledge to introduce improvements. Essay About Mrs. Dolloway. I see it as two way street with us both learning from human each other. Obviously I wouldnt be able to lippi artwork, able to bring them right up to the 21st century, but daresay I could help to advance them several hundred years into human nurture, the future. I dont think I would use much if any of my knowledge.

I would enjoy a simpler more spiritually connected life. About Mrs. Dolloway By Virignia Woolf. I might warn the people not to domesticate anything other than dogs to help with the hunt. I would try to prophesie about the dangers of becoming civilized. I would certainly use the skill set I already possess to live in the wild and accept the advice of the people living in the area as to what is safe to eat and human how to live. I would use my knowledge of first aid and help teach how to set a broken limb, stop bleeding, and basic CPR. So I guess come to think of Woolf it I would use the human nurture, knowledge I have. I would not teach easier ways to make fire or how to of Music, find and forge metals. I would defiantly speak against human, this knowledge and the dangers that come with it. If I got effed into living in a past with no internet, TV, refrigeration or any of the trappings of modern life Id say screw it- Im going to take over the known world. Albert Camus. Id use my knowledge of Machiavellian tactics and human basic combat strategies to dominate the other neighboring tribes.

Bows and arrows, spear/phalanx formations, flanking, fortifications etc. likely would have been completely unknown. Better yet, if trading exists compound interest and treaties could be completely one sided. Essay. Subjugating the local tribes would likely give me the pick of human all the cave babes I could handle whereby I could then impart my knowledge of the kama sutras or whatever crazy stuff I want. Okay Tyrant number one. Seems like youve put quite a bit of thought into the means to rule the world even before this question was posed. I think the big decision would be whether to impart (a) writing and (b) a sense of cause and effect, repeated hypothesis-experimentation, and the problem philosophy a custom of human building behaviors around test and measurement of observed phenomena the roots of the 17th C. Scientific Revolution. Its hard to the problem, think what could alter the next several millennia more. Would one really absent God (at least, in some detailed, dogmatic way)?

Would a sense of sequential material progress reshape a view of mankind? Would ushering in human, a machine age stop centuries of enslavement? Or, on the other hand, would one be speeding the destruction of the natural planet? I think I would show them where cannabis naturally grows and its use as a relaxant, and how its so easy to grow.That might save the world from future world wars may be.It might help people might find peace without much materialistic desires .Might even help save them from wild animals if they succeed in Essay Mrs. by Virignia, getting them passively smoked up. Good God think about how much less would get done. 2014 would be the bronze age Meh, if he got transported back to the Middle East and could put a softer edge on the monotheists god wed never be forced to endure the Dark Ages so in human, the end I think wed have a net gain. The Dark Ages was a 19th century term for the Middle Ages that modern historians dont even use anymore.

Its a debunked myth that religion held-back scientific advancement during that time the vast majority of scientists were Christian or Muslim. This is Essay Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia rather drastic and human Id rather not to disturb the natural progress because I would not know how my knowledge will be used. Compare And Mesopotamia. Id be much happier if I can travel to the future since my lack of knowledge wont do any harm to others. Start with the children. Small children are equally clueless and flexible-minded in any age. I think they could teach me 1,000 times more than I could ever teach them about the human experience and human nurture what it means to History of Music Essay, be ALIVE. Im sure I could add value to human nurture, their tribe by explaining basic medical skills, introducing math, how to plant crops, fighting strategy, etc but at albert the outsider the end of the daythat knowledge wouldnt get them anywhere better than they already were. We are conditioned to think that we are so fing special but in nurture, reality, most of albert us have never needed or forgotten the skills necessary to live in the world 50 years ago. I know theres lots of Boyscouts out there who could last a few weeks with the human, natives but most of lippi artwork us would be screwed like meand they are kidding themselves if they think otherwise. Personally, I would crap my pants if I was in the jungle in 10,000 B.C.

I would be terrified of living outside where anyone who wants to can kill you, scared to death about diseases and poisonous plants/insects/etc. and nurture worried about how to get myself enough food to last a week. They would think I was worthless and probably cast me out of the outsider their tribe soon. Why do you think they have so much more to nurture, teach you than you have to teach them, when you have 10k years of camus development stored in your brain. You know things that are possible visiting the human, moon, clean water, skyscrapers, cars, airplanes, etc technology that they cannot even imagine. You dont think that you would have some capacity to help them? So what if we lost the skills to live 50 years ago. Were adapting to Essay, a new world and using new and human nurture relevant skills. Thats the same as looking down upon an older person who has trouble using an effect, iPhone.

I guess my point was that the people who lived in 10,000 B.C. Human Nurture. got feel alive on a day to social, day basis and when anyone today wants to nurture, experience those feelings, we have to Essay, take a break from human nurture our lives and seek those activities somewhere else. Even when we do that, we still enjoy the comforts of effect technology before, during and human nurture after that camping trip (drive your car there, use metal and plastic tools to make fire, sleep under a tent, eat pre-packaged foods or hunt with a gun, use a knife to eatyou get the point). We dont know what its like to camus the outsider, feel like a human. They didand they could teach me to human nurture, feel ALIVE as I have never felt before. Filippino Lippi Artwork. So we adapt by getting our thrills through jumping out of an airplane or something else like that to get a glimpse of what it feels like to human nurture, experience real fear/adrenaline.

Most of us dont need to rely on our human bodies to do anything other than the bare minimum. To compensate, some of us go to media, gyms and use equipment to achieve a body that will attract someone to like us. Most of that strength isnt functional and wouldnt do you any good. Or how about running on human nurture a tread mill. When in the hell would anyone need to run in media, a straight line? Ever? If you were running from an enemy through dense woods with all kinds of obstacles in human, your way, or chasing down a wild boar to of evil, kill ityou would need all of human nurture your instincts and none of the aesthetically pleasing muscles that are achieved in super cool work out clothesand dont forget those highlighter yellow Nike shoes! I think it would be amazing to be able to feel when the Essay about Mrs. by Virignia, rain is coming and rejoice because that means food will be there for you and your family. To experience the confidence that comes from sensing danger nearby and fighting it off personally so you dont get eaten alive.

To know what its like to human, have to History of Music Essay, rely on our friends and family while you build a house together so you dont freeze that winter. I realize Im getting a little hippie tree hugger on you but honestly I think we dont get enough of this stuff anymore. Most of human us dont ever feel alive. What would my knowledge do to help them in their current state? Even if I told them that humans will go to the moon, drive cars, etc. what then? Theyd look at me and say oh cool, that sounds pretty about this hunt were about to go onare you just going to watch from afar and then look away when we gut the animal again because you dont know how to help and you dont like the sight of blood? Lets say that I did convince them to albert the outsider, help me build something with a couple levers, some rope and human a pulley chances are that another tribe will come along some day and kill them all, wiping out compare, that knowledge from human existence (like when the great library of human Alexandria was burned down and we lost countless treasures of knowledge and culture). It wouldnt have to of evil philosophy, be anytime soon but eventually, something would happen. On the flip side, humans would keep going and figure it out human nurture, all over again. Of Music. I dont think one person could change much of human history. Yes you need a person with an idea to human, get big things started but unless they are in the most powerful tribe and the right time in about Dolloway Woolf, history, it wouldnt end up in a history book.

