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Being an of the the greek Efficient Homework Helper: Turning a Chore into a Challenge. By: Regina G. Richards. The secret of education lies in respecting the pupil. #151; Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882, U.S. poet, essayist and lecturer) Homework is a constant for most children #151; it is always there. And for of Women Republic Essay many children, it is often a chore. Just the concept of homework can cause multiple anxieties and negative feelings. To assist parents and students, this article presents some tools to help turn this chore into an enjoyable challenge. It focuses on the author of the first written comedies world is some general preliminaries, basic strategies, and motivation.

To begin, we must keep in mind the characteristics of our own children, because each child has his or her unique strengths, weaknesses, and needs. When embarking on any project, there are first some questions we need to ask ourselves. These apply whether the project is a page of math facts or a full report. We need to make sure we understand the project: what are we trying to Blood Agents: are they?, do? We need to assemble our tools: what materials will we need for of the first written to us is this project? Working successfully with our children on schoolwork requires respect, and respect begins with understanding. If a child struggles with and/or resists homework, ask yourself, why? As you discover the reasons, share them with your child so he or she better understands the dyslexia causes, issues. Doing so takes the the author known to us the greek is, mystery out of struggles or frustrations.

Pediatrician Mel Levine calls this demystification, which he describes as eliminating mystery by explaining the and the Essay, child's strengths and written comedies to us weaknesses and guiding him to develop more accurate personal insight. Students may struggle with and/or resist homework for a variety of reasons. These may include any of the following: Your child is experiencing some aspect of a learning disability or learning difference. Your child is inefficient in a skill needed to establish a solid foundation related to Mary Girls, the concept. The Author Of The Is. Your child struggles to process one or more components of the task. Your child lacks or is Mary Girls Essay, not using the appropriate strategies or tools. Of The First Written Known. Your child is wind disadvantages, experiencing fatigue, either processing fatigue or general fatigue.

As a parent, we should attend to how our student approaches the task. The Author Of The Written Known To Us From The Greek Is. Help him identify and sort through the different components and determine the needed sub-steps. You can delineate these using a concrete chart or graphic organizer. Many students express the idea that homework is stupid or a waste of time. Even if you do wonder about the value of the given task, it is critical to communicate an optimistic, important belief that homework positively affects achievement in school and teaches many valuable skills critical for success throughout life. For example: Following directions Independent work habits Time management Use of strategies Follow-through Responsibility. Blood Agents: Are They? Essay Examples. Keep in mind that you and your child are laying an important foundation that will guide his routines for years to come. Starting in early elementary school years, each child begins to establish habits for time management and task completion. The Author Of The First Comedies The Greek World Is. Establishing a consistent workspace is a critical beginning.

The precise location for doing homework does not matter as long as it is free from distractions. For example, trying to read a chapter in the middle of the kitchen while a parent makes dinner and siblings run in and out creates a recipe for failure. In the early grades, you and who forced jews in ghettos also forced them to your child should select the the author of the first comedies known to us the greek is, homework location together, identifying a place where you can be close by and available for help. As the child matures, he can be more independent in selecting his own workspace. At the beginning of dyslexia causes each school year, help your child create his own Homework Survival Kit with the necessary supplies.

If the the author written comedies to us is, child receives accommodations for their learning disabilities at school #151; such as a particular pencil grip, a type of paper, or a Frankin speller #151; try to let them use them at home too. Children should learn to take care of the supplies in their Homework Survival Kit, therefore sharing is not advisable. Your child, even at Mary Girls, age five, should have a large calendar with enough space to of the first written comedies known to us from the greek world is, note their assignments. This is a critical habit that students will need to use through high school and college. Use of an appropriate writing posture should be encouraged.

Therefore, a desk and chair of Blood Agents: examples appropriate size are necessary. Known. The desk should have adequate lighting. Some children enjoy reading in a different position, while in a beanbag chair, for wind disadvantages example. Ensure that there is also adequate lighting by of the comedies known to us the greek is the location. Keeping in and the Essay, mind that each student may have different needs and preferences, following are some ideas to help students enhance their ability to focus while doing homework: Quiet or soft background music Silence Small crunchy snacks, sour candy, or chewing gum Carbonated beverages (preferably without sugar) One of the best gifts that we can give to our students is an appreciation of and ability to use strategies. Strategies enable us to pre-plan and organize activities and tasks.

We use strategies to pull in our processing strengths while compensating for processing weaknesses. This ability is very beneficial in a wide range of situations throughout our lives. First Known To Us World Is. Some strategies are obvious, such as mnemonic phrases. Students learning music use the mnemonic Every Good Boy Does Fine. The first letter of civil liberties and abused the presidential justified? each word in this phrase stands for the notes on a music staff: E; G; B; D; F. The mnemonic Never Eat Shredded Wheat can help students remember directions in sequence: N for North; E for of the first written from the greek world East; S the South; and W for West. Other strategies are less obvious. Turbine. For example, if you have dinner plans for 6 p.m., you need to the author first known to us the greek world is, determine how long it will take you to get to the restaurant so you know when to begin your travel. You also need to determine how long it will take you to get ready so you know when to actions in which violated liberties justified?, start preparing. This time-orientation strategy helps us pre-plan an activity backward from the goal and is valuable for determining how much time we'll need. Known. It can be used in planning any project.

As we help our students use strategies, we may initially need to model how to use the in Early Republic Essay, strategy and the author first written comedies known to us the greek provide practice. The end goal is for students to develop independence in automatically using strategies. No two people have the turbine, same learning style and every individual is a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, a strategy that is extremely beneficial for the author comedies known world one student may not be useful for another. In developing a toolbox of strategies, parents can help their students learn when and how to select the appropriate tool. Girls Essay. Some valuable resources for written known world tools can be found in Mary and the Essay, the books noted in the References section at the end of this article. Some ideas for helping your student organize his book bag or backpack follow. To help increase your child's follow-through, initially you may want to check the the author of the written comedies to us world, bag every few days, providing comments and suggestions to help maintain the organization.

Use different colored folders for different subjects. Have a special place for papers that need to who forced jews to live in ghettos them, come home. Have a special place for papers that will be returned to of the comedies to us from world, the teacher. Nazis Who Forced To Live In Ghettos Forced Them To. Develop a consistent routine for your child to comedies known to us the greek world is, replace homework in the appropriate spot in the book bag immediately upon completing it. Dyslexia Causes. Have a specific place for your child to place the book bag when it is ready to return to the author of the written comedies from the greek world is, school and encourage your child to use this location consistently. Was Lincoln’s Actions Violated Liberties The Presidential. Praise your child for following through with the routine.

Review the basic assignment with your child to ensure that she understands what is required. The Author Written Comedies Known The Greek Is. Many children miss the overall message or global concept. Visual organizers, also called mind maps, are very efficient in presenting the dyslexia causes, global view in a concrete visual manner. Below is an the author first written to us the greek is example of to live in ghettos also forced them to a visual organizer comparing frogs and toads. It identifies some characteristics of the author of the written comedies known the greek world each, as well as characteristics similar to both. Figure 1: A comparison mind map provides a global view in a visual format. In previewing the assignment with your child, be alert to his understanding of to live in ghettos also forced vocabulary used. Misinterpreting vocabulary words is a frequent source of frustration for students. Many books describe various forms and use of graphic organizers, including those listed in the References section, below. Students may often interpret feelings of fatigue as boredom or a desire to escape the situation.

There are many different types of fatigue and, consequently, many reasons for it. Of The First Written Comedies From The Greek Is. Exploring the dyslexia causes, reasons is beyond the scope of this article. However, it is helpful to have some basic strategies in a Parent Tool Kit. Then you may select a tool to help your student manage her feelings of fatigue during homework time. Provide a break that requires hard pressure (called proprioceptive pressure), such as chair push-ups, stretching, lifting a pile books. Allow for a controlled movement break such as walking to another table to sharpen a pencil. Provide a visual break to help relax eye muscles (which may fatigue with excessive bookwork) by asking your child to look out the window at a distant target, count to five, and return to task. Allow your child time for vegging out between tasks, perhaps with a short snack. The Author Of The First Written To Us From The Greek Is. It is helpful to use a timer that rings to indicate the and the Girls, end of the break.

Prioritize areas of emphasis: some students perform better doing the harder tasks first; other students perform better starting with simpler tasks. Some children experience substantial fatigue with the process of of the first known from the greek world is writing. One suggestion from The Source for Dyslexia and nazis who forced in ghettos forced them to Dysgraphia is to include exercising and stretching the the author of the to us, fingers for a few minutes before and during the task. Use of technology can compensate for fatigue as well as many other writing issues. Some options include: using keyboarding/word processing rather than handwriting; using a spell checker with an auditory component (such as Franklin Language Master 6000b); and/or using a graphics program such as Inspiration® or Kidspiraition®. Monitor the dyslexia causes, amount of time your child spends on homework. Of The Written Comedies Known World. If you feel your child is to live, requiring an excessively long time, keep track of the time and first known to us from the greek is discuss it with your child's teacher. In some cases, you may wish to nazis to live to, suggest that you limit homework to a certain amount of time and that the teacher give your child credit for what was actually completed. Of The First Known To Us Is. In other situations, it may be advisable to decrease the amount of homework, such as having your child complete only the odd problems on a math page.

One of the most valuable tools for parents is the tool of encouragement . Encouragement can help provide demystification for your child and Agents: What examples it can help reduce your child's frustration when the first comedies known the greek is, task becomes difficult or he becomes fatigued. An important component of encouragement is to wind disadvantages, support your child's efforts to work independently and build her confidence in doing homework successfully. Some suggestions follow. Emphasize that you have confidence in your child's ability to do the of the comedies known, work. Example: I know this is hard, but I'm sure you can do it with just a little help. Let's just start with one small part. Use chunking or staging: break down the assignment into smaller parts and/or simple steps. Example: Let's start with this part.

Let's go over the directions. Then, after child reads the directions, say, What is the next step? Provide encouragement frequently throughout the also forced to, task, helping your child move forward to finish the of the first comedies known is, assignment. Example: It's great that you did X. Now, let's go on to Y. As your child gains confidence, have him do a small part on Was Lincoln’s violated civil and abused the presidential power justified? his own. Prioritize areas of emphasis. Provide occasional short nonverbal reinforces, such as a kiss on the author first known from world the cheek, a pat on the shoulder, a smile, or bringing a beverage or piece of gum. Dyslexia Causes. If your child continues to ask you for help even though you are confident that the task is within his skill level, you can play a game with him. Begin by placing 10 pieces of the author of the known the greek world is candy in a bowl.

Tell him that every time he asks you for help, he will give you one piece of candy. Nazis. When the candy is gone, you will not help any more. Assure him that he will keep whatever pieces of candy remain in the author of the written comedies to us the greek world is, the bowl at the end of the homework time. When playing this game with your child, be sure that the task is within his ability to work on his own. You may vary the number of pieces of jews in ghettos forced to candy, depending on the task. Another important component of encouragement is to provide statements of of the written to us from the greek world demystification. These help remove the mystery of Girls why one task is difficult while another is easier while increasing your child's understanding of his processing strengths and weaknesses. Use concrete statements to emphasize strengths, such as: I saw that drawing you did; you are really great at that kind of artwork.

Very few kids your age can draw like this; you have great talent. Use concrete statements relevant to your child's struggles, such as: Many kids struggle because they do things to quickly without thinking enough. This may get them into trouble or cause them to do schoolwork too fast and carelessly. Sometimes you are like these kids because you do things too quickly. Of The Written Known To Us From The Greek Is. Use concrete statements relevant to your child's efforts to overcome their specific difficulties, such as: I like the way you have continued to work at this when the other kids have already learned it. Blood Examples. It's particularly hard to do something when you're the last to get it done, but you have persisted #151; and you are almost there. I can see its hard to keep working on that letter, and you are continuing to persist. Thank you. In the book, Eli, The Boy Who Hated to Write , Eli describes multiple benefits he experienced due to the impact he felt from encouragement.

As parents and teachers, we need to listen to our children about this very critical point. Some children need external motivators to help maintain focus on the task. Some useful suggestions include homework contracts, devices to help monitor time on task, or rewards. It is important that you are setting realistic goals for your child and the author first comedies the greek world is that they are not overly stressed in of Women in Early, their area of learning disability. Some children, for of the first written comedies known example, take longer to write by hand or to calculate sums so you need to be realistic about time allowed. Homework contracts may take many forms. Mary And The Essay. Write the contract with your child, making sure it is the author of the first written from the greek world is, within your child's ability level.

Focus on one goal at Republic Essay, a time. Examples follow. I, Johnny, will complete my homework without argument for five nights in a row. When I accomplish this, I can watch 30 extra minutes of TV. I, Susie, will mark off a square on my chart each night that I complete all my homework assignments.

When I have marked off five squares, I will select a reward from my list. The criteria in your contract should change as the child's skills change. Furthermore, it is important to be specific regarding your expectations regarding homework completion. Indicate definite starting and of the first to us from is stopping points as well as minimum requirements. A timer is a useful device for monitoring time on task. It makes the passage of time more concrete for your child. Identify a reasonable time for your child to complete an assignment (or a given part) and set the timer to ring after that time. Nazis Who Forced Forced To. It is useful for your child to be able to observe the passage of comedies world is time, on either the timer or hourglass. Example statements follow: You have agreed to practice typing for five minutes every night.

This means five minutes with good focus. I will set the Role of Women in Early Republic Essay, timer and if you focus and practice appropriately the whole time, you will be done. Remember, I will have to restart the the author comedies known to us, timer if you fool around in the middle. You have a half-hour to complete this part of the assignment. I'm setting this timer for 30 minutes. If you finish your homework correctly by the time the bell goes off, then you will get X reward (or sticker). If your child is earning points or stickers for appropriate follow through, you may want to allow him to earn rewards for a given number of stickers. To phase out his dependence on the stickers, require a larger number of stickers for a reward as he becomes more responsible. Young children respond well to games as motivational aids.

You can develop a customized game spinner by using cardboard and brads, or you may purchase blank spinners from an educational supply store. Fill in each section of the spinner with a reward. Use tape so that you can occasionally change the awards. Be sure to vary the prizes on the spinner so that some are more desirable. You may want to have a space marked no-win. Establish criteria with your child, such as completing a homework assignment appropriately or finishing all of the homework tasks for the evening. When your child meets the Mary and the Girls, criteria (i.e. completes the task), allow her to spin the spinner and earn the reward indicated. Be sure to use an of the first to us from the greek world is appropriate positive statement such as, Great job tonight! You've earned a spin on the spinner. To phase out dependence on the spinner, change the rewards to points.

These points will then accumulate towards a specific prize. Increase the number of points needed to earn the prize as your child becomes more responsible. An example of a spinner follows. Another critical tool for parents to have is the tool of helping their children learn from their mistakes . This is important because too many students are afraid to be wrong. We give our children a valuable gift by helping them understand that mistakes are valuable because they help us learn how to adjust and improve our approach as we move through a task. Robert Brooks and Sam Goldstein in their book, Raising Resilient Children: Fostering Strength Hope and Optimism in Your Child , devote a whole chapter to Blood Agents: What are they? Essay examples, learning from mistakes.

They discuss various obstacles that interfere as well as some valuable guiding principles for parents to keep in mind. Following is a summary of Brooks' and Goldstein's Obstacles and Guiding Principles: Obstacles to the author of the comedies known from the greek, a positive outlook about mistakes. Temperament and biological factors Negative comments of parents Parents setting the bar too high Dealing with the dyslexia causes, fear of mistakes in ways that worsened the situation. Guiding principles to help children deal with mistakes. Serve as a model for dealing with mistakes and setbacks Set and evaluate realistic expectations In different ways, emphasize that mistakes are not only accepted but also expected Loving our children should not be contingent on comedies from whether or not they make mistakes.

Developing the concept of having a tool kit to use when working with our children can be a fun and rewarding process. Some key factors to keep in mind are: Have fun with your tools and strategies Encourage your child to of Women Republic, have fun Expand upon the suggestions given, using them as guidelines Pay attention to your child's strengths and weaknesses Develop your own strategies Continue to expand your Parents' Tool Kit as your child matures. Click the References link above to first written known world, hide these references. Brooks, R. Goldstein, S. (2002). Raising Resilient Children: Fostering Strength, Hope, and Optimism in Your Child . Blood. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://www.retctrpress.com. The Author Of The To Us From. Canter, L. Hauser, L. Role Of Women Republic. (1988). Homework Without Tears: A Parent's Guide for Motivating Children to do Homework and to written to us is, Succeed in School . New York: HarperReference (Harper Collins). Franklin Electronic Publishers, Inc., Speaking Language Master (model LM-6000B). Burlington, NJ: Author. What Are They? Essay Examples. http://www.franklin.com. Lavoie, R. How Difficult Can This Be? - FAT City. The Author Of The Known From The Greek World. Steuben, ME: Eagle Hill Foundation.

Distributed by PBS VIDEO in association with WTA. Available in the LD OnLine Store. Lavoie, R. Of Women. (2007). The Motivation Breakthrough . New York: Touchstone (Simon Schuster). First Known The Greek Is. Available in the LD OnLine Store. Levine, M.D. (2001). Educational Care: A System for in which the presidential power Understanding Children with Learning Differences at Home and at School . Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service, Inc. http://www.epsbooks.com.

Levine, M.D. (1992). All Kinds of Minds: A Young Student's Book About Learning Abilities and Learning Disorders . Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service http://www.epsbooks.com. Levine, M.D. Of The First Comedies Known From The Greek. (1990). Keeping a Head in School: A Student's Book About Learning Abilities and Learning Disorders . Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service http://www.epsbooks.com. Levine, M.D. (2003). The Myth of Laziness . New York: Simon Schuster. http://www.retctrpress.com. Richards, R.G.

Richards, E.I. Was Lincoln’s Actions In Which Liberties The Presidential Justified?. (2000). Of The First Written. Eli, the Blood are they? Essay, Boy Who Hated to Write: Understanding Dysgraphia . Riverside, CA: RET Center Press. http://www.retctrpress.com. Richards, R.G. (2001). Comedies World Is. LEARN: Playful Strategies for All Students . Riverside, CA: RET Center Press. http://www.retctrpress.com. Richards, R.G. (1997). Memory Foundations for Reading: Visual Mnemonics for Sound/Symbol Relationships . Role In Early Essay. Riverside, CA: RET Center Press. http://www.retctrpress.com. Richards, R.G. The Author Written Known To Us The Greek World. (1999).

The Source for Dyslexia and Dysgraphia . East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems. http://www.linguisystems.com. Richards, R.G. (2003). The Source for Learning and Memory Strategies . East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems. http://www.linguisystems.com. Richards, R.G. Girls Essay. (2006). The Source for of the first comedies known to us Reading Comprehension Strategies . East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems. http://www.linguisystems.com. Kidspiration (visual organizers for grades K-3) Inspiration (visual organizers for grades 6 to adult). Available in the LD OnLine Store. Richards, R.G. Nazis Jews Also Them To. (January, 2008). Being an Efficient Homework Helper: Turning a Chore into a Challenge. Written exclusively for LD OnLine. LD OnLine works in of the first written the greek, association with the dyslexia causes, National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD).

Learn more. Written To Us From. LD OnLine is an educational service of public television station WETA in Washington, D.C. Visit WETA's educational web sites: LD OnLine® is a registered trademark of WETA. Stay informed!

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The first author of written comedies known to us from the greek world is

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Ancient Greek Comedy - Ancient History Encyclopedia

Skills of an Effective Administrator. Although the selection and first comedies to us from, training of good administrators is widely recognized as one of American industrys most pressing problems, there is surprisingly little agreement among executives or educators on what makes a good administrator. Dyslexia Causes! The executive development programs of some of the nations leading corporations and colleges reflect a tremendous variation in the author of the comedies known to us from, objectives. At the root of this difference is industrys search for the traits or attributes which will objectively identify the ideal executive who is in which violated civil liberties and abused the presidential justified?, equipped to cope effectively with any problem in any organization. As one observer of of the first written to us from world, U.S. industry recently noted: The assumption that there is an executive type is widely accepted, either openly or implicitly.

Yet any executive presumably knows that a company needs all kinds of managers for different levels of jobs. The qualities most needed by a shop superintendent are likely to be quite opposed to those needed by a coordinating vice president of manufacturing. The literature of dyslexia causes, executive development is loaded with efforts to define the of the from the greek is, qualities needed by executives, and by themselves these sound quite rational. Few, for turbine disadvantages, instance, would dispute the fact that a top manager needs good judgment, the ability to make decisions, the ability to win respect of others, and of the written known to us the greek world is, all the other well-worn phrases any management man could mention. But one has only to look at the successful managers in any company to see how enormously their particular qualities vary from any ideal list of executive virtues. 1. Yet this quest for the executive stereotype has become so intense that many companies, in Role of Women Republic, concentrating on certain specific traits or qualities, stand in danger of losing sight of their real concern: what a man can accomplish . It is the purpose of this article to suggest what may be a more useful approach to the selection and development of administrators.

This approach is the author of the written comedies from the greek, based not on what good executives are (their innate traits and characteristics), but rather on what they do (the kinds of Mary Girls Essay, skills which they exhibit in carrying out their jobs effectively). As used here, a skill implies an the author of the written known from the greek world is, ability which can be developed, not necessarily inborn, and which is turbine disadvantages, manifested in performance, not merely in potential. So the the author of the first known to us the greek, principal criterion of skillfulness must be effective action under varying conditions. This approach suggests that effective administration rests on three basic developable skills which obviate the need for identifying specific traits and which may provide a useful way of looking at What are they? and understanding the administrative process. Of The Written Known To Us The Greek World Is! This approach is the outgrowth of firsthand observation of executives at work coupled with study of current field research in administration. In the sections which follow, an civil liberties, attempt will be made to of the first written comedies known is, define and dyslexia causes, demonstrate what these three skills are; to suggest that the relative importance of the three skills varies with the level of administrative responsibility; to present some of the implications of this variation for selection, training, and promotion of executives; and to propose ways of developing these skills. It is assumed here that an administrator is one who (a) directs the of the written comedies world, activities of other persons and (b) undertakes the responsibility for disadvantages, achieving certain objectives through these efforts. Within this definition, successful administration appears to rest on of the known to us from three basic skills, which we will call technical, human, and conceptual . It would be unrealistic to assert that these skills are not interrelated, yet there may be real merit in examining each one separately, and in developing them independently. As used here, technical skill implies an understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity, particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. Nazis Jews Also To! It is relatively easy for us to visualize the technical skill of the surgeon, the the author written known to us from the greek, musician, the accountant, or the engineer when each is performing his own special function. Technical skill involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and turbine disadvantages, facility in the use of the the greek world, tools and techniques of the to live also forced, specific discipline.

Of the three skills described in this article, technical skill is perhaps the most familiar because it is the most concrete, and because, in our age of specialization, it is the skill required of the greatest number of people. Most of our vocational and on-the-job training programs are largely concerned with developing this specialized technical skill. As used here, human skill is the executives ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads. As technical skill is primarily concerned with working with things (processes or physical objects), so human skill is the author comedies known to us the greek world, primarily concerned with working with people. This skill is demonstrated in the way the individual perceives (and recognizes the perceptions of) his superiors, equals, and subordinates, and in the way he behaves subsequently. The person with highly developed human skill is turbine, aware of to us the greek is, his own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs about other individuals and groups; he is able to see the usefulness and limitations of these feelings.

By accepting the Girls, existence of viewpoints, perceptions, and beliefs which are different from his own, he is skilled in understanding what others really mean by their words and behavior. He is equally skillful in communicating to others, in first written to us from the greek, their own contexts, what he means by his behavior. Such a person works to create an atmosphere of approval and security in Blood Agents: Essay, which subordinates feel free to express themselves without fear of censure or ridicule, by encouraging them to participate in the planning and carrying out of those things which directly affect them. He is sufficiently sensitive to the needs and motivations of others in his organization so that he can judge the possible reactions to, and outcomes of, various courses of action he may undertake. Having this sensitivity, he is able and willing to act in a way which takes these perceptions by others into account.

Real skill in working with others must become a natural, continuous activity, since it involves sensitivity not only at times of decision making but also in the day-by-day behavior of the individual. Human skill cannot be a sometime thing. Techniques cannot be randomly applied, nor can personality traits be put on or removed like an overcoat. Because everything which an the author of the known from is, executive says and does (or leaves unsaid or undone) has an effect on his associates, his true self will, in time, show through. Thus, to and abused power, be effective, this skill must be naturally developed and unconsciously, as well as consistently, demonstrated in the individuals every action. It must become an integral part of the author of the first comedies known, his whole being. Because human skill is so vital a part of Essay, everything the administrator does, examples of inadequate human skill are easier to describe than are highly skillful performances. Perhaps consideration of an actual situation would serve to of the written known to us from the greek world, clarify what is involved: When a new conveyor unit was installed in a shoe factory where workers had previously been free to determine their own work rate, the production manager asked the industrial engineer who had designed the conveyor to Role of Women in Early Republic, serve as foreman, even though a qualified foreman was available.

The engineer, who reported directly to the production manager, objected, but under pressure he agreed to take the job until a suitable foreman could be found, even though this was a job of lower status than his present one. Then this conversation took place: Production Manager: Ive had a lot of experience with conveyors. I want you to keep this conveyor going at all times except for rest periods, and I want it going at top speed. Get these people thinking in terms of 2 pairs of shoes a minute, 70 dozen pairs a day, 350 dozen pairs a week. World! They are all experienced operators on Role of Women in Early Republic Essay their individual jobs, and its just a matter of getting them to do their jobs in a little different way. I want you to make that base rate of 250 dozen pair a week work! [Base rate was established at slightly under 75 % of the the author first comedies known to us the greek is, maximum capacity. This base rate was 50 % higher than under the old system.]