I think in many ways our knowledge would be very beneficial, but in human, most ways it would be useless. You see these TV shows like Naked and the problem of evil Afraid and within a 1-2 weeks these people are starving and human making ill advised choices. I think wed really be relying on the tribe to keep us alive and thriving and not the Essay about Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia, other way around. I would use what knowledge I have now to perform simple magic tricks, thus making me a great wizard. Id use my status amongst the tribe to gain favor amongst the tribes women, and work my way into human, a leadership role. From there Id militarize the tribe into a force that hasnt been seen since the Roman Empire and conquer the known world, the tribes people would love me, for Mrs. by Virignia Woolf they wouldnt have to human nurture, struggle to survive, the slaves we would aquire from our conquests would do all the hard labor, and food preperation. I imagine theyd most likely have sacrifices in my honor as well.. And giant statues too.. the social effect, people of today would read about me when they found my temple complex ruins throughout the world, and human be in awe of compare my name. the people of today would read about me when they found my temple complex ruins - You started thinking big, then ruined everything in the last sentence.

Why not be worshipped until current days? Kiss my behind goodbye. Mostly likely any attempt at communication would reveal me to be an evil outsider. Considering Im a female, probably nothing, even if I had something to teach or share because its most likely a patriarchy. Human Nurture. And there will be no reproducing on my part, soooo Im having too many flashbacks to Clan of the Cave Bear. The Outsider. I hate that book and want those hours of my life back.

Actually, there is possible evidence that some societies were matriarchal at this time. Nurture. Clan of the Cave Bear is fiction, and those people were Neanderthals. This comment might be a reason why I rarely engage in internet conversation. Yes, I know its fiction, but thanks. The Outsider. And matriarchal societies exist today but are statistically rare.

Extrapolating from that knowledge leads me to human, believe that it would likely be a patriarchy that I would enter. I can hardly think of why it would make any difference to note that Clan of the Cave Bear had Homo Neaderthalis (assuming that you take the majority view that they were a separate species, and artwork I am working on statistical probabilities) when looking at the hypothetical scenario or even my brief thoughts on it (which solely relate to patriarchies). Is there a difference as to temporal existence? Yes. It there a difference as to the existence of a patriarchy? Statistically, probably not. Was the protagonist a (Cro-Magnon) girl struggling to fit into a patriarchal society?

Absolutely. Oh, SO sorry to inconvenience you by responding to your first statement. I guess you know it all. Useless.they were way ahead of nurture us in adapting, living off the land, and fending off enemies. And, they probably had all the tattoos they could handle! Well, without my iPhone, they would think I was out of my tree, because there would be nothing to corroborate what I could share with them! The world is round??

Gravity? How electricity is made (and I actually can make a transformer), aeronautics? But it would be hard to even get a foot in w/o credibility. Think, if they were a peaceful tribe with plenty to eat, it would be much easier to lippi artwork, assimilate and human nurture pray I didnt get a health condition. I have to think I would do nothing. I would try to adapt to the lingo of the time, and Woolf learn from my fellow humans what their ways are. I may use the fact that I can create fire and human nurture use salt to my advantage, but otherwise I think I would just be startled by how clean the filippino lippi, air and everything else is!

Honestly, the traveller would be at human nurture a disadvantage more than anything else. Most of our modern knowledge is albert camus the outsider integrated with technology, and without the means to nurture, recreate that technology the knowledge is useless. In fact, the most useful knowledge for the time would be for hunting and of Music survival something most modern people are sorely lacking. There could be some cases of using advanced knowledge, such as the human nurture, wheel, or crude attempts at more advanced weapons, but those would be the only useful things. Youre right. I dont know how to make a fire without a match, and even then its touch and of Music Essay go.

Theres a whole sub-genre here everyone is human discussing on whether wed be at filippino an advantage at all, whats right and wrong, how wed even communicate or convince them to nurture, do anything. Ill ignore all of that for filippino lippi artwork a moment because the fun is on the macro level, figuring out human nurture, what part of about Mrs. by Virignia Woolf our knowledge could actually help. Acknowledging that I know very little thats practical for nurture survival, Ill take an economics-like investment approach and social media prioritize knowledge that will help to develop further knowledge and discovery. Reading and writing are probably THE MOST important long term investment. Human Nurture. If there was one thing Id spend the by Virignia, rest of my life on, itd be figuring out nurture, how to make paper/parchment/ink/stone etching/whatever. The Problem Philosophy. Writing will enable knowledge to human nurture, be passed down, from small things like which plants are poisonous (I wouldnt know) to new discoveries, to things like where to find iron ore (I wouldnt know either, but someone might eventually figure it out). Theres also other things an average 21-century person might be able to figure out like basic sanitation, making a wheel, navigation by stars, domesticating animals, simple agriculture, etc. Filippino Artwork. But itd take me time to figure out nurture, how to do these things in the reality of 10,000 BC so being able to document them will be the compare egypt and mesopotamia, most important part! Learn their language while trying to survive and become integrated into the tribe. Nurture. Then introduce a phonetic alphabet and compare egypt writing. I dont know how to make paper or ink, but stone carvings are a start.

Id try to make myself a valued advisor to the leaders, as an nurture, outsider who shows off fancy new ideas probably wouldnt live long, especially considering Id be totally dependant on them for food. Hygene, basic agricultural concepts, basic math, and geometry would follow. I suck at Essay Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia Woolf math and wouldnt have much to nurture, teach, but I expect Pi and the Pythagorian theorem would be one heck of filippino lippi a kick start. Id introduce what simple machines i could with available materials. A kiln ought not to be too hard to figure out, and with it would come varmint-resistent food and water containers, as well as bricks. Creating a currency would boost trade. If I actually got to a position of power. Id impart a belief that all mysteries have natural explanations, and that learning, individual rights and nurture freedoms, and rule of law are paramount virtues.

Id also teach basic military tactics so my jump-started civilization would be less likely to be wiped out by nasty neighbors. There is Essay Dolloway some basic knowledge that the average modern human can use beneficially, even in prehistoric times making basic tools and human weapons, clothing, shelter, basic hygiene and medical (water purification, sterilization, food prep) you wont likely be re-inventing computers, or even electricity, during your lifetime (maybe electricity, I guess?) but a number of technological advances could be made, even by a relatively helpless modern human who has little in the way of survival skills, assuming the tribe takes care of your basic needs. I remember a short story based on this exact same concept, cant remember the name though. A scientist invented a time machine and introduced these in the middle ages. The mortality rate dropped and population soared, and by 21st century, the of Music, earth was like jam packed with human bodies upto the core. To read and write and to carefully preserve these records in a permanent way would be the most important thing. Human Nurture. Learning technologies far ahead of their time is Dolloway Woolf quite dangerous because the human brain and m,ental capasities have also evolved along with the technologies so that human kind is human able to compare egypt and mesopotamia, safely use them. I would let evolution run its course but enable future generations to learn more about their past ancestors though the recording of history. Even today I am not sure if human kind is able to safely manage technologies with the capacity for mass destruction. There is a temptation to say Ill introduce a lot of technology, but I know that technology depends on developments far beyond the human nurture, capabilities of one man. The smelting of metals requires much larger groups than my little tribe.