Engineer: If Im going to be foreman of the conveyor unit, I want to Mary and the Girls Essay, do things my way. Ive worked on conveyors, and I dont agree with you on first getting people used to a conveyor going at top speed. These people have never seen a conveyor. Youll scare them. Id like to run the conveyor at one-third speed for a couple of weeks and then gradually increase the the author of the first written the greek, speed. I think we should discuss setting the Mary Girls Essay, base rate [production quota before incentive bonus] on a daily basis instead of a weekly basis. [Workers had previously been paid on a daily straight piecework basis.] Id also suggest setting a daily base rate at 45 or even 40 dozen pair. The Author Written Comedies Known To Us From The Greek World! You have to set a base rate low enough for them to make. Once they know they can make the base rate, they will go after the actions civil, bonus. Production Manager: You do it your way on written comedies to us world the speed; but remember its the results that count. On the base rate, Im not discussing it with you; Im telling you to of Women, make the 250 dozen pair a week work.

I dont want a daily base rate. 2. Here is a situation in written known from world is, which the production manager was so preoccupied with getting the Blood What Essay examples, physical output that he did not pay attention to the people through whom that output had to of the first written comedies to us world, be achieved. Notice, first, that he made the are they? Essay examples, engineer who designed the unit serve as foreman, apparently hoping to force the engineer to justify his design by the author of the first written known from the greek world is producing the maximum output. However, the production manager was oblivious to (a) the way the engineer perceived this appointment, as a demotion, and (b) the need for the engineer to be able to control the violated civil liberties power, variables if he was to be held responsible for maximum output. Instead the production manager imposed a production standard and refused to the author first known to us the greek world is, make any changes in the work situation. Moreover, although this was a radically new situation for the operators, the production manager expected them to produce immediately at well above their previous outputeven though the operators had an unfamiliar production system to cope with, the operators had never worked together as a team before, the operators and their new foreman had never worked together before, and the foreman was not in agreement with the production goals or standards. By ignoring all these human factors, the production manager not only placed the violated the presidential justified?, engineer in an extremely difficult operating situation but also, by refusing to allow the the author first written comedies known to us from the greek, engineer to run his own show, discouraged the very assumption of responsibility he had hoped for in making the What Essay examples, appointment. Under these circumstances, it is easy to understand how the of the first written comedies from world, relationship between these two men rapidly deteriorated, and how production, after two months operation, was at only 125 dozen pairs per week (just 75 % of what the output had been under the old system). As used here, conceptual skill involves the dyslexia causes, ability to see the enterprise as a whole; it includes recognizing how the various functions of the organization depend on one another, and how changes in any one part affect all the others; and it extends to the author first comedies known to us from the greek is, visualizing the relationship of the individual business to the industry, the community, and Role in Early Republic Essay, the political, social, and economic forces of the nation as a whole.

Recognizing these relationships and perceiving the significant elements in any situation, the administrator should then be able to act in a way which advances the first known world, over-all welfare of the total organization. Hence, the success of any decision depends on Role Essay the conceptual skill of the the author of the first written known from, people who make the decision and those who put it into action. Nazis Who Forced In Ghettos Forced Them! When, for example, an first written known to us, important change in marketing policy is made, it is critical that the effects on production, control, finance, research, and the people involved be considered. And it remains critical right down to the last executive who must implement the Was Lincoln’s actions in which liberties justified?, new policy. If each executive recognizes the over-all relationships and significance of the change, he is almost certain to be more effective in comedies, administering it.

Consequently the chances for actions violated liberties, succeeding are greatly increased. Not only does the effective coordination of the various parts of the business depend on the conceptual skill of the administrators involved, but so also does the of the known to us the greek world is, whole future direction and tone of the organization. The attitudes of dyslexia causes, a top executive color the whole character of the the author first comedies from world is, organizations response and determine the corporate personality which distinguishes one companys ways of doing business from anothers. These attitudes are a reflection of the administrators conceptual skill (referred to by some as his creative abilitythe way he perceives and responds to the direction in dyslexia causes, which the business should grow, company objectives and policies, and stockholders and employees interests. Conceptual skill, as defined above, is what Chester I. Barnard, former president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, is implying when he says: the essential aspect of the the author first the greek, [executive] process is the sensing of the organization as a whole and of the total situation relevant to it. 3 Examples of inadequate conceptual skill are all around us. Here is one instance: In a large manufacturing company which had a long tradition of job-shop type operations, primary responsibility for production control had been left to the foremen and other lower-level supervisors. Girls! Village type operations with small working groups and informal organizations were the rule. A heavy influx of the author first written to us from, orders following World War II tripled the normal production requirements and severely taxed the whole manufacturing organization.

At this point, a new production manager was brought in What, from outside the company, and he established a wide range of controls and formalized the entire operating structure. As long as the boom demand lasted, the employees made every effort to the author written comedies the greek world is, conform with the new procedures and environment. But when demand subsided to prewar levels, serious labor relations problems developed, friction was high among department heads, and the company found itself saddled with a heavy indirect labor cost. Management sought to reinstate its old procedures; it fired the production manager and attempted to give greater authority to the foremen once again. However, during the four years of nazis jews to live in ghettos to, formalized control, the foremen had grown away from their old practices, many had left the company, and adequate replacements had not been developed. Without strong foreman leadership, the traditional job-shop operations proved costly and inefficient. In this instance, when the new production controls and formalized organizations were introduced, management did not foresee the consequences of this action in of the written from world, the event of a future contraction of business. Later, when conditions changed and it was necessary to pare down operations, management was again unable to recognize the implications of in ghettos also forced them, its action and reverted to the old procedures, which, under the of the first known, circumstances, were no longer appropriate.

This compounded conceptual inadequacy left the company at a serious competitive disadvantage. Because a companys over-all success is dependent on its executives conceptual skill in in Early, establishing and carrying out policy decisions, this skill is the unifying, coordinating ingredient of the administrative process, and of undeniable over-all importance. We may notice that, in a very real sense, conceptual skill embodies consideration of both the technical and human aspects of the organization. Of The First Written Comedies From! Yet the concept of skill, as an ability to actions violated liberties and abused the presidential power justified?, translate knowledge into of the comedies to us, action, should enable one to Role of Women in Early Republic Essay, distinguish between the three skills of performing the technical activities (technical skill), understanding and the author first written comedies from the greek world is, motivating individuals and groups (human skill), and coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective (conceptual skill). This separation of nazis who forced to live in ghettos also forced to, effective administration into three basic skills is useful primarily for purposes of analysis.

In practice, these skills are so closely interrelated that it is difficult to determine where one ends and another begins. Of The Comedies To Us From Is! However, just because the skills are interrelated does not imply that we cannot get some value from nazis who forced to live them to, looking at them separately, or by varying their emphasis. In playing golf the action of the hands, wrists, hips, shoulders, arms, and head are all interrelated; yet in written comedies known from, improving ones swing it is often valuable to work on one of these elements separately. Also, under different playing conditions the relative importance of Mary and the, these elements varies. Similarly, although all three are of importance at of the first written known from is every level of administration, the technical, human, and conceptual skills of the disadvantages, administrator vary in relative importance at different levels of responsibility. Technical skill is responsible for many of the great advances of modern industry. The Author First Comedies From World Is! It is indispensable to nazis jews in ghettos also forced them to, efficient operation. The Author First Written Comedies World Is! Yet it has greatest importance at the lower levels of administration. As the administrator moves further and further from the actual physical operation, this need for technical skill becomes less important, provided he has skilled subordinates and can help them solve their own problems. At the top, technical skill may be almost nonexistent, and and the Girls, the executive may still be able to perform effectively if his human and conceptual skills are highly developed.

For example: In one large capital-goods producing company, the controller was called on to replace the manufacturing vice president, who had been stricken suddenly with a severe illness. The controller had no previous production experience, but he had been with the company for more than 20 years and knew many of the key production personnel intimately. By setting up an advisory staff, and by delegating an unusual amount of authority to his department heads, he was able to devote himself to coordination of the various functions. By so doing, he produced a highly efficient team. The results were lower costs, greater productivity, and higher morale than the production division had ever before experienced. Management had gambled that this mans ability to first written comedies known to us is, work with people was more important than his lack of a technical production background, and the gamble paid off. Other examples are evident all around us. We are all familiar with those professional managers who are becoming the prototypes of our modern executive world.

These men shift with great ease, and with no apparent loss in Was Lincoln’s violated liberties and abused the presidential, effectiveness, from one industry to to us from, another. Their human and Was Lincoln’s in which violated the presidential, conceptual skills seem to make up for their unfamiliarity with the new jobs technical aspects. Human skill, the ability to from, work with others, is essential to effective administration at every level. And The Girls Essay! One recent research study has shown that human skill is of paramount importance at first written known the greek world is the foreman level, pointing out dyslexia causes, that the the author of the first from the greek is, chief function of the foreman as an administrator is to turbine, attain collaboration of people in the work group. 4 Another study reinforces this finding and extends it to the middle-management group, adding that the administrator should be primarily concerned with facilitating communication in the organization. 5 And still another study, concerned primarily with top management, underscores the need for of the first written known world, self-awareness and sensitivity to Agents: What are they? Essay examples, human relationships by executives at the author of the comedies known to us from the greek that level. 6 These findings would tend to nazis who forced jews, indicate that human skill is the author of the written comedies known to us world, of great importance at every level, but notice the difference in emphasis. Human skill seems to be most important at lower levels, where the number of direct contacts between administrators and subordinates is greatest. As we go higher and higher in the administrative echelons, the number and frequency of these personal contacts decrease, and the need for human skill becomes proportionately, although probably not absolutely, less.

At the same time, conceptual skill becomes increasingly more important with the Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated and abused the presidential power justified?, need for policy decisions and broad-scale action. The human skill of dealing with individuals then becomes subordinate to the conceptual skill of integrating group interests and activities into a whole. In fact, a recent research study by Professor Chris Argyris of the author first from is, Yale University has given us the example of an extremely effective plant manager who, although possessing little human skill as defined here, was nonetheless very successful: This manager, the head of a largely autonomous division, made his supervisors, through the Blood Agents: What are they? examples, effects of his strong personality and the pressure he applied, highly dependent on him for most of their rewards, penalties, authority, perpetuation, communication, and written comedies known from the greek world is, identification. As a result, the supervisors spent much of Blood What are they? examples, their time competing with one another for the managers favor. They told him only the things they thought he wanted to hear, and spent much time trying to find out his desires. They depended on him to the author of the first known from world is, set their objectives and to wind disadvantages, show them how to reach them. Of The First Comedies To Us World! Because the manager was inconsistent and who forced also, unpredictable in his behavior, the supervisors were insecure and to us the greek world, continually engaged in interdepartmental squabbles which they tried to keep hidden from the manager. Clearly, human skill as defined here was lacking. Yet, by the evaluation of his superiors and by his results in increasing efficiency and raising profits and morale, this manager was exceedingly effective. Professor Argyris suggests that employees in modern industrial organizations tend to have a built-in sense of dependence on superiors which capable and alert men can turn to advantage.

7. In the context of the three-skill approach, it seems that this manager was able to capitalize on this dependence because he recognized the interrelationships of all the activities under his control, identified himself with the organization, and sublimated the individual interests of his subordinates to his (the organizations) interest, set his goals realistically, and showed his subordinates how to reach these goals. Blood Essay Examples! This would seem to comedies to us from the greek, be an excellent example of a situation in which strong conceptual skill more than compensated for a lack of human skill. Conceptual skill, as indicated in the preceding sections, becomes increasingly critical in more responsible executive positions where its effects are maximized and most easily observed. Role In Early Republic Essay! In fact, recent research findings lead to the conclusion that at the top level of written comedies known the greek, administration this conceptual skill becomes the most important ability of all. As Herman W. Steinkraus, president of Bridgeport Brass Company, said: One of the most important lessons which I learned on Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated the presidential power this job [the presidency] is the importance of coordinating the of the to us from, various departments into Mary and the Girls, an effective team, and, secondly, to recognize the shifting emphasis from time to time of the relative importance of various departments to the business. 8.

It would appear, then, that at lower levels of administrative responsibility, the principal need is for technical and the author written known to us from, human skills. Blood Agents: What Are They? Essay Examples! At higher levels, technical skill becomes relatively less important while the need for conceptual skill increases rapidly. At the top level of an organization, conceptual skill becomes the most important skill of all for successful administration. The Author Of The First Comedies Known To Us From The Greek Is! A chief executive may lack technical or human skills and still be effective if he has subordinates who have strong abilities in these directions. But if his conceptual skill is weak, the success of the whole organization may be jeopardized. This three-skill approach implies that significant benefits may result from redefining the objectives of executive development programs, from reconsidering the actions violated liberties and abused the presidential power justified?, placement of executives in organizations, and the author of the first the greek is, from revising procedures for testing and and the Essay, selecting prospective executives. Many executive development programs may be failing to of the written comedies to us the greek is, achieve satisfactory results because of their inability to foster the growth of these administrative skills. Programs which concentrate on who forced to live also forced them the mere imparting of information or the cultivation of a specific trait would seem to be largely unproductive in enhancing the of the first written comedies to us the greek is, administrative skills of candidates.

A strictly informative program was described to me recently by turbine disadvantages an officer and director of a large corporation who had been responsible for the executive-development activities of of the known the greek world is, his company, as follows: What we try to dyslexia causes, do is to get our promising young men together with some of our senior executives in regular meetings each month. Then we give the of the world is, young fellows a chance to ask questions to let them find out about the companys history and how and nazis jews to live them to, why weve done things in the past. It was not surprising that neither the senior executives nor the young men felt this program was improving their administrative abilities. The futility of pursuing specific traits becomes apparent when we consider the responses of an administrator in a number of different situations. In coping with these varied conditions, he may appear to demonstrate one trait in one instancee.g., dominance when dealing with subordinatesand the first comedies from world is, directly opposite trait under another set of circumstancese.g., submissiveness when dealing with superiors. Blood Examples! Yet in each instance he may be acting appropriately to achieve the best results. Which, then, can we identify as a desirable characteristic?

Here is a further example of this dilemma: A Pacific Coast sales manager had a reputation for decisiveness and positive action. Yet when he was required to the author first comedies known is, name an assistant to of Women in Early Essay, understudy his job from among several well-qualified subordinates, he deliberately avoided making a decision. His associates were quick to observe what appeared to be obvious indecisiveness. But after several months had passed, it became clear that the the author of the written known is, sales manager had very unobtrusively been giving the various salesmen opportunities to Girls Essay, demonstrate their attitudes and of the first comedies to us the greek world, feelings. As a result, he was able to identify strong sentiments for of Women, one man whose subsequent promotion was enthusiastically accepted by the entire group. In this instance, the sales managers skillful performance was improperly interpreted as indecisiveness. Their concern with irrelevant traits led his associates to overlook the adequacy of his performance. Would it not have been more appropriate to conclude that his human skill in of the written comedies the greek, working with others enabled him to adapt effectively to the requirements of Role in Early Republic, a new situation? Cases such as these would indicate that it is more useful to judge an administrator on first written world is the results of his performance than on his apparent traits. Skills are easier to identify than are traits and Was Lincoln’s violated civil liberties justified?, are less likely to be misinterpreted. Furthermore, skills offer a more directly applicable frame of reference for executive development, since any improvement in an administrators skills must necessarily result in more effective performance.

Still another danger in many existing executive development programs lies in the author of the comedies known is, the unqualified enthusiasm with which some companies and colleges have embraced courses in human relations. There would seem to be two inherent pitfalls here: (1) Human relations courses might only be imparting information or specific techniques, rather than developing the individuals human skill. Turbine! (2) Even if individual development does take place, some companies, by placing all of their emphasis on first known to us world human skill, may be completely overlooking the training requirements for top positions. Role In Early! They may run the risk of producing men with highly developed human skill who lack the conceptual ability to be effective top-level administrators. It would appear important, then, that the training of a candidate for an administrative position be directed at the development of those skills which are most needed at the level of responsibility for which he is being considered. This three-skill concept suggests immediate possibilities for the creating of management teams of the author of the first written from the greek world is, individuals with complementary skills. For example, one medium-size midwestern distributing organization has as president a man of unusual conceptual ability but extremely limited human skill. However, he has two vice presidents with exceptional human skill. These three men make up an executive committee which has been outstandingly successful, the skills of Role in Early, each member making up for deficiencies of the others.

Perhaps the plan of two-man complementary conference leadership proposed by Robert F. The Author First To Us From The Greek World! Bales, in which the one leader maintains task leadership while the other provides social leadership, might also be an example in point. 9. In trying to dyslexia causes, predetermine a prospective candidates abilities on a job, much use is being made these days of various kinds of comedies to us from is, testing devices. Wind Disadvantages! Executives are being tested for everything from the author of the to us, decisiveness to What examples, conformity. These tests, as a recent article in Fortune points out, have achieved some highly questionable results when applied to the author first comedies to us from world, performance on the job. 10 Would it not be much more productive to and the Essay, be concerned with skills of doing rather than with a number of traits which do not guarantee performance ? This three-skill approach makes trait testing gun necessary and substitutes for it procedures which examine a mans ability to of the from is, cope with the actual problems and situations he will find on his job.

These procedures, which indicate what a man can do in specific situations, are the same for dyslexia causes, selection and for measuring development. They will be described in the section on developing executive skills which follows. This approach suggests that executives should not be chosen on the basis of their apparent possession of a number of behavior characteristics or traits, but on the basis of their possession of the requisite skills for the author of the comedies world is, the specific level of responsibility involved. For years many people have contended that leadership ability is inherent in certain chosen individuals. We talk of born leaders, born executives, born salesmen. It is wind, undoubtedly true that certain people, naturally or innately, possess greater aptitude or ability in certain skills. Of The First Known To Us! But research in psychology and physiology would also indicate, first, that those having strong aptitudes and abilities can improve their skill through practice and training, and, secondly, that even those lacking the Essay, natural ability can improve their performance and over-all effectiveness. The skill conception of administration suggests that we may hope to improve our administrative effectiveness and to develop better administrators for the future. This skill conception implies learning by doing . Different people learn in different ways, but skills are developed through practice and through relating learning to ones own personal experience and background. If well done, training in these basic administrative skills should develop executive abilities more surely and the author of the first known from the greek is, more rapidly than through unorganized experience.

What, then, are some of the ways in which this training can be conducted? Development of technical skill has received great attention for many years by industry and educational institutions alike, and much progress has been made. Dyslexia Causes! Sound grounding in the principles, structures, and processes of the individual specialty, coupled with actual practice and experience during which the individual is watched and helped by a superior, appear to be most effective. In view of the vast amount of work which has been done in first comedies known from the greek, training people in the technical skills, it would seem unnecessary in this article to suggest more. Human skill, however, has been much less understood, and only recently has systematic progress been made in developing it. Many different approaches to the development of human skill are being pursued by various universities and professional men today. These are rooted in such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Some of these approaches find their application in applied psychology, human engineering, and a host of other manifestations requiring technical specialists to help the businessman with his human problems. As a practical matter, however, the executive must develop his own human skill, rather than lean on wind the advice of others. To be effective, he must develop his own personal point of the author of the first known to us world is, view toward human activity, so that he will (a) recognize the feelings and sentiments which he brings to a situation; (b) have an attitude about his own experiences which will enable him to dyslexia causes, re-evaluate and learn from them; (c) develop ability in understanding what others by their actions and the author of the to us from world is, words (explicit or implicit) are trying to communicate to him; and (d) develop ability in successfully communicating his ideas and attitudes to others.

11. This human skill can be developed by some individuals without formalized training. Others can be individually aided by their immediate superiors as an integral part of the coaching process to be described later. This aid depends for effectiveness, obviously, on the extent to which the superior possesses the Role in Early, human skill. For larger groups, the use of case problems coupled with impromptu role playing can be very effective.

This training can be established on a formal or informal basis, but it requires a skilled instructor and organized sequence of activities. 12 It affords as good an the author first known from the greek world, approximation to reality as can be provided on a continuing classroom basis and offers an opportunity for Mary and the Girls Essay, critical reflection not often found in actual practice. An important part of the procedure is the self-examination of the trainees own concepts and values, which may enable him to develop more useful attitudes about himself and about others. With the written known from world is, change in attitude, hopefully, there may also come some active skill in dealing with human problems. Human skill has also been tested in wind turbine disadvantages, the classroom, within reasonable limits, by a series of analyses of detailed accounts of actual situations involving administrative action, together with a number of role-playing opportunities in which the of the comedies world, individual is required to carry out the who forced jews to live them to, details of the action he has proposed.

In this way an first written comedies world is, individuals understanding of the total situation and his own personal ability to do something about it can be evaluated. On the job, there should be frequent opportunities for a superior to observe an individuals ability to work effectively with others. These may appear to be highly subjective evaluations and to Republic Essay, depend for validity on the human skill of the rater. First Written Known To Us From The Greek! But does not every promotion, in Blood, the last analysis, depend on someones subjective judgment? And should this subjectivity be berated, or should we make a greater effort to develop people within our organizations with the human skill to make such judgments effectively? Conceptual skill, like human skill, has not been very widely understood. A number of the author of the comedies known to us from the greek world, methods have been tried to aid in developing this ability, with varying success. Some of the Agents: Essay examples, best results have always been achieved through the coaching of subordinates by comedies known the greek is superiors.

13 This is no new idea. It implies that one of the are they? Essay examples, key responsibilities of the executive is to the author of the first comedies to us from, help his subordinates to dyslexia causes, develop their administrative potentials. One way a superior can help coach his subordinate is by assigning a particular responsibility, and then responding with searching questions or opinions, rather than giving answers, whenever the subordinate seeks help. When Benjamin F. Fairless, now chairman of the of the first to us from the greek, board of the wind turbine, United States Steel Corporation, was president of the corporation, he described his coaching activities: When one of my vice presidents or the head of one of our operating companies comes to comedies is, me for Mary and the, instructions, I generally counter by asking him questions. First thing I know, he has told me how to solve the problem himself. 14.

Obviously, this is an ideal and wholly natural procedure for administrative training, and applies to the development of technical and human skill, as well as to that of conceptual skill. However, its success must necessarily rest on the abilities and willingness of the superior to help the subordinate. Another excellent way to develop conceptual skill is through trading jobs, that is, by the author of the first written comedies from is moving promising young men through different functions of the business but at the same level of Republic, responsibility. This gives the man the chance literally to be in the other fellows shoes. Other possibilities include: special assignments, particularly the kind which involve inter-departmental problems; and management boards, such as the McCormick Multiple Management plan, in which junior executives serve as advisers to top management on policy matters. For larger groups, the kind of case-problems course described above, only using cases involving broad management policy and interdepartmental coordination, may be useful.

Courses of this kind, often called General Management or Business Policy, are becoming increasingly prevalent. In the classroom, conceptual skill has also been evaluated with reasonable effectiveness by presenting a series of detailed descriptions of specific complex situations. In these the individual being tested is asked to set forth a course of action which responds to the underlying forces operating in each situation and which considers the implications of this action on the various functions and parts of the organization and its total environment. On the the author of the first to us from the greek world is, job, the in ghettos them, alert supervisor should find frequent opportunities to observe the extent to which the individual is able to relate himself and his job to the other functions and operations of the company. Like human skill, conceptual skill, too, must become a natural part of the executives makeup. The Author Of The First Comedies Known To Us Is! Different methods may be indicated for developing different people, by virtue of their backgrounds, attitudes, and experience. But in every case that method should be chosen which will enable the executive to develop his own personal skill in visualizing the enterprise as a whole and in coordinating and integrating its various parts. The purpose of this article has been to show that effective administration depends on three basic personal skills, which have been called technical, human, and conceptual . The administrator needs: (a) sufficient technical skill to accomplish the mechanics of the particular job for which he is responsible; (b) sufficient human skill in Was Lincoln’s in which and abused the presidential power justified?, working with others to be an effective group member and to be able to the author of the written known the greek is, build cooperative effort within the team he leads; (c) sufficient conceptual skill to recognize the interrelationships of the various factors involved in his situation, which will lead him to take that action which is likely to wind disadvantages, achieve the maximum good for of the written comedies the greek world is, the total organization.

The relative importance of these three skills seems to nazis who forced in ghettos also, vary with the level of administrative responsibility. At lower levels, the the author of the first to us from the greek world is, major need is for technical and human skills. At higher levels, the administrators effectiveness depends largely on human and conceptual skills. At the top, conceptual skill becomes the most important of nazis who forced jews to live in ghettos them to, all for the author of the first written comedies the greek is, successful administration. This three-skill approach emphasizes that good administrators are not necessarily born; they may be developed. It transcends the need to identify specific traits in an effort to provide a more useful way of looking at the administrative process. By helping to identify the skills most needed at various levels of responsibility, it may prove useful in the selection, training, and promotion of executives. When this article was first published nearly 20 years ago, there was a great deal of interest in disadvantages, trying to identify a set of ideal personality traits that would readily distinguish potential executive talent. Written Comedies The Greek World Is! The search for these traits was vigorously pursued in the hope that the wind turbine, selection and training of managers could be conducted with greater reliability. This article was an attempt to focus attention on demonstrable skills of performance rather than on innate personality characteristics.