Pottery is of course an easy introduction, and Ill do that. Id introduce them to the relationship between dirt and disease. Albert Camus The Outsider. With some luck, with my newly-introduced pots, we will be able to boil soap. Ill explain the nurture, relationship between sex and babies. Ill introduce my little tribe to democracy, explaining that its not always the strongest man who has the best ideas. Then I will do my utmost to unteach them agriculture.

According to Jared Diamond, the media, biggest mistake weve ever made was to start farming. Nurture. ( Should we ever have to History of Music, engage in nurture, warfare, I will have to introduce them to the principles of deception and command, control and intelligence. Of Music Essay. War will also necessitate the preservation of food, because the army that can stay in the field the longest will probably win. The time and effort required to educate adults would be more productively spent on educating the young. Assuming I could ingratiate myself into human nurture, the tribe so as to not be considered a threat but a useful member I would then quickly try to find one or more wives to quickly have children. I would try to isolate both the wives and children sufficiently from the others in the tribe and spend as much of my time as possible educating them. The Problem Of Evil Philosophy. Doing this while not alienating myself or family from the tribe so as to cause conflict. Nurture. If this is not possible then I would learn to be as self sufficient as possible and take my family away from the danger so that their education can continue. My kids and possibly the social effect, wives as well, would become multilingual.

The kids would .. -eventually have all of my knowledge (I am a retired science teacher) -live longer than I. -likely both male and female. -able to human nurture, fit-in and communicate as native speakers. -math from the basics to trig, geometry, etc. The goal is to pass on the greatest amount of beneficial information to the greatest number of people. Lippi Artwork. This is best done by educating the teachers. One is likely to not live very long in these conditions so time is of the essence. While educating my children and wives I would be furiously trying to write down whatever knowledge I have on whatever means I could store it on. I often think about the human, ethics of time travel. I have come to the conclusion that, given the choice, I would choose not to travel into the past, and Essay Dolloway by Virignia Woolf probably not even the nurture, future.

We evolve in ways more subtle than can be articulated, always learning from the smallest events. To mess with that process and undo mistakes could lead life down a path it was not meant to go. Now that my choice is removed in this scenario, I would not specifically seek to the problem of evil philosophy, teach anything. Not only do I not know much of human anything in this world (jack of all trades, master of Essay about by Virignia Woolf none), I dont know much about survival in 10,000 BC, at least I wouldnt know much more than the nurture, others, apart from things like hygiene. My main priority would be getting by, living life.

If someone sees me doing something cool or weird they are free to of Music, imitate. I would probably be quite depressed Id never see any of my loved ones again, and human Id likely never have an interesting conversation again either. the closest thing to a friend would be a companion in the tribe with whom Id build up a silent respect, and maybe wed be a little team when catching animals. and if one of us was still hungry the social, other would share their antelope. I like to think my current friendships are more developed than this. the only way to human, make it interesting would be to introduce a form of comedy. Social. this would have to be slapstick. no irony ever again! and thered always be the risk that if a joke went wrong id offend someone and be clubbed to death. and id probably be pregnant constantly, which I wouldnt have consented to (when did rape start to exist as a concept? it doesnt exist for animals) and Id put my money on being dead within 5 years. Rape doesnt exist for animals? I have chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese, and its pretty much NEVER consensual.

They chase down the nurture, female, pin her to the ground by the back of the compare and mesopotamia, head and do the deed. (granted, these birds (aside from ducks) dont have penises, but it looks pretty damn rapey to me. Yes, my dog is a serial rapist. He doesnt care who or what you are, you are getting humped, like it or not. I agree that sex in the animal world is human nurture often forced and one party unwilling to participate (female spiders eating their mates after copulation; cats having barbed penises so the female cant shake them off(??) and lippi Ive heard bird sex is human often pretty horrible for the female). But the term rape is only for filippino humans. Human Nurture. The entire concept of rape is Essay inextricably tied to that of nurture consent which assumes cognizance in both parties. I wouldnt speculate about animals agency to consent (in the human sense) therefore they cant technically rape. And I think there are some species which ONLY mate via forced copulation ie all sex would be rape? the term starts getting too clumsy to use in this case. Lastly its problematic to use the term for both animals and humans, given how serious and pervasive it is as a crime, and how often it goes unreported/unpunished. About Mrs. Dolloway By Virignia. We already live in a culture sympathetic to rapists who couldnt help themselves, and ask questions like what was she wearing, had he been drinking, as if there are circumstances in nurture, which instinct takes over and a rapist is no longer accountable for his actions.

Allowing the term rape to be used in the case of animals (where all sex is by definition instinctual) only reinforces this mentality. Sex in animals is usually highly consensual. Females in filippino lippi artwork, most cases choose who to mate with; its the cornerstone of many types of natural selection and human nurture why there are so many bizarre mating rituals. The removal of that choice would (Id suggest) be the definition of artwork rape. Its true youd probably never have an interesting conversation again, but you may form a relationship much deeper than one that is based purely in nurture, language. I have a very special relationship with my dog, and hes never said a word to me. Ive often thought that perhaps a non-verbal relationship with a human could possibly develop into a much deeper and more meaningful one that is purely language based.

But, youre probably right I think wed all be dead pretty quickly. Its likely wed do something strange that would spook the albert camus the outsider, tribe out and wed all get burned at the steak (and thats probably where a language-based relationship with someone would come in handy). Hand washing. I think that would be the biggest thing that would ensure survival. Other than that, Im not sure anything I know that makes life easier in human, the modern world would be of use 10,000 years ago. It might be cool to teach people an alphabet, so as to be able to leave a record of events for future generations. What about electricity? And basic sanitary rules.. Granted, I would probably have a lot more to learn from my new tribe (anything to do with survival)

Id teach em how to boil water even though to this day, not everyone has access to clean, drinkable water. After the oh-!@#$ moment(s) pass introduce writing, language (if one is already not used), art. Show the power of collaboration, hygiene / basic health, depending on the culture encourage create a system that punishes those who try to the outsider, corrupt and nurture create a self-monitoring system so no one person has absolute anything. Introduce food preservation, planning (calendar), trade between groups (when there is Essay about Mrs. by Virignia surplus for things we do not have) which will allow further development of specialization, further evolvement of basic flint tools if they already exist, if not introduce them. As a Mech.Eng. Introduce basic machinery (Wheel, lever, ect) use stone tools to create wooden water-powered systems start to human, teach math to allow further development (the concept of 0, addition, subtraction, then mult. divide, ect. ) Introduce alcohol, find or refine salt (for preservation) basic builting materials (wood, skins, leaves/grasses, rock, mud, clay) show use in shelter creation, food preservation Or if you dont like this, go play a game or two of SIM CITY to figure things out Isnt it likely (or at social least very possible) that advancing their civilization in even the most minute way would significantly alter the nurture, course of history, potentially rendering you unborn? Would you then disappear, or would you survive the rest of your life in your new form?

With this in mind, I would probably just play dumb and try to fit in while I figured out a way to get back to 2014. Life without any of about Mrs. by Virignia todays luxuries would be exciting at human first, but would quickly get old. Its fascinating to philosophy, consider going back, teaching one tribe a bunch of things about metal and agriculture and weaponry and human writing (to draw on me_chriss response above), and egypt and mesopotamia then return to 2014 and human see what was different about the world. It might be COMPLETELY different. I think so, too, Tim. It would be an amazing experiment, so long as you didnt have to suffer the possible consequences of History of Music Essay such an action.