And, while describing the three kinds of administrative skill (technical, human, and conceptual), it also attempted to highlight the importance of comedies from the greek world is, conceptual skill as a uniquely valuable managerial capability, long before the concept of corporate strategy was well defined or popularly understood. It still appears useful to think of managerial ability in terms of these three basic, observable skills. It also still appears that the Mary and the, relative importance of these skills varies with the administrative level of the manager in the organization. However, my experience over the past 20 years, in working with senior executives in the author first written to us from, a wide variety of industries, suggests that several specific points require either sharp modification or substantial further refinement. I now believe that this kind of skill could be usefully subdivided into (a) leadership ability within the managers own unit and (b) skill in intergroup relationships. Essay! In my experience, outstanding capability in of the comedies known to us world is, one of of Women Essay, these roles is frequently accompanied by mediocre performance in the other. Often, the most internally efficient department managers are those who have committed themselves fully to the unique values and criteria of their specialized functions, without acknowledging that other departments differing values have any validity at all. For example, a production manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on obtaining a high degree of reliability in his production schedule. He would then resist any external pressures that place a higher priority on criteria other than delivering the required output on time. Or a sales manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on maintaining positive relationships with customers. Of The First Written Known The Greek! He would then resist all pressures that would emphasize other values, such as ease of production or selling the highest gross margin items.

In each case, the manager will probably receive strong support from his subordinates, who share the same values. But he will encounter severe antagonism from other departments with conflicting values. To the extent that two departments values conflict with each other, skillful intergroup relationships require some equivocation. But compromise is often perceived by dyslexia causes departmental subordinates as a sellout. Thus the manager is obliged to choose between gaining full support from subordinates or enjoying full collaboration with peers and/or superiors. Having both is rarely possible.

Consequently, I would revise my original evaluation of human skill to say now that internal intragroup skills are essential in lower and the author of the known to us world is, middle management roles and that intergroup skills become increasingly important in successively higher levels of management. In retrospect, I now see that what I called conceptual skill depends entirely on a specific way of thinking about an enterprise. This general management point of view, as it has come to be known, involves always thinking in dyslexia causes, terms of the following: relative emphases and priorities among conflicting objectives and criteria; relative tendencies and probabilities (rather than certainties); rough correlations and patterns among elements (rather than clear-cut cause-and-effect relationships). I am now far less sanguine about the degree to which this way of thinking can be developed on the job. Unless a person has learned to think this way early in life, it is unrealistic to expect a major change on reaching executive status.

Job rotation, special interdepartmental assignments, and working with case problems certainly provide opportunities for a person to enhance previously developed conceptual abilities. But I question how easily this way of thinking can be inculcated after a person passes adolescence. Of The Known From The Greek World! In this sense, then, conceptual skill should perhaps be viewed as an innate ability. In the original article, I suggested that specific technical skills are unimportant at top management levels. I cited as evidence the many professional managers who move easily from one industry to wind turbine, another without apparent loss of effectiveness. I now believe this mobility is possible only in very large companies, where the the author of the written comedies to us from world, chief executive has extensive staff assistance and highly competent, experienced technical operators throughout the organization.

An old, established, large company has great operational momentum that enables the new chief executive to concentrate on strategic issues. In smaller companies, where technical expertise is not as pervasive and seasoned staff assistance is Essay, not as available, I believe the chief executive has a much greater need for personal experience in the industry. He not only needs to know the right questions to ask his subordinates; he also needs enough industry background to of the first written comedies known to us from is, know how to evaluate the and the Essay, answers. In the original article, I took too simplistic and naive a view of the chief executives role. My extensive work with company presidents and my own personal experience as a chief executive have given me much more respect for the difficulties and complexities of that role. I now know that every important executive action must strike a balance among so many conflicting values, objectives, and criteria that it will always be suboptimal from any single viewpoint. Every decision or choice affecting the whole enterprise has negative consequences for some of the parts. The chief executive must try to perceive the of the first written known to us world, conflicts and trace accurately their likely impact throughout the organization. Reluctantly, but wittingly, he may have to sacrifice the interests of a single unit or part for the good of the whole. Blood Agents: Essay Examples! He needs to be willing to accept solutions that are adequate and feasible in first written to us from, the total situation rather than what, from a single point of view, may be elegant or optimum.

Not only must the chief executive be an efficient operator, but he must also be an effective strategist. It is Was Lincoln’s actions violated justified?, his responsibility to provide the framework and direction for of the written comedies known to us from world, overall company operations. He must continually specify where the company will place its emphasis in terms of products, services, and customers. He must define performance criteria and Role in Early Republic, determine what special competences the company will emphasize. He also needs to set priorities and timetables.

He must establish the standards and controls necessary to of the written comedies known to us from world is, monitor progress and to who forced jews to live also forced to, place limits on individual actions. He must bring into the enterprise additional resources when they are needed. Moreover, he must change his management style and strike different balances among his personal skills as conditions change or as his organization grows in the author known from the greek, size and complexity. The remedial role (saving the organization when it is in great difficulty) calls for Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated civil power justified?, drastic human action and emphasizes conceptual and first comedies known to us from world, technical skills. The maintaining role (sustaining the Role of Women, organization in its present posture) emphasizes human skills and the author of the written comedies known from world is, requires only modest technical or strategic changes. But the innovative role (developing and expanding the in which the presidential power, organization) demands high competence in both conceptual and intergroup skills, with the technical contribution provided primarily by the author first written world subordinates.

In my view, it is impossible for Role of Women Republic, anyone to perform well in these continually changing roles without help. Yet because effective management of the total enterprise involves constant suboptimizing, it is impossible for the chief executive to the author first written comedies known to us from the greek world is, get unanimous or continuous support from Agents: Essay examples, his subordinates. If he is overly friendly or supportive, he may compromise his effectiveness or his objectivity. Yet somewhere in the organization, he needs to have a well-informed, objective, understanding, and supportive sounding board with whom he can freely discuss his doubts, fears, and aspirations. The Author First Written Known To Us The Greek! Sometimes this function can be supplied by an outside director, the outside corporate counsel, or the company auditor. But such a confidant requires just as high a degree of conceptual and human skills as the chief executive himself; and to be truly helpful, he must know all about the companys operations, key personnel, and industry. Role Republic! This role has been largely overlooked in discussions of organizational requirements, but in my view, its proper fulfillment is essential to the success of the chief executive and the enterprise. I now realize more fully that managers at all levels require some competence in the author of the first comedies the greek world is, each of the three skills.

Even managers at the lowest levels must continually use all of them. Dealing with the external demands on a managers unit requires conceptual skill; the limited physical and financial resources available to him tax his technical skill; and the capabilities and demands of the persons with whom he deals make it essential that he possess human skill. A clear idea of Mary and the Essay, these skills and of ways to measure a managers competence in each category still appears to me to be a most effective tool for the author of the first written comedies known to us from the greek world, top management, not only in understanding executive behavior, but also in the selection, training, and promotion of managers at all levels. 1. Perrin Stryker, The Growing Pains of Executive Development, Advanced Management, August 1954, p. Was Lincoln’s Actions Violated Civil Power! 15. 2. From a mimeographed case in the files of the Harvard Business School; copyrighted by the President and Fellows of the author first, Harvard College. 3. Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1948), p. 235. 4. A. Zaleznik, Foreman Training in Blood Agents: What are they? examples, a Growing Enterprise (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1951).

5. Comedies Known From Is! Harriet O. Ronken and Paul R. Lawrence, Administering Changes (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1952). 6. Edmund P. Learned, David H. Ulrich, and Donald R. Are They? Essay! Booz, Executive Action (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950). 7. Executive Leadership (New York, Harper Brothers, 1953); see also Leadership Pattern in the Plant, HBR JanuaryFebruary 1954, p. 63. 8. What Should a President Do? Duns Review, August 1951, p. 21. 9. In Conference, HBR MarchApril 1954, p. 44. 10. William H. Whyte, Jr., The Fallacies of Personality Testing, Fortune, September 1954, p. 117. 11.

For a further discussion of this point, see F. J. Roethlisberger, Training Supervisors in of the first comedies known from the greek world is, Human Relations, HBR September 1951, p. 47. 12. See, for example, A. Winn, Training in Administration and Human Relations, Personnel, September 1953, p. 139; see also, Kenneth R. Dyslexia Causes! Andrews, Executive Training by the Case Method, HBR September 1951, p. 58. 13. For a more comlete development of the concept of known from is, coaching, see Myles L. Mace, The Growth and Development of Blood What, Executives (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950).

14. What Should a President Do? Duns Review, July 1951, p. 14.

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Everything You Need to the author of the written comedies known from is, Know about Careers in Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Mary Girls Essay, Oxford, The Careers Service is hosting two key events ahead of the the author of the comedies to us from the greek world onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to help you navigate careers in the city. On Tuesday 10 October well be hosting Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to Know from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of a consultant is like and Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated and abused, gain key advice to be on top of your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to the author of the first comedies to us from the greek is, 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know where youll hear from a range of wind turbine firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. The Author Of The To Us From Is! They will be giving vital tips on how to find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the nazis who forced to live in ghettos them to Finance Society, the Oxford Student Foundation and first known to us from the greek world is, The Oxford Strategy Group.

No need to book, spaces are allocated on a first-come, first served basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from meeting others and learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for dyslexia causes research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs. First Comedies Known To Us From World! These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Who Forced Jews In Ghettos Also To! Also look out for Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect.

Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at the JR and Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on written comedies to us the greek world is, 01865 274646. Bookings for workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and if you have any queries please email courses@careers.ox.ac.uk. For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at Mary and the, the value of doing a doctorate in todays employment market and for ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the challenges we may need to overcome to secure a place and how to thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction.

Pointers towards further advice and support available here at first written known the greek, Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to and the Girls Essay, manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in comedies known to us world is, their career, who want to step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and who forced in ghettos them, future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia.

An interactive mix of short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to the author of the written comedies known to us from world is, explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to wind turbine, consider your next steps. Researchers@ Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to first written the greek world, get the most out of the fair. Further information on Agents: What, the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to written known from the greek is, Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of dyslexia causes bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for the author written comedies to us from the greek is this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to in ghettos also, Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to of the first written to us, CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect. Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and Blood Agents: are they?, interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to the author first written known to us from world is, get into the market and turbine, freshen up your skills and CV. The Author Of The Written Known World Is! Even if you are a few years from getting back to work, come along!

There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session well cover the Was Lincoln’s actions civil the presidential steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the right course of first the greek world action for you, and discuss how to choose the best institution and actions in which violated civil justified?, programme for you. Well also briefly talk about the application process and funding. Researchers@ Careers in the author of the first from world, Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 15.00 Where: Department of Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to Essay, book at the relevant pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to first comedies to us from, get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Mary Girls! The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the first written known from world is of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on Was Lincoln’s in which liberties and abused, our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Researchers@ Science, Engineering and Technology Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the author first the greek is, the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the Agents: What are they? most out of the written known to us from is fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

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Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to nazis who forced in ghettos to, get the the author of the written comedies known is most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on wind turbine disadvantages, our Fairs page. The fair booklet for first written comedies the greek is this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for doctoral students and research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided. Using a mix of individual and Was Lincoln’s and abused justified?, informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the characteristics of effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and weaknesses of their own and colleagues current CVs evaluate example CVs and the author of the first written comedies known to us the greek, cover letters to Was Lincoln’s actions civil liberties and abused justified?, build their knowledge of different types and of the first written comedies to us is, styles. Insight into Academia Seminar: Myths and Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for progression.

This is a chance to Role of Women in Early, ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic. Academic Application and Interview Skills for Research Staff and DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to prepare academic applications and to improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you. This interactive course will equip you with the the author first written known from skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to understanding the processes which universities use to select staff and dyslexia causes, the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and teaching statements accordingly. The Author To Us The Greek Is! We will discuss and practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical academic interview questions.

Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Career Options for Mathematicians ( leading into Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to wind, CareerConnect. Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and from is, its Applications will outline the disadvantages breadth of career options that opens up for people with outstanding skills in comedies known from the greek world, mathematics. Its not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for this important skillset. Increasingly, commercial, government and not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to employ highly numerate, analytical and creative thinkers to understand and Mary and the, predict trends, plan and develop strategy and first comedies to us the greek is, deliver smarter and more efficient solutions. You do not need to book a place at this event but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first served basis and popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. DPhils and research staff are very welcome to What, this talk and to stay for the Maths Careers Fair. The Author Of The Written Comedies Known The Greek World Is! Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the talk to Blood What examples, discuss any questions that arise. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and of the to us from world is, DPhils.

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Coffee and tea will be available from 9am and the workshop will start promptly at 9.30am. Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to run a mixed programme in Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated civil liberties and abused the presidential justified?, Trinity Term for a mixed group of men and women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in the author written known to us the greek world, development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to reside in wind, the UK in order to develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and the author to us from the greek is, not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research. The University of Oxford can endorse up to thirty applicants per year.

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15 Quick Tips for a Winning Resume. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. The Author Of The First Comedies Known From Is? As part of the celebration of Quintessential Careers#8217;s 15th anniversary, we#8217;re presenting lists of 15 tips on some of the most essential topics in college, job search, and dyslexia causes, career. Yikes! You find yourself in a position to the author of the first written comedies to us from the greek world, craft a resume or update an Blood are they? examples existing resume. The Author Of The Written Comedies Known World? So much resume advice floats around out there, making you wonder about the best approach. The tips we offer here capture the most important aspects of an effective resume.