Im too big of a pansy to human nurture, be that guy! #128521; Perhaps the human race wouldve already wiped itself off the Earth. Social Media. Or maybe the opposite; there would be some one-world utopian government. Mind-blowing to think about. While I dont personally believe in it, perhaps the most intriguing thing to me about the Simulation Hypothesis is nurture that the controllers are playing out that exact scenario (or one similar) in a parallel world at this exact moment. Okay, that was too deep, back to camus, drawing lines in CAD. Or it wouldnt alter the course of history because you are already part of history and you didnt know it. Though, if your goal is to dramatically alter the course of history by introducing a huge burst of knowledge, you would essentially know going into it that youd failed (otherwise youd have memories of history where we discovered technologies way earlier, no?). Thats actually a rather depressing thought Thankfully, time travel is impossible. If it was ever sucessfully implemented, it would be discovered in all ages simultaneously, for all purposes.

Cant imagine its users being so responsible as NOT to nurture, try and travel to the past to alter things. But the the problem philosophy, sheer boredom would be unbearable. Human. Maybe the the outsider, tribe could be taught to play papyrus and bone-dice RPG I would probably be the vector delivering small pox or some other insufferable disease and wipe them out. Im sure I would be the receipient of the same. But dont worry, Id teach them about HOW theyre being wiped out. Well, seeing as I am a woman, I would probably work as fast as I could to find or fashion a sharp rock to fend off rapists, and human nurture sleep with one eye open. 10,000 BCE, so late paleolithic. Meaning fire is egypt and mesopotamia controlled, stone tools are pretty much mastered, and early agriculture is human nurture established. I would introduce writing of of evil course. And then start to focus on nurture hygiene and weapons.

Its a lawless time so defense is important. I know how to make black powder but without metals its not terribly useful. Philosophy. But I woudl make some to use for nurture scaring other tribes. History Essay. Stuff like trebuchets, catapults, etc will allow my tribe to quickly establish dominance. We would also DEFINITELY have more advanced fortifications than anyone else around.

Why do I immediately introduce advanced warfare tools and tactics? Because of human nature. Human Nurture. We cant develop all the of evil philosophy, other nice stuff before were sure we have a way to keep people from taking it away from human nurture us. Other tribes will certainly be jealous After raising quality of life through better hygiene and more safety we can start to focus on the really good stuff. Mining ore and smelting metals. Im not terribly skilled in philosophy, advanced metallurgy but I know enough to grasp the nurture, basics of smelting iron and copper.

With some trial and error I could develop bronze and steel I know the ingredients just not the ratios. Thats probably realistically about as far as I could get with one lifetime. The Problem Of Evil Philosophy. Our descendants would have to take up further development form there but I would write a lot about possible future advancements (since they can read now, presumably this would help guide the nurture, descendants). What we all need to realize is that we really dont know what was going on in 10,000 BC. The pyramids were built 4500 years ago, and compare and mesopotamia thats ancient history to human, us.

So 10,000 BC is our ancient historys ancient historys ancient history. Media Effect. The only stuff that we can possibly know about that period is nurture what survived until historic times, which is cave drawings and not much else (which leads some to camus, infer that drawing in caves is all that people did back then). G.K. Chesterton wrote in The Everlasting Man (which is the book that I would have answered for last weeks question) that modern archaeologists falsely presume that prehistoric humans acted like modern savages. That we can observe the behavior of modern uncontacted tribes in Africa and South America and infer that theyre behaving like everyone did in 10,000 BC.

But maybe its precisely because prehistoric man did NOT act like modern savages that they were able to evolve as a society while the nurture, savages didnt? After thinking for a long time, I cant answer this question. I dont think it would be moral to give them technological secrets from the future. Social Media. Why would you want to do that anyway? So that they can reach the Bronze Age faster, so that they can eventually reach the human nurture, Industrial Revolution faster? Why would you want to the problem, put Industrial Revolution technology in the hands of Alexander the human, Great? He was worse than Hitler. Heck, even teaching them about compare egypt and mesopotamia, hand-washing (assuming that they didnt already know about nurture, it) could be disastrous. What if that caused a ripple-effect that lead to modern humans having a fraction of the immunity to disease that we currently do?

And in terms of teaching them anything interpersonal or spiritual, we dont know anything about what they believed or how they acted.The modern Christian belief is that people are spiritually fallen which is why everyone irrationally does things that they know they shouldnt do. Were people spiritually fallen back then? All awesome points. Especially love the distinction between ancient history and ancient historys ancient history. Also I agree that putting science in place can do much more damage than good as we move towards progress.

Curious what the implications of albert camus this notion is with the nurture, avialbility of nukes today? Nuclear energy is like 60 years old with will, motivation and money anyone can make one. Things that already exist: small towns, art, pottery (so fire), weapons (spear-type), clothes, domestic animals (dogs, sheep, cattle, goats, pigs). Things that do not exist: ice age (including ice-age animals) Things being developed around that time: farming. Things that are still a few thousand years off: wheels (really?!), writing. Hmm. If theres one thing Id want, its for people to and mesopotamia, be more compassionate towards peoples of different tribes and races. But I dont dare introduce that to my new tribe, since its likely to human nurture, get them killed. With that in mind, Im going to go with mathematics.

Basic algebra and geometry. And Mesopotamia. It looks like numbers took off around 3000 BC? That would be an extra 7000 years of mathematical thinking and progress. In one lifetime I couldnt communicate all of modern physics, but with the groundwork there we could have an Archimedes several thousand years before Archimedes, and nurture perhaps our Archimedes would be their Stephen Hawking. I cant really put my finger on how ethical my response will be but because I as a lone man thrown into another time i definitely would see it as a veeery rare happening and social media focus on nurture survival to Essay Mrs. by Virignia Woolf, see as much as i can and not think about helping or educating until i do. I think between some basic math and farming technologies, I could certinly advance the tribe I met forward to human, ensure their survival over others. Thats not to the problem, say its ensured, but hopefully with that information they could build bigger better farms, and allow more time to studies, (math, science, art) We would be the human nurture, roman empire of the day. i would show them how to make a flux capacitor. Dont waste any time on religion. I would not change anything.

I believe that the survival of humans as a species has a lot to do with the luck that we have had. During the lippi, paleolithic age, survival was a struggle, and humans had to fend off other species constantly. But apart from that, it can safely be assumed that the humans were divided into certain tribes, and each tribe was settled in different regions. Now tipping the human nurture, scales in favor of any tribe (by providing them arms, wheels or fire as a weapon) could have catastrophic results; it could lead to civil wars for food and supplies, and cause death at a large scale. Considering the rather small population of humans at that time, such wars could prove fatal to the survival of History Essay humans as a species. I would let them live the human, way they are living; after all, they did manage to survive, didnt they? Teaching them scientific methods and concepts is also not going to benefit them, mainly because of the lack of NEED of any such knowledge at that point of filippino lippi artwork time. A single lifetime would not be enough to make them realize the value of such scientific theories. Human Nurture. Also, I believe that there is always the right time for albert the outsider every discovery or invention.

You cannot accelerate scientific progress by preponing the human, discovery of History a law of nature because the society is simply not ready to accept the nurture, law. A case in point would be Copernicus attempt to tell the world that the Earth revolves around the sun. Change is a slow process for social media humans, and that applies to the world of science. This question is a classic example of the butterfly effect, which says that small changes in any pattern can cause drastic changes in another part of the universe. Considering that the survival of humanity is at stake here, I would not try to alter this process. This is human nurture monumentally important. Weve learned things as a human race by building things on top of the Essay, things we already knew.

Sometimes we remove or reorder other things (earth as the center, the role of atoms and microbes, etc.) but all told, weve built a tower of knowledge that is based on all the things that came before it. I, as a traveler, will almost certainly leave out something that is REALLY important to human nurture, tell these folks something that they dont have any basis for because Ive left out that super important bit. What about documenting whats happening for those in the future? I would invent the wheel a hell of a lot sooner. Im not a tech guy so Ill just teach them simple things like how those tiny tiny bugs cause disease and how it can be prevented by simple handwashing.

Douglas Adams had it sandwiches. Besides the usual suspects of fostering better hygiene and etc, Id be able to share my knowledge as an architect to create better and more durable shelter and chose more suitable camp locations and layout. Depending where my new tribe was located, agriculture may be developing, in the problem of evil, which case I might have a pretty big influence in how the new sedentary villages were organized and the buildings therein! Oh, and appropriately for what this blog often talks about, Id bring what I know/grok about human nurture, philosophical thought and see if I could pass it on to my tribe. Imagine what difference it could make to many of our automatic societal foibles were born into if we could tweak them 12k years ago? Perhaps, if my tribe ended up being at least a bit more successful due to my knowledge (mostly hygiene, architecture, etc), there could be enough spreading of the philosophical thought that would create a more peaceful and compare egypt sharing world. #128578; Id never be able to know unless it were to happen. They dont know English.

How would they react to that? Hygiene and be ware of people who come preaching with a Bible. Short of maybe a rudimentary knowledge of nurture first aid, there isnt much help that any average human being who lives as part of an industrialized society can help a tribe of neolithic people. Social. Our world of buying food from a market that in turn got its food from hundreds or even thousands of miles away, or turning on a faucet and have (seemingly) unlimited, clean water at human nurture our every beckon and call, or be able to quickly and easily find and/or travel to a medical professional to receive any number of technological treatments should injury or illness occur, has made the set of skills necessary for survival in media, untamed wilderness obsolete and nurture largely forgotten. Remember, the people on the Walking Dead are just acting. So unless you know how to create fire without the help of a lighter, manufacture raw tools out of even rawer materials, can manifest the History of Music Essay, ability to communicate your knowledge without texting or simply speaking english louder to human nurture, people who are thousands of years removed from History inventing writing (the preferred American method of communication with people not familiar with the human nurture, language), there isnt much that the average American can impart on neolithic people before he or she will get devoured by that pack of wolves waiting just behind the albert, tree line. Edit: Removed garbage paragraph (1 AM, cut me some slack)

Anyhoo, I think were too spoiled to human nurture, impart much knowledge, if any at all. -we- would learn to survive from -them- rather than vice versa. We could probably become the wise shaman of the village (any sufficiently advanced tech is equal to magic after all) and rise to power, though. Either way, unless we kept records on stone tablets and hid them away against the elements, I dont think our shared knowledge would last, regardless of oral traditions. Too much politics, people taking credit for things you did (especially after youre dead and gone, and the tales get warped over compare and mesopotamia repeated tellings) as always, cyanide and happiness explain it best. On this note, its only related to this topic from 2 minutes in.

That was brilliant! if I landed in the same geographic area 12,000 years ago, I could find coal for sure, and human I might be able to find iron ore. I might be able to build a bloomery and make wrought iron, if I could figure out how to make a usable hammer with which to pound the bloom. If I could figure out a way to make suitable woodworking implements, I could make all kinds of albert camus the outsider things, like water-powered mills and drop hammers for human nurture pounding metal and pulverizing grain and such. It would be damn hard to effect, get this started, since Id have to fell trees with stone axes and hack out nurture, rudimentary boards with stone adzes. Lippi. I dont think I could fashion anything like a plane without better than stone age technology, but maybe I could make a serviceable plane iron out of wrought iron, sharpened with a hard stone or something. If I could work out cutting implements, I could fashion a pole lathe and do wood turnings.

Uh, I guess Id have to invent spinning and figure out how to spin animal hair into human nurture, cords to make into rope. I could figure out the problem of evil, how to make gunpowder if I could figure out where to find saltpeter and sulfur in the wild. Im not sure about that one. I could build them a trebuchet or a torsion catapult to human nurture, kill other tribes more efficiently. Its actually pretty fucking cool to think of all the stuff I would have a fighting chance of pulling off in this scenario, without books or modern tools. Im not saying I could pull any of this off, but I like my chances. Your response is quite similar to mine.

I hope we are transported back to the same tribe otherwise our two tribes would fight to a draw after conquering everyone else who didnt have trebuchets, catapults, metals, and gunpowder! Haha but with the allures of MY tribes improved way of life, through infrastructure such as plumbing, crop rotation and the security of walled settlements(among other things), everyone will be assimilated! My tribe will have sufficient manpower to overwhelm yours #128512; Collect all the resources behind your fortifications. We have trebuchets. Thats what we call a shopping mall. #128512; Trust me.. I would teach the whole bunch of idiots to never believe in GOD or anyone believing in it. And leave them to survive and evolve while I sit peacefully writing a book for the future generation about the human evolution!! You forgot to take your fedora with you, proud atheist gentlesir.

You shown these funDIEs. #128578; Keep on tippin! A somewhat related article was posted on NBC today. At least we wont have to explain to them how to filippino lippi artwork, make booze! Human ancestors may have begun evolving the knack for consuming alcohol about human, 10 million years ago, long before modern humans began brewing booze, researchers say. It seems there would need to be too much to figure out, like shared communication with these people, not to mention surviving. About Mrs. Dolloway By Virignia. Language, fire, and farming might be the human, best to media effect, hope for. Not sure how I could be able to human, explain concepts and tech that I barely understand myself. Thats such a difficult question! I dont know enough about how their life was like back then. I think Id need play it by ear Learn from social media effect them and human then try and teach them about what I know through visions or something, so they would understand that I am prophetic. Albert The Outsider. I guess I would try to teach them cultural relativity and human nurture agriculture, as well as science.

Id create art and music for them as well (although Id be stealing some songs from the future haha). Oh! Writing! Id teach them about albert the outsider, writing and environmentalism (in case they dont already have a policy on that). Also, Id warn them of the coming wars and suffering mankind will inflict upon himself, but Id try to human, be philosophical about it. Id emphasize non-violent tactics to deal with problems, but also teach the importance of about being able to defend themselves from threats so that they dont get wiped out This is all assuming that theyd even listen to me, which I dont think they would, or if they did, it would take a lot for human nurture me to compare, significantly change their perceptions on things. Still, Id try to jump start civilization early and encode very reasonable laws and human cultural principles into it so as to hopefully create a better world for tomorrow.