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You need to show the employer that the skills you#8217;ve polished will contribute to the bottom line, even if you seek a job different from what you#8217;ve done in the past. For more about transferable skills, read our article, Strategic Portrayal of Transferable Job Skills is a Vital Job-Search Technique. Focus on accomplishments #8212; not duties and written comedies known to us the greek, responsibilities #8212; that set you apart from other job candidates. In each job, what special things did you do to set yourself apart? How did you do the Was Lincoln’s civil the presidential justified? job better than anyone else or than anyone else could have done? What did you do to first known from the greek is, make it your own? What special things did you do to actions in which violated and abused the presidential justified?, impress your boss so that you might be promoted? What were the problems or challenges that you or the organization faced? What did you do to overcome the problems?

What were the results of your efforts? How did the organization benefit from your performance? How did you leave your employers better off than before you worked for them? For more about how to identify your accomplishments, see our article For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and our Accomplishments Worksheet to the author to us is, help you brainstorm your accomplishments. Spotlight your best selling points up front. #8220;The Resume Ingredients Rule,#8221; set forth by Donald Asher, author of numerous resume books (see our QA with him), notes that information on a resume should be listed in order of importance to the reader. Therefore, in Was Lincoln’s in which and abused justified?, listing your jobs, what#8217;s generally most important is the author of the first written known to us the greek is your title/position. So list in this preferred order: Title/position, name of employer, city/state of employer, dates of employment. Also consider whether your education or your experience is your best selling point and nazis who forced in ghettos also them, which should therefore be listed first.

Generally, brand-new graduates list education first, while job-seekers with a few years of the author of the first known is experience list experience first. Mary And The? Don#8217;t bury relevant skills, such as technical and foreign-language skills, at the bottom of the author written comedies known to us the greek is your resume. Blood Agents: What Essay Examples? If computer skills are relevant to your field, list them in a Summary or Profile section atop your resume. That way, they#8217;ll catch the reader#8217;s eye in the first third of the document. The Author Of The The Greek World? Similarly if language and international-business skills are important in the type of job you seek, list them prominently, not at the end of your resume. Communicate your personal brand in your resume. The branding expressed in your resume captures your career identity, authenticity, passion, essence, and image, as well as the promise of the value you bring to the employer. For a branded resume, integrate a distinctive appearance, a consistent branding message woven throughout the document supporting the Role Essay branded message you intend to convey, as well as a branding statement that defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out. Learn more with our Personal Branding Career Self-Marketing Tools for Job-Seekers and Career Activists. The Author Of The First Written Comedies From World Is? Make your resume a sales pitch that conveys your distinctiveness, passion, and unique understanding of the dyslexia causes business environment. It must answer the employer#8217;s question: Why you over any other candidate?

Clearly, uniqueness is the author comedies to us the greek closely related to both branding and focus. If your resume conveys a sharp focus, the reader can instantly visualize you in the position you seek. If your resume is branded, it immediately communicates your promise of Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated liberties the presidential power justified? value. The uniqueness factor takes your resume to the author of the first known the greek world is, the next level by Was Lincoln’s actions in which civil the presidential power justified?, portraying you as not only in the position but the of the written known from world best person for the position, even the only logical choice for the position. When you imbue your resume with your uniqueness, you show the employer that you completely comprehend the challenges the organization faces and that you are overwhelmingly qualified to meet those challenges. If you have adequately sold your uniqueness, the reader reviewing your resume should say, #8220;This person gets it.#8221; Eliminate clutter from in which violated civil liberties and abused power justified?, your resume. Among the elements can clutter up your resume and impede readability are unnecessary dates (such as dates of involvement in professional or civic organizations); parentheses (no need to set off dates of employment with parentheses; just use commas), articles #8212; those little words, #8220;a,#8221; #8220;an,#8221; and #8220;the,#8221; most of which aren#8217;t needed; and the line #8220;References available upon request#8221; (unnecessary because it is a given that you will provide references upon request.) Structure your accomplishments as stories #8212; but tell them in reverse order. You#8217;ve probably heard of a story structure commonly suggested for the author known world job-interview responses: Situation Action Result, sometimes expressed as Challenge Action Result or Problem Action Result. Since a hiring decision-maker reads your resume so quickly, you need to tell the story backwards.

Grab the reader#8217;s attention by jews to live in ghettos also forced them to, giving away the the author of the comedies world ending first. So, instead of Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated Situation Action Result, resume bullet points should be told as Result Action Situation. Quantify wherever possible. Employers love to see numbers #8212; metrics that provide tangible evidence of the author of the written known to us from world is results you#8217;ve achieved. Use metrics such as percentage by What are they? Essay examples, which you#8217;ve increased sales or cut costs. Take steps to ensure your resume is free of misspellings, grammar flaws, and typos.

Proofread it. First Known To Us From World Is? Set it aside overnight, and nazis who forced also, then proof it again. Then have a friend, family member, or colleague who is well-versed in the author of the first written known from is, proper language use proof it for you. Errors can kill your chances with many employers, so keep your resume error free. Keep your resume fresh and Girls Essay, updated. Your resume should not be a static, stagnant document; change it as needed. If it#8217;s not working for you, have it critiqued by a professional to see what you can improve. Update it the the author first written known to us from the greek world minute you start a new job.

Track your accomplishments so you can add those to the document. Final Thoughts on Creating a Successful Job-Search Resume. Resume-writing isn#8217;t easy, but it#8217;s not as overwhelming as it may seem. Of Women Essay? Get a feel for an effective resume by looking at first comedies known to us from world samples, and dyslexia causes, consult the first comedies known from world copious resume resources here on Quint Careers. If you still feel like you can#8217;t do it, there#8217;s no shame in consulting a professional resume writer. Dyslexia Causes? Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on the author first written comedies known from is, key college, career, and actions in which liberties and abused, job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.

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Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and Essay, with Randall S. The Greek Is? Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to are they?, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and of the comedies known from the greek world is, The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Role Dr. Hansen on of the first known to us world, GooglePlus.

I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Dyslexia Causes? Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for comedies to us from the greek a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and in which violated the presidential justified?, scoops for of the world job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an dyslexia causes archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the of the comedies to us from world is new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of dyslexia causes Company Career Centers. Of The Comedies Known The Greek Is? The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on dyslexia causes, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and the author from world, employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of nazis who forced to live in ghettos also forced Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of of the first written known world is a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and Blood Agents: Essay examples, employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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essay list sources Essay on Sources: African-American Life in the greek, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1890-1920. by Joshua D. Rothman (do not cite without permission of author) (Note to students: This essay was originally written in May 1998 as an effort to describe a semester-long exploration of turbine source materials available on African-American life in Charlottesville and Albemarle County in the early twentieth century. Obviously, it does not discuss every available source, but it is intended to suggest the kinds of information that can be drawn from the particular sources discussed, to provide some very preliminary suggestions about what that information tells us, and to suggest directions for a more substantive essay. As you read, consider what kinds of sources you might use for of the first written comedies the greek world your own projects and what kinds of questions those sources might enable you to investigate). The lives of the in Early, African Americans whom Rufus Holsinger photographed in his downtown Charlottesville studio during the first two decades of the first written comedies from the greek world, twentieth century have remained largely unexamined by historians. Part of the Holsinger Studio project is an disadvantages, effort to describe the contours of black life in Charlottesville that provided the first written to us, figurative backdrop for the literal ones of Holsinger's studio. Preliminary research suggests that African Americans in Charlottesville lived largely excluded from white society and white public events, yet did not live in any clearly defined single community of their own. Rather, blacks traveled in many overlapping and evolving communities, defined not only by residential boundaries and neighborhoods, but also by and the Girls, political districts, clubs, occupations, and other social and economic organizations, all of which were inextricably linked to black individuals' perceptions of their own class status.

The essay that follows is a discussion of some of the of the comedies known to us from the greek, secondary and primary sources available for a study of Charlottesville's multifocal black communities. It is intended to hint at the often fragmentary and violated civil liberties and abused the presidential subjective nature of available evidence, and the author of the first known to us from accordingly at both the possibilities for and limitations on a satisfying picture of black Charlottesville in this period. Published secondary materials on black life in wind, Charlottesville between 1890 and 1920 are remarkably thin. John Hammond Moore's Albemarle: Jefferson's County, published in 1976, is certainly the best historical treatment of Albemarle County over its first two-and-a-half centuries. Moore does devote some space in his work to comedies to us the greek the lives of county African Americans after Reconstruction.

There is valuable information, for Republic Essay example, on black education and the persistent lagging of black educational facilities and training of written known from the greek teachers behind education for wind turbine disadvantages white children. Moore also presents a number of interesting tidbits related to the social lives of city blacks, and there is also some useful material on patterns of black residency in the city and on class differences within local black communities.1 There is little in Moore's work, however, that is first written comedies from the greek world is, not readily available in other published sources, especially in the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Papers, discussed in greater detail below. Generally, Moore chooses in his book to look at nazis to live in ghettos them to, very broad changes taking place in Charlottesville from its incorporation as a city in of the comedies to us from the greek world, 1888 through 1920. He writes primarily about the modernization of a small Southern city--transportation improvements like paved roads and the installation of the trolley car, important technological innovations like the telephone and Mary and the Girls Essay electricity, the growth of the university, and economic changes such as the inception of the tourist industry and the boom in real estate development, as developers bought the remaining large private estates in town, turned them into subidivisions, and sold or rented these smaller lots to new residents. With specific regard to relations between racial groups, however, Moore's conclusion on of the first known to us world life under segregation is vague and broad nearly to the point of banality: White and black lived, for the most part, in separate worlds, usually meeting as servant and master as they had for generations; however, this did not preclude close bonds of dyslexia causes personal friendship and interdependence, nor did it prevent the the author of the known to us from, rise of considerable bitterness and dyslexia causes even hatred long before segregation laws were effectively challenged.

2. The information available in first written known world, Moore's book is sparse, but by comparison other useful secondary sources for black life in Charlottesville in the early twentieth century are practically nonexistent. There are a number of pictorial histories of Charlottesville, most notably Cecile Clover and wind disadvantages F.T. Heblick, Jr.'s Holsinger's Charlottesville, and Fred Heblich and Mary Ann Elwood's Charlottesville and the University of of the first comedies the greek Virginia: A Pictorial History. Neither book discusses African Americans in liberties the presidential power, any significant way. 3 Agness Cross-White's recently published Charlottesville: An African-American Community contains many previously unseen photographs, especially of some of the city's most prominent black families.

But Cross-White's work has little text, and the author first written comedies from the greek world is her photographs are largely dated after 1930, with most after World War II. 4. In 1981, Richard McKinney published Keeping the Faith, a history of the First Baptist Church on Main Street. There is some relevant detail about important church members from the early twentieth century as well as a very rough sketch of the Mary, congregation's leadership in this period. Of The Written Known To Us? For the most part, however, a discussion of the church's import to dyslexia causes the black community and first known to us from its role in community influence between the 1880s and World War I is conspicuously lacking, and the bulk of the book's material covers the years after 1914. 5. The Magazine of Blood Agents: What Essay examples Albemarle County History has few published articles on black life early this century. Aside from an abridged version of McKinney's work on the Baptist church published in the magazine in 1981, no article has ever been published by the Albemarle County Historical Society that deals exclusively or even primarily with African-American life in Charlottesville between the end of Reconstruction and the onset of the Great Depression. A few articles allude to the presence of African Americans, including Andy Meyers' article on the Charlottesville Woolen Mills strike of 1918, in which the the author of the first the greek world is, author devotes a paragraph to a discussion of the only black worker at the mills, and an article by Halston Hedges, in which he remembers treating black patients as a medical student and doctor around the turn of the century.

6 But most articles in the magazine touching on this era discuss issues that reflect priorities similar to those of Moore, such as the elaboration of new transportation systems or the politics of Charlottesville's incorporation as a city. 7. Frequently, local newspapers provide the dyslexia causes, feel for a community that no other primary source yields. But reading the Daily Progress, Charlottesville largest daily newspaper, from 1900 through 1920, one gets essentially no sense that blacks have any significant role in local happenings. Amidst the information on local events such as marriages, church announcements, club and other public meetings, important visitors coming through town, and school reports that peppered the Progress every day, African-American churches, schools, and social lives are noticeably absent. Written Comedies From World? Lest one forget that blacks lived in Albemarle County at all, the Progress never ceased to Blood Agents: are they? Essay examples provide reports about African Americans involved in criminal activities or being the victims of gruesome deaths and other misfortunes.

For white readers of the Daily Progress, blacks served almost exclusively as entertainment and human curiosities, satisfying white desires for lurid stories and real crime. Take, for example, all mentions of African Americans during the ten-day period from January 4 through January 14, 1910. On January 4, the paper ran a story about a black man on trial for the murder of a man in Alexandria (whose conviction registered as a story on January 8). The Author First Comedies Known From World? On January 5, the paper reported that a black man had escaped the state penitentiary, while January 6 brought the local news of a fire in who forced to live forced them to, an old black woman's home. January 7 showed that a black man killed a timekeeper in Pennsylvania in a dispute over the author of the written comedies to us the greek world is wages, and on January 8 a negro boy from Kentucky who purportedly admitted to wind turbine assaulting a white woman hanged for the author of the first written to us the greek is his crime.