I would end up writing out everything I know everything. All of my historical, scientific, environmental, and other knowledge, so as to keep a record of my existence for years to come. Social Media Effect. I would have to instruct them to put in some safeguards too, so that my work isnt erased from history by barbarians. Theres a lot to think about. Do I speak the language? I dont know if Id be very much help at all! Id have to brush up on my skills I learned when I was a Boy Scout 25 years ago.

I grew up on a ranch and went camping every summer, tent camping too, mostly. I know how to fish, and I went hunting with my dad once, but I just went along for the ride. Human. If anything theyd have to about Mrs. Dolloway, teach ME everything. If there wasnt a language barrier, I could tell them about human nurture, all the cool shit in the future but I dont think theyd understand. I COULD however help them out compare egypt, with the human nurture, wheel since I dont think that will have been invented for another 7,000 years. Social. And if that hadnt been invented yet, theres probably other things, too. Maybe certain tools, it depends on human what they were trying to accomplish in order to survive. Wow, what a coincidence, I have just returned from my time travel journey to 10,000 BC! The people back then were great and I was able to share so much with them. I was surprised at how quickly they were able to Mrs., understand all of the concepts I shared with them from the future and they were even able to take that knowledge and human expand upon it.

Together we created a civilization that encouraged everyone to lippi, unite in common cause and work peacefully and efficiently to address the human nurture, problems of humanity. Sadly, it must not have lasted. I had hoped to travel back to my own time to see how much more progress this great empire had made in Mrs. Dolloway, the intervening millennia, but it seems to have been entirely forgotten. I dont even see any mention of it on wikipedia. Whats the deal with everyone hating on human religion in social, comments?

The most common suggestion on here (besides religion-bashing) seems to be Teach them to settle disputes non-violently. Human. That doesnt work with MODERN humans, so why would it work with less-evolved ones? If a person from Essay about Mrs. Dolloway Woolf 12,000 years in the future came here, and enlightened us with, Be less violent. Human Nurture. Fighting is bad. and filippino went back to human, the future, wed just roll our eyes and carry on with our lives. Huh.

Id just teach the humans how to lippi artwork, domesticate felines and then train those cats to human, wear little hats or act grumpy for ten-minute segments. Im PRETTY SURE the rest of human knowledge is irrelevant; oh! I might have to teach them how to tell the lippi, cat trainers your (sic) a fag! Well pretty much like Arthur Dent on the last Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy book, I have a faint idea about how things like a ballpoint pen, brick-making, crop rotation, etc. work, but wouldnt really be able to reproduce that technology. As for philosophy, if I convinced the nurture, tribe to adopt a conduct code promoting peace, which seems to be a popular sugestion here, they would likely be run down by some nomad raiders, so Id better stick to helping them pierce, puncture and Essay about Mrs. by Virignia Woolf smash things more efficiently.

As happened in human, history, but faster. With some luck, at least I could teach them a writing system and the decimal system. But, most likely, I would become the old hermit that the tribe gathers around at night to hear his crazy and nonsensical stories about flying machines, lightning boxes, metal ships and steaming mugs of coffee. Well, you could update their brain with a my-first-chemistry-set to improve their intelligence. Then I could relive every single historical event and a in-depth explanation of everything from albert camus the outsider what I ate this morning to the Napolionic Wars. Although, the only floor is it would take all of nurture history to do it. Id try to camus, get some brewing system going.

First things first. Oh, theres already booze. Human. That was pretty much one of the very first things we developed as a species. Plenty of booze 10,000 years ago. I would try and communicate to compare egypt, the group of the power of human nurture emotional intelligence. Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, exemplary job performance, and more potent leadership skills. To very briefly summarise, it is the ability to History, have people skills, to recognise your own emotions, and that of human others, and Essay Mrs. Dolloway by Virignia Woolf how to hardness a positive attitude to really reach ones potential.

Far more important than just having a high IQ. Good luck with that one. Couple caveats. One, EI is an nurture, enormous array of abilities and learned skills that substantially overlaps with g (general IQ) and is dependent on many specific intellectual abilities. Compare. People with high fluid and crystallized IQ also generally have the higher EIs (though reliable measurement of EI is nurture a bit touch and go). Lippi. Two, ancient peoples already know this, probably far better than we do. Human. I mean, they dont need to have a word for it to recognize charisma when they see it. And even if they didnt, EI speaks for itself. Theres a reason EI abilities have been selected for throughout human history (and prior). They work.

And in ancient society, theyre far, far more important than in social, modern society. There simply arent very many people/tribes within traveling distance, so social mistakes can literally ruin your chances of ever procreating. I would tell them I wrote Stairway to Heaven. Worked for Led Zeppelin. Well, back then women had virtually no rights, so any knowledge I possess would be completely useless since no one would listen to nurture, what I have to say.

Well yes and effect no. Human Nurture. Of course some tribes didnt really care much for the opinions of women, others revered them. Since this tribe is nice enough to philosophy, welcome you inside without being too picky we can assume they are not exactly bloodlusted murderers. Nurture. So combine this with your superior knowledge you could become a high priestess or something similar. not at all. Women ruled until monotheism! I used to think something similar, but have since found that this may be the philosophy, contrary of nurture current anthropological consensus. By Virignia. I have read a lot of old studies and explorations and interpretations which would favour the notion of anything but total patriarchy, all of which have been rejected for a variety of reasons. If I am mistaken on this, I would very much like to know about it! If you know of any studies or evidence which robustly demonstrates anything but patriarchy in our history (or even more recently studied societies), please do post it here! Wow, you know nothing about ancient history.

Yes, due to changes in human, the evolutionary goals of men and women, men eventually established a dominance over women that lasted thousands of years, but back then, it was hardly as pronounced as it was in, say, early America and effect European countries around that period. Well lets see 12,000 years ago there was definitely a hunter gatherer theme dominating the human, scene but I am not familiar if there was much of a capacity or value for philosophy and of evil philosophy higher level processing beyond the human nurture, imagination. I could definitely contribute to help their hunting success by introducing sling shots (more likely just a leather sling and rocks because I dont know what to use instead of Essay about Mrs. by Virignia Woolf rubber), fishing nets, fishing hooks and poles, and human nurture traps. I would be a very enjoyable entertainer with enhancing their percussional music with drums and maybe even make a didgeridoo. My information lack of philosophy information regarding technology may be useless. The steam engine has no use, I dont know how to find and manipulate ore. Human. I cant think of any way to take advantage of and mesopotamia using electrical currents. There is no way that I would be able to put a gun together. But a bow and arrow would sure turn the world upside down. My lasting impression on this people group would only be through skills and human nurture traditions that could be passed down to younger generations through teaching and training, rather than through documentation. When there is so much focus on albert the outsider survival, there is human nurture less capacity to value knowledge (unless it serves to aid in survival).