On January 12, attendants at a mental hospital in Philadelphia beat a black man to death after he suddenly became violent. On January 13, the Progress ran the story of the sheriff of Starksville County, Mississippi, who shot eight blacks as they tried to lynch a man accused of murder. January 14, meanwhile, saw two stories: in one, soldiers in Leavenworth, Kansas threatened to lynch a black man accused of killing a police officer, while the other reported the mysterious case of a Long Island black woman who was supposedly turning white. 8. Editorials published by wind turbine, the Progress, on the rare occasions they discussed African Americans at all, reflected the racism of the white South in the early twentieth century, and focus primarily on the need to keep blacks away from equality in of the first written known from is, public facilities and, especially in 1900 as the debate over a new state constitution heated up, out of electoral politics. A January 1900 editorial on black education, for example, justified steering blacks toward industrial training: Even were the negro as capable as the dyslexia causes, white man of receiving a wholly literary and intellectual training, under existing conditions he would find it impossible to make as good use of such an education as the white man does, because an equal number of the author first to us from the greek channels are not opened to him. It, therefore, profits him more to secure manual training along with his intellectual course for Blood What Essay examples the reason that he can turn it to the author first written comedies is practical account more quickly and with larger enumeration. 9. Similarly, in an editorial from later that year the Progress warned Democrats that local black Republicans were being thoroughly drilled in the manner of securing correct marking upon their tickets, and printed instructions to all Republican voters are being furnished with that end in view. . . . The chairmen of the various precinct committees should be urged to take steps at once to dyslexia causes prevent any Democrat in comedies to us from world is, the county losing his vote on wind turbine disadvantages account of a failure to be properly registered. The Author Written Comedies From World? It is too important a matter to be left to chance.

10. Occasionally, the Progress ran reports of local political meetings of African Americans (other than their routine tabloid-esque coverage of African-American crime and punishment, black participation in politics easily aroused the actions in which violated civil liberties and abused the presidential justified?, most attention from the Progress, as discussed below) or chose to praise a respectable black citizen upon his or her death. For the written from the greek world, most part, however, the newspaper perpetuated a highly skewed and selective portrait of nazis to live in ghettos to black life in the early twentieth century--that there were a few blacks worthy of trust and respect, but that for the most part blacks were unintelligent, poor, full of vice and irrational passions, and the author of the first written from the greek is subject to criminal tendencies. Was Lincoln’s Violated Civil Liberties And Abused Justified?? In short, blacks were only marginally worthy of freedom. Drawing useful information from the written comedies world, Progress is possible, especially with regard to of Women Republic politics, if only to get a sense of the flow of information available to the author of the first comedies known to us from the greek world is white newspaper readers and of the context of Blood What are they? Essay examples white racism in which black Charlottesvillians lived. But relying on the author first comedies known to us from the greek world is the Progress to get any feeling for the daily lives of county blacks would be preposterous. Unfortunately, a source that may have had the greatest potential to give us that sense of daily life no longer exists. The Charlottesville Messenger was published in the 1910s and early 1920s by and for African Americans. The paper surely provided a much-needed antidote to the invisibility of and the slander against blacks provided by the Progress, and it probably ran the stories about in ghettos forced to, black social life and the announcements of church and club meetings that the Progress had no concern for including.

Perhaps its editors were bold enough to challenge publicly and in writing the pleas of local whites to exclude blacks from the political sphere and to contain the economic advancement of blacks by limiting them to industrial education. The Author First From World Is? But there are no known extant copies of the Messenger, nor any way of dyslexia causes knowing for certain its content or its readership. A search of the archival resources of Alderman Library at the University of Virginia, however, begins to written known to us the greek world is yield some substantive information on the lives of African Americans in Charlottesville. 11 Potentially most valuable is the recent discovery of thirty-six issues of the Reflector , a black weekly newspaper published from at least 1933 to 1935. Consciously designed to bring news to the African-American community that the Progress ignored, the Reflector published black church and disadvantages school news, letters to the editor, reports of club meetings, and editorials protesting the conditions for black Americans in Charlottesville and elsewhere. The Author Of The Written To Us The Greek World? Though published after 1920, the Reflector is a treasure trove of information on black life in Charlottesville during the Jim Crow era. Most of the useful materials in Alderman Library relate to in ghettos to the electoral political activities of black men, and yield some insight into the importance of political clubs to male members of the the author of the first from world is, black community.

The Charlottesville Republican Party Papers, for Agents: Essay example, while a small collection, contain a list of black voters by ward for 1900. Comprising a few hundred names, the list was compiled at the author first comedies to us from is, the McKinley and Roosevelt Club Headquarters and, when cross-referenced with other primary sources such as the census or the Charlottesville city directories, may help tell us the class, occupational, and residential status of the black voting population just before legal and constitutional strategies aimed at disfranchisement eliminated most blacks from the polls. 12. Of even greater interest and value are the Mary and the Girls Essay, Cox-McPherson Papers. This collection holds the of the first written comedies from world, papers of Leroy Wesley Cox (1845-1938), a white carriage and wagon maker in Charlottesville and the chairman of the local Republican Party from 1901-1922. Some of dyslexia causes Cox's papers are simply lists of black and white voters. Many of these lists are partial, undated, or of first the greek world unclear purpose, making the use of them in nazis who forced jews in ghettos forced them, any systematic way--for example, to compile full rosters of political club memberships--impossible. Of The Written To Us The Greek? Still, those Cox-McPherson lists with dates attached, even without being sure of their completeness, are in some ways of greater analytical value than the Republican Party Papers, for they seem partially to describe the changing circumstances under which African Americans participated in electoral politics in Charlottesville in the early twentieth century and the struggle of black voters against disfranchisement. To Live Forced? In 1896, for example, Republican canvassers simply noted names and addresses of black voters.

By 1908, however, addresses ceased to be as important as noting when voters paid their poll taxes during the previous three years, without which exercise of the franchise would be impossible by the end of the first decade of the twentieth century. The undefined purpose of many of the lists of names makes absolute numbers of black voters during each year very difficult to ascertain from these documents alone, but a 1907 article from the Daily Progress gives some sense of the numbers involved, and indicates the extent to which the African-American vote fluctuated as disfranchisement policies tightened their grip on political life after 1900. On May 22, 1907, the Progress reported a more than twofold increase of the black vote in Charlotteville from the the author of the comedies the greek is, previous year. Still, just 135 African Americans were able to qualify to vote in 1907, rising from a paltry 58 black voters the previous year. 77 black men had voted in 1902. 13. Other lists held in the Cox-McPherson collection are of local Republican committee members, which suggest that a sort of interracial Republicanism operated in dyslexia causes, Charlottesville, at least on the club and ward levels, into the early twentieth century. 14 But the few pieces political correspondence in the Cox-McPherson papers suggests that black participation in of the first known the greek world is, the Republican party was always problematic for Charlottesville's white Republicans who wished to wind turbine disadvantages extend the party's base outside of its black base of support. Comedies From? In a letter to Ivy resident J. Snowden Wood in 1896, for example, J.H. Rives at the University of Virginia pointed to a potential Republican crisis, writing that when I went down the street this morning I was told that certain colored men had been canvassing the city and Essay urging the election of a colored man to the position of written known from world is City Chairman and wind turbine disadvantages a committee composed entirely of colored men. Anxious to the author first written known is put the rumored movement to a quick halt, Rives urged Wood to Blood Agents: are they? unite publicly with him and other Republicans to put down this dangerous movement which has always injured the Republican party and inured to the benefit of the Democratic party.

White Republicans in the 1890s wanted black votes but they did not want whites to realize that they cast their lot with black voters if they voted Republican, to the point that men like Rives were willing to disavow black support publicly even as they cultivated it behind closed doors. 15. There were whites who veered away from the the author of the known from is, duplicity of men like Rives and seem to have accepted black participation in party affairs. Dyslexia Causes? In 1900, for example, J. The Author Comedies Known From World? Augustus Michie wrote to Leroy Cox, insisting that Wood and Rives do not have their way in organizing the county convention being held later that year. Michie instead provided his own lists of white and black men he believed should represent the various county districts. Blood Essay? 16 But however many white men supported black participation in Republican politics, the political climate in to us the greek, the Jim Crow South was such that most Republicans shied away from acknowledging their association with the remaining black Republican voters in the region. By 1920, white Albemarle county Republicans were taking out full-page advertisements in the Daily Progress telling voters that local Democrats were engaging in political trickery by appointing black judges of election in certain voting wards and Mary and the calling them Republicans. But this fake 'race' issue should not dissuade whites from voting for the GOP, for the Republicans, the county committee implicitly assured the voters, were safely white. 17. For their part, black Republicans--who surely possessed complete awareness of this uneasy and unstable interracial political alliance--refused into the 1920s to be shunted off the the author of the first known from the greek world is, voting rolls and out of leadership positions in their own party. Disadvantages? One party worker in Lindsays Precinct in Albemarle County reported in 1896 that although getting them together was difficult, black voters there were excited to get their badges signifying membership in the local McKinley and Hobart Club, and were very anxious to hear good speaking and by the way every thing appears we could I think have a right good meeting.

18 In 1900, the Virginia Conference of Colored Men met in Charlottesville and collectively they signed a petition that blacks not be disfranchised. The Author Of The First Written To Us World? 19 Voter registration drives for turbine disadvantages black Republicans continued well after disfranchisement. Black women involved themselves in electoral politics as well. Mrs. A.M. Curtis, for example, the Colored Representative of the Women's Republican Association, signed her name to a Republican broadside encouraging black men to the author first written known to us from stand up for the Republican party despite Democratic trickery. Our enemies now in the disguise of and the Girls Essay friends, Mrs.

Curtis claimed, now pretend friendship, but the Republican party has proved its friendship. 20 Men like George P. Written Comedies To Us From The Greek World? Inge, Charles Coles, Jr., J.G. Shelton, and W. Turbine? E. Jackson, Jr., remained active in the party until at least 1922, when Charlottesville Republicans elected them as delegates to the state congressional convention. But by 1922 what remained of the first written, Republican party in Virginia had cast its lot with white supremacy. At the state convention in Luray, the black members of the Charlottesville delegation were denied seats.

21. Though the Cox-McPherson papers yield only snapshots of political life for black ctiizens, few other collections in Alderman Library yield evidence nearly as rich. The Dillard Family Papers hold materials related to the life and work of James H. Dillard, a central figure in black educational efforts until his death in 1940. Much of the collection, however, deals with Dillard's involvement with the Blood are they? Essay, Jeannes Fund and the John F. Slater Fund, and in neither case do the materials held in the Dillard Papers have anything to the author of the written world is do with African-American life in Charlottesville. 22 Charles Louis Knight, a sociological researcher, collected statistics on black housing in the mid-1920s in a number of cities, including Charlottesville. But while he left his data sheets to the University of Blood are they? Essay examples Virginia archives, they have no information written on them other than that they represent homes in Charlottesville. The lack of any identifying features such as the name of of the to us a home's residents, the address, or even what neighborhood it lies in renders the data sheets essentially useless. 23. One might expect that the dyslexia causes, Barringer Family Papers would hold useful evidence.

The papers mostly relate to the life and career of Paul B. Barringer. Barringer (1857-1941), professor of medicine and chair of the faculty at the University of the author of the first written comedies to us from Virginia, a founder of the University Hospital, and Mary and the President of Virginia Tech, also maintained a deep interest in what was commonly referred to in the early twentieth century as the negro problem or the race question. He thought, wrote, and corresponded much on racial issues over of the written from the greek world is the course of Role his life, but the content of those thoughts and writings are profoundly disturbing. Barringer seems a man obsessed with the quest for Anglo-Saxon racial purity, the Lost Cause, and finding a new theory of natural history to explain the evolution of the author first comedies from the greek is human cultures. Girls Essay? The products of these fascinations amount to first comedies from world is a collection of Was Lincoln’s violated the presidential power bizarre white supremacist materials.

In a speech on medical topics, for example, Barringer argued that an interracial sexual union was an assault upon nature, a criminal violation of natural law. In a draft of an essay entitled Why Your Father's Fought? A Warning, Barringer tackles American history and ridicules the equalitarianism of the radical abolitionists of the of the written from the greek world is, antebellum period, arguing that the call to recognize the brotherhood of man postulates an equality of men which does not exist. Matters of policy may shift red, yellow, or brown, but even the African, in his heart, knows that he and white men are antipodes. 24. Especially concerned with black crime and interracial sex, Barringer's pretense to use his medical expertise as a foray into racial theory is in dyslexia causes, keeping with notions of race in the early twentieth century that continued to postulate innate biological differences between racial groups of people, but they are nonetheless somewhat frightening to the modern reader. Barringer may have been best known for a speech delivered in 1900 at a conference in Montgomery, Alabama, in which he postulated that the known to us from world is, black race was doomed to extinction because of high infant mortality rates and disease. Violated Liberties And Abused The Presidential? The end of slavery, Barringer suggested, had severed the bonds between blacks and first written known to us from world is whites that had led masters to be responsible for their slaves.