Someone should post if they know how to History Essay, make glass, how to manipulate fire in a advanced way, primitive metal working, war strategies, medical knowledge, transportable housing, or animal training just to name a few useful ideas. We would be able to function as gods with some smoke and mirror tricks As long as we dont die. I bet introducing helmets would be a good idea too How do I make foam and carbon fiber? Most of us wouldnt even be able to tell a poison berry or mushroom from. a safe one, much less hazardous chemicals from nurture harmless ones. (The movie Into the Wild comes to social, mind, but even in human, that, the protagonist of the story had an illustrated reference book handy.) Id know. that tea tree oil could be used to treat the filippino artwork, insect infestation that.

would likely plague me and my big hair, but its in Australia and even. if I was there, I wouldnt know from nurture memory what it looks like or how to. extract its oils from it in sufficient quantity. So, maybe I could find a similarly aromatic herb that I did know, like rosemary, but Id be left with little option more than to just. shave to keep off the effect, lice, fleas, and ticks, and cover myself with mud. to keep off the mosquitoes. I made glass as part of a science project in school.

The process uses extremely high heat and a boron compound, borax a.k.a. sodium tetraborate decahydrate. Like with most technologies, I would know the concepts but be hard-pressed to find, recognize, and refine the necessary resources within what would probably be a short life expectancy. Although the tribe would have already mastered fire, it would be very challenging for me to build a fire hot enough to safely form glass, not to mention all the fuel, effort, and nurture time Id waste on History Essay my trials. I also would be at human a huge disadvantage at philosophy locating the right boron compounds and avoiding toxicity and injury. My productive attempts would require lots of time in one place, which I probably wouldnt have the luxury of since my tribe would be continuously or at least frequently on the move. If my nomadic tribe did happen to human nurture, be stationary long enough in effect, an area with borax, great, because it can be used to make other useful things like soap and nurture dentifrice, which would be in many ways a greater benefit to them than glass, but more immediately useful to me rather than them, since my microbiological constitution would probably be far less withstanding of the of evil, natural environment than theirs.

To really impress them, Id probably introduce the marvel of end locks, crafted out of bone, that can be pressed at each end of a roll of animal skins wrapped around a wooden pole, to make tearing them along a sharp stones edge, at the desired length much easier. The real question is human nurture whether you are capable of actually MAKING a bow, from scratch. Its pretty dang hard! My specific knowledge..aka my professionwould not be very useful. Im a lawyer.

Maybe in the long term my skills would be useful to form a more complex society, but, by of evil the time I arrive, I would be a dead weight. But my general knowledge would be awesome. Human Nurture. Music, cinema, basic physics and chemistry, basic knowledge of philosophy medicine, and so on I would do stuff like that movie called Reign of human nurture Fire, where the and mesopotamia, main character, played by Christian Bale, staged the human, famous Star Wars Luke, Im your father scene, and the kids that never watched the movie believed that the social, scene was real. I have a basic understanding of human physics which i could use to help design better tools. my psychology education could perhaps be used to help the artwork, tribe better deal with things like stress, loss and conflict. i have a little knowledge of first aid but not having any tools i wouldnt be able to use it. Human. overall i think i might be just useful enough to social media effect, stop them leaving me for dead thankfully. I would sit everyone down and launch into a really, really long story. The theme of the story would essentially be a cautionary tale I mean to go back and just share all the nurture, accumulated knowledge I have to offer would be to lay the same tracks down for history to repeat itself. It would simply serve to speed up the evolutionary process.

Rather, Id use this mystical opportunity to attempt to forge a different path. First, Id show them some cool tricks (to build up some credibility that Im actually from the future), like making a stone flint (though fire might already have been controlled depending on where exactly we are). The Outsider. Then, Id scare the shit out of them (some paradigms seem to human, work quite well) with anecdotes of the of evil, 9-5 workman life, industrial society, painting a picture of people isolated in human nurture, homes sitting in front of a screen watching images of other people doing other things, and the detachment and destruction of the natural world. Lippi. That should do the human, trick. Then Id tell them that God sent me to tell you were meant to exist as small tribes of hunter gatherers for eternity. I know almost everything important that had happened since then (evolution and technology wise), so i think we could speed up the technical evolution a lot. also, i highly doubt that religion would ever start to camus, exist, because religion simply answers the human, questions about our existance we hade a few thousand years ago. for all i know, i could be flying the compare egypt, NCC-1701! so my final answer is very, as long as theyll have the means to human nurture, understand it. Obviously we come from different worlds. Its not so much about taking a trip to a different time as it would be a different mindset, a different way of albert the outsider seeing, thinking, perceiving and thus behaving. Human Nurture. Though we are both from the same planet and History Essay species, we are worlds apart.

What I see or value or understand presently would have no relevance to their lives nor theirs to nurture, mine. We could not change each others perception and filippino lippi artwork trying to would be futile. Instead, Id want to check out the night sky as there would have been no light pollution at that time making for an amazing view. I love your post. Its so beautiful. So simple. And it gets right to the point. Nurture. Instead of racking my brain for all the things I know, I think I would enjoy doing just what you suggested. I could not. Essay. If I tried, I would be treated like a lunatic. What do we think of people with dramatically different understandings of the world?

We think they are crazy; nod, smile politely. What would you think if I told you, Guess what? The earth is nurture flat!! Lest we forget, Captain Kirk has already demonstrated that you can make diamond cannons to use against your enemies if you find yourself in a forlorn place (or time) with no to todays (or the futures) technology.. Before trying to lippi artwork, change anything, Id learn about and assimilate to the culture as best as possible. People will never trust you if you are an outsider with no intent on joining the group. Then, Id see what problems the community was facing and work with community leaders to solve them together.

Empowering others is the only way to nurture, make sustainable change. I work in international development, and Ive seen first-hand how futile it is to of evil, spend energy on a project that the human, community doesnt support. Long story short, even if one of us had all the technical skills and knowledge to lippi artwork, advance civilization however many years, nothing would happen before first getting other folks on human nurture board. That video says it all. Weve built too much generation upon generation to compare egypt, make any difference if one person leaps backwards. Literature and nurture the Arts might be a way to make an impact. Its fun to imagine how 12000 years from now some future civilization will be discussing the same topic. I wonder what would they know. 1. Thriller dance.

2. You can tell when youre most and least likely to get pregnant. The most useful skill I have that would be relevant in this time period is egypt that I can block my nose off without using my hand (I suppose its using my soft palate?), so I wouldnt need to deal with how awful everyone must have smelled. Nurture. Apart from that, I work in online communications and have no practical skills to History of Music, speak of that dont involve technology I wouldnt be able to access in 10,000BC. And, anyway, Id be too freaked out that Id re-set the course of human history to nurture, something worse than it is. Id also eat a lot of berries. Theyre good shit. I can block off my nose, too! This is a fantastic attribute when swimming, but it may be less a matter of History of Music choice than you know; when taking singing lessons, I couldnt open the airflow between nose and mouth as much as my teacher wished. Id probably be too petrified to contribute to the tribe or go wandering around, asking for the wi-fi password.

Its been mentioned that we would have very different ways of thinkingI think one of the most significant ways this would be apparent is the scientific method. Maybe its because Im a biology student, but I am always thinking in human, terms of the scientific methodhypothesize, test, analyze, conclude. Thinking like this would get rid of religion (whether or not thats good or bad is another question), and maybe this little tribe would become the proto-scientists that would develop formal science long before it was in our world. Social Effect. Ideas like Mendels and Darwins could be discovered AGES before the human, 1800simagine the implications of a society that became scientifically literate before it becamewellliterate!! (On that note, maybe introducing writing would be handy). The Outsider. Also, I would try to push the idea of human nurture bacteria and viruses as the cause of disease, not evil spirits.

We lost far too many human lives before that was found out. Im pretty sure that if you did this, a neighboring tribe would quickly invade and lop everyones heads off for being apostates. So we teach our tribe gunpowder (sulphur, phosphorous, sugar/something with energy) if we teach tribes boring ideas they will forget. If we teach them explosives they will explode stuff forever. If I already understand the local language, writing would be the first thing I would teach. Then I would teach 4 great philosophies or lessons and ways of Mrs. by Virignia Woolf thought. Which are, in brief. 1: to share the philosophies, but dont be a prick about human nurture, it, and never harm another unless it is for the survival of yourself or others. 2: emotions, and how to deal with them, equality (race gender), generosity, humanity, humility, and sexuality.

3: the scientific method, to be open minded, to preserve ideas, and to not destroy them, or limit its access. 4: resource management, preciousness of life, what farming is, cleanliness and why exploration is a good idea. then I would tell them to write them down and preserve these thoughts and the problem philosophy pass them down for generation. Well, if they are still hunters gatherers maybe I could try and show them the basics of growing vegetables and domesticating animals, like poultry. Let us not forget that 10000 years ago humans had already reached the American continent, and they had been handling fire for a long long time. Nurture. Probably they also had some basic mathematical concepts, like counting to some extent.

The best would be to assess what they already know, what they need and then build up from there. The Problem Of Evil Philosophy. In any case, I am sure they would have to teach me far more than I could teach them. I have lived with hunter-gatherers. Even little kids know from simple observation that plants grow if you plant their seeds or bulbs in the ground. Sure, having a poo and seeing a tomato plant grow out of it is quite straight forward, but that does not make you a farmer. 10000 years ago humans did not cultivate the land. Hmmm . . Human Nurture. . but the agricultural and husbandry revolutions kicked lifespans way downward, not to recover for *millenia*. Not a clear win. Id imagine even if we could bring technology along with us to albert camus, the past, this is human what would happen: OK, so lets see what the popular contenders have been: 1. The Outsider. Writing.

Paper requires a lot of pre-processing, and is not durable. Human Nurture. Chiseling on stone tablets is much better. Definitely promote writing down the tribal history for posterity. 2. Handwashing, especially before meals and after handling excrement or dead bodies. 3. History Of Music. Basic reproduction, i.e. the rhythm method. Hmm. This looks alot like Biblical Judaism. Tablets, check. Tribal history, check.

Handwashing, check. Rhythm method (masquerading as sexual purity), check. Food hygiene (masquerading as kosher rules), check. Atheism, as in human, STOP WORSHIPPING ALL THOSE IDOLS!, check. Biblical tradition claims to compare, start about 6000 years ago, with a single person who magically appeared and started naming everything around him. Nurture. Tim, you might be onto Essay about Dolloway by Virignia something!

Most of my knowledge is uesless without pre-existing technology, social structures and species. For example, I know basics about human nurture, agriculture, but the compare and mesopotamia, relevant plants are yet to be bred. The population density is too low for human it to be necessary. Writing might be of filippino artwork use, but it only matters for preserving knowledge, and trade with other tribes; both of these are rather unnecessary for a pure hunter/gatherer tribe. The most useful knowledge would be relatively simple things that have been discovered in history through unlikely chance. This includes basic hygene, using some sort of (I dont know which) fungi for anti-biotics, the fact that copper can be alloyed with tin (or was it zinc? how does zinc ore even look? where can I find it?).

As you see, even this basic knowledge seems rather useless since I still lack the nurture, fundamentals to apply it. Id be utterly helpless and itd take some effort to convince them that my knowledge is actually useful to media effect, them. Nurture. After killing the second of them in my futile attempts at filippino lippi artwork antibiotics, theyd probably just leave me for dead I think Id be a whole lot more useful in an early copper-age farmer civilization; I could probably advance them by human nurture a few thousand years in technology, since theyd have specialized experts that would provide all the basic knowledge to fill my gaps. Quiet a lot of people think they could not give so much as they dont know stuff from scratch. But I guess we would have better chances in lippi, trying to improve things than anyone else, as we know that what we try can happen. Like maybe just improving an instrument like a hammer with a shaft (more force). Or the nurture, idea of Essay Mrs. Woolf a bow. Or a needle.

Or to make food last longer by surounging it with fat. Or the human nurture, wheel. Or maybe the albert the outsider, idea of a a cooking pot. There are so many stuff we have seen in our daily life I think we would see quiet a lot of possibilities to human nurture, improve whatever this people have. Just because we already have an idea how an improved item would look like. And we wouldnt just hunt an fix idea like inventurs as we know there is a way this will work.

I could help them take their cave art to a whole new level with my knowledge of perspective. I know some music theory as well, and the box step. Egypt. Chances are Id be carrying my ipod so theyd learn about The Eagles as well. Most importantly: Pizza,Star Wars and human Lord of the Rings. writing, the wheel, some basic ideas about the uses of water, pulleys, weather systems, recording the patterns in albert the outsider, things and processes around them, schooling, religion is bad, the earth is round, the sun is the center of the solar system, gravity, medicine/germs, food storage and very basic farming for a start. Weeellll the first thing theyd learn from me if they didnt already know this one is that strangers from afar bring terrible annihilating virus and bacterial loads. And that would be pretty much it. If I had my hearts desire, it would be Steve Allen, so I could watch those wonderful shows he did so long ago : Meeting of Minds, where he brought back so many of the people chosen here. Whoops, this should have gone into the Who would I bring back bin, sorry about human, that. Effect. Newbie.

How to nurture, run a business (or tribe), economics, social manipulation (think Machiavelli), knowing about Mrs. by Virignia, biomes and nurture basic geography (select a better place to settle), agriculture, bacterial warfare, knowledge of Essay some natural toxins that are easily refined (nightshade, ricin, abrin), understanding of how to nurture, construct and use an atlatl, understanding of spinning wool to create thread bone needles clothes and social media gambesons (cloth armor), and some close combat knowledge. Probably more if I kept thinking, but there are a lot of REALLY basic things that have taken humanity a LONG time to human, develop that can be recreated from basic knowledge fairly easily. You have to have some gumption to think you could teach social manipulation (or how to History of Music Essay, run a tribe, for that matter) to a hunter-gatherer. Given the life they had, Id expect those guys to be goddamned masters at manipulating each other. 4) Advanced Language. 6) Simple Machines (i.e.

Wheel, Lever, etc.) Thats about human, it. Still, I dont think its bad for someone still in Middle School that has almost no wilderness experience. make soap, find clay, make pottery, make homes with fireplace and draft, make wheels and Essay about Woolf cart, find coal, find alumina silicate for refractory brick, find iron ore, build blast furnace, make bellows, teach blacksmith skills, teach alloying, make steel, make saw blades, water wheel to make lumber, make weapons to nurture, get more labour and food, make wagon, increase production, make water wheel to make lumber. If enough of these skills are passed on skip bronze age. History Of Music Essay. Likely too many things to teach maybe just get blast furnace going to make small steel objects.

Once this is learned many other things would be discovered over time and clan and human new technology would survive due to media, weapon advantage.