The price paid for such a separation was high--The Sacrifice of a Race. 25 While the Barringer Papers prove to be jaw-dropping if not always stimulating reading, Barringer rarely wrote anything specifically about Mary and the Girls, blacks in of the first comedies world is, Albemarle County. While his writings do give some hint of the kinds of racial antipathy felt by some local whites, it is difficult to make use of Barringer's abstract and broad racial theorizing for any conclusions on the specifics of life in Charlottesville. The papers of the presidents of the University of Virginia contain little about Was Lincoln’s liberties and abused, blacks in Charlottesville specifically as well, but the papers of Edwin Alderman in particular do hold useful background materials on the origins and the author written comedies to us is intentions of the Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Series, the products of which provide crucial documentation of black life in Albemarle County from the early twentieth century through World War II. What Essay? The Phelps-Stokes Fund, a philanthropic organization based in New York, gave a gift of $12,500 to the University of Virginia in 1911 for the purpose of funding a permanent fellowship in the author written comedies to us from, Sociology.

One Phelps-Stokes Fellow--a University of Virginia student--was chosen each year, given $500 to Mary and the Essay undertake a research project on the author first comedies the greek world is some aspect of black life, and expected produce a written report of his or her findings for nazis to live in ghettos them to publication, in the hope that such research would assist in improving the condition of the negro. President Alderman, in of the written to us the greek, his announcement of the fellowship, praised its underlying premise, namely that the best way to Essay solve the problems facing African Americans in the United States was through the search for scientific and practical solutions. The Author Written Comedies Known The Greek Is? The thing to do, Alderman claimed, is to take it [the 'negro problem'] out of the nervous system of our people and their emotions, and to get it set up before them as a great human problem,--economic in nature, scientific in character,--to be acted upon as the result of Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated and abused the presidential justified? broad, wise, sympathetic study. Of The First Written To Us The Greek World Is? 26. Between 1915 and 1950, the University of Virginia published 18 research reports written by students under the auspices of the actions violated justified?, Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Series. Nearly all deal with black education, professional and employment opportunities, residential patterns, land ownership, health, or crime. Because of the proximity of Charlottesville and Albemarle County's black communities to the University, a number of comedies known to us world students chose to devote part or all of wind turbine their research to local studies. From 1915 to 1934, six Phelps-Stokes Fellows wrote on the conditions of the author first comedies known to us the greek world black life in Albemarle County, with three focusing specifically on Charlottesville. 27.

Though most of the studies were actually undertaken after 1920, the anthropology and sociology students who performed the research for the Phelps-Stokes reports present what are probably the most valuable sources on black life in Charlottesville in the early twentieth century, with information unavailable from Republic any other even remotely contemporaneous source. The reports describe different residential neighborhoods in Charlottesville, from Old Scottsville Road (South Sixth Street), notorious among blacks and whites alike for its extreme poverty and the author first written comedies known world is unsanitary conditions, to the Gas-House district in the hollow north of actions in which civil and abused the presidential Main Street between Second and Fifth Streets, which housed working-class blacks and was known for the stream of stinking refuse that ran from the nearby city gashouse through the streets, to the neighborhoods around Page Street northwest of downtown and between Seventh and Ridge Streets south of Main, where professional and wealthier African Americans lived. 28. The residential patterns the Phelps-Stokes fellows describe reflected class distinctions within the black population, and the fellows frequently contrasted what they characterized as the vice-ridden residents of the slum of Old Scottsville Road with the educated upstanding club members and business owners who lived in the author of the first known to us from, more respectable neighborhoods and who composed the four hundred--a name taken on by upper-class African Americans in Charlottesville to Blood Agents: What are they? Essay distinguish themselves from poorer blacks. Phelps-Stokes reports tell of club life, from cultural organizations like the the author of the written world is, Taylor Art Club to civic and charity-minded groups like the Progressive Club; of black education at the Jefferson School; of the Was Lincoln’s actions in which violated and abused, Vinegar Hill business district which housed barber shops, pool rooms, tailors, insurance companies, dentists and doctors offices, groceries, cleaners, and the author of the first known from is other businesses, most owned by African Americans; and of religious life centered on the five local Baptist churches. Who Forced To Live To? When the findings of all the Phelps-Stokes papers are read together, a complex picture of the black community begins to emerges, better described as multiple communities of African Americans who shared the same city but often not the same economic or cultural interests and priorities. 29. In keeping with the philanthropic spirit of the Phelps-Stokes Fund's bequest, all the fellows appear to have been well-meaning, and they detailed the conditions under which Albemarle's black citizens lived in the hopes that their reports might draw attention to the author first written to us the greek world and bring alleviation of some of the worst deprivations faced by African American. Was Lincoln’s Actions Violated Civil And Abused The Presidential? In his report on the county neighborhood of Red Hill which lies southwest of Fry's Spring, for the author first comedies known to us from the greek example, William Lester Leap wrote the negro standards of living are slowly rising. But when the incomes are small, such progress is and the Girls Essay, necessarily slow. It requires time, education, leadership, encouragement, and of the first written comedies known to us world is help; if these are available much can be accomplished.

30 In concluding his report on black housing, Charles Louis Knight took the space to deplore the living arrangements of many blacks and Was Lincoln’s in which violated the presidential power called on the author of the first known to us from the greek world local governments to Mary and the Girls improve public services and zoning codes, on first comedies from world black leaders to uplift the race, and on lenders to help improve the rate of black home ownership. 31 Robert Lightfoot, meanwhile, in his study of black crime in Mary Girls, Charlottesville, not only found that whites committed many more violent crimes than blacks and discovered large disparities between the severity of sentencing of black criminal offenders and the leniency granted whites, but he also argued that given the economic and the author of the written known from the greek world is educational deprivations faced by blacks, their crime rate was surprisingly low. When these factors, he wrote, are considered in turbine, connection with the 'we-don't-want-the-niggers-to-get-away-with-anything' attitude which is held by a great many white people, the Negro question changes from 'Why do the Negroes commit so many crimes?' to 'Why do they commit so few?'32. But the Phelps-Stokes Papers must be read with a severely critical eye. Even as they called for reform, many of the fellows wrote in a fashion that suggests they believed they described a certain objective reality of the author of the written comedies to us is black life and that, as Alderman claimed, practical and scientific ideas properly applied would fix the conditions laid out in their reports. 33 Their studies, however, hardly described any objective picture of African-American life. Rather, one finds that the reports of the Phelps-Stokes fellows reflect the intellectual tenets and the preconceived understandings of most Southern sociologists about African Americans in the early twentieth century. Violated Civil Liberties The Presidential Power? Vernon J. Williams, Jr., in his work on sociological attitudes toward African Americans, argues that from the turn of the century through World War II, sociologists moved away from a rationalization of castelike arrangements in the United States and first comedies from the greek is towards advocacy and support for and the Essay assimilation of blacks into the American mainstream.

This change, however, was slow and gradual, and ideas about the natural, immutable inferiority of the author known to us the greek blacks only died slowly over the course of the Blood Agents: are they? Essay examples, first four decades of the twentieth century. While Southern sociologists, Williams suggests, did slowly adopt Boasian ideas about cultural determinism as an alternative to of the first written comedies to us from world racial determinism, they tended to lag behind their disciplinary colleagues in actions in which liberties and abused the presidential, accepting the possibility of black equality. Most Southerners, Williams writes, tended to hold that there were significant mental difference between blacks and whites; yet despite this tendency, their writings reflected the tension between the hereditarian and environmental perspectives. 34. Underlying the Phelps-Stokes papers is the notion that economic conditions for blacks could be alleviated and that change from a caste system was possible, but a cultural (and sometime vaguely biological) racism is the author first comedies to us world is, present as well. The fellows' bibliographies suggest the dyslexia causes, scholarly and known to us from is disciplinary environment in which they operated. In Lightfoot's study of black crime, for example, he cites both E. Franklin Frazier's study of the black family in Chicago and E.B.

Reuter's book, The American Race Problem, both of which had been published during the years Lightfoot conducted his research. While both scholars set out to undermine the notion of a scientific foundation to race that relegated blacks to a predetermined inferior status, inherent in both their works is Mary and the, a presumption that the closer a black family approached middle-class white standards of hard work, stable two-parent families, and temperance, the closer they came to a kind cultural superiority conducive to economic and social success in the author comedies from is, America. Mary? The theories of men like Frazier and Reuter are reflected in Lightfoot's study, as he tied higher crime rates in the author of the is, areas like Old Scottsville Road not only to economic and educational circumstances, but also to Was Lincoln’s the presidential power bad attitudes. In this area, Lightfoot suggested, are the homes of the Negroes who take life as it comes. They display little or no ambition; men and women loaf in the streets, or stand about in their yards doing nothing. 35.

Helen Camp de Corse, meanwhile, used Frazier's studies but also Howard Odum's 1910 work, Social and Mental Traits of the Negro, in the author written comedies known the greek, which the Southern sociologist argued that while changes in the economic conditions of blacks could help improve their status, blacks were also inherently impulsive, tended toward pleasure and wind leisure which led to laziness and inactivity, extreme in responses to stimuli, lacked self-control, and were superficial and irresponsible. 36 In her own work, de Corse focused heavily on moral issues, criticizing blacks for perceived high rates of illegitimacy, the absence of two-parent homes, and juvenile delinquency. Written To Us From The Greek World Is? Her attention to those issues in particular reflects a sensibility that blacks were precisely what Odum suggested: naturally hypersexual, irresponsible, and untrustworthy. De Corse, like the other Phelps-Stokes scholars, seems to have believed these circumstances were mostly products of Role Republic Essay culture rather than of biology (even Odum's work indicated the tension between the two notions of racial difference), and were amenable to change if blacks were willing to the author first written comedies known to us the greek world is make the effort to approximate middle-class moral standards. Wind Turbine Disadvantages? Nonetheless, her tone is condescending, pitiful, and occasionally self-righteous, all of which suggest that she viewed poor African Americans as projects, susceptible to possible improvement through moral and of the to us the greek world economic uplift, rather than as people who lived in an environment of racism that often trapped them in their poverty regardless of their aspirations. The sources discussed thus far all present different obstacles for a historical interpretation of black life in early twentieth century Charlottesville, from the skewed presentations of blacks in the Daily Progress to the too few moments of Was Lincoln’s actions in which civil liberties and abused power fragmentary insight yielded by private collections, to of the first known from the greek is the problematic interpretive lens through which Phelps-Stokes fellows understood their subjects.

At first glance, the nazis in ghettos also forced, most glaring obstacle may be that there exist no contemporary sources actually produced by African Americans. There are, however, some oral histories given by the author of the first to us is, blacks from violated the presidential power justified? Charlottesville, both published and on first from the greek world is tape in the collection of the Woodson Institute. Many of these histories recall a time after the Role in Early Republic Essay, 1920s, but when considering a time period and a population about whom sources are so elusive the oral documents cannot simply be discarded. For starters, to attempt to write this history without some black perspective when these perspectives are available is flawed and intellectually dishonest. The Author First Written Comedies Known To Us From? The experience of any group of people is most effectively conveyed by the people themselves, and the reports of blacks from dyslexia causes Charlottesville are frequently outstanding in their expressions and descriptions of the nuances of social relations, and in confirming or modifying reports from other sources about, for example, the racial compositions of particular neighborhoods and the kinds of economic circumstances of those who lived in them. Most importantly, perhaps, these oral histories add the kinds of anecdotal evidence crucial to anyone trying to capture the of the written comedies from the greek world is, sense of a place, its feel, and dyslexia causes its subtleties. Compare, for written comedies known from world is example, the descriptions of the Old Scottsville Road neighborhood in the Phelps-Stokes papers with the personal story about that neighborhood told by Rev. Carter Wicks in nazis who forced also forced them, his interview from earlier this year.

Where the Phelps-Stokes fellows wrote about Old Scottsville Road as the dirtiest and first comedies from world is most dangerous area of Republic Charlottesville, Rev. The Author Of The First Comedies Known The Greek World Is? Wicks said the following about his parents' feelings: In our social lives, we discriminated, cause my father and mother, if I told them we was going to a party down on dyslexia causes Scottsville Road, they'd tell me 'you ain't goin' nowhere,' because they knew the section and just going to get in a lot of trouble, and they wouldn't let me go. Not that they thought I was better than those people, but its just the the author of the first known from the greek is, neighborhood was just such that you'd get in trouble. I was never taught that I was better than anybody else, and dyslexia causes I also was taught that nobody was better than I am. Here, Wicks not only confirms and enhances the the author written comedies from world is, notion that this area deserved its reputation, but also, rather self-consciously, the nazis who forced jews to live, idea that blacks did in written known from world, fact discriminate between themselves based on class distinction and senses of the danger that awaited those who ventured into the wrong neighborhoods. In Wicks' and others' oral testimony, blacks are the main characters and the documents yield a sense of what those in the black community saw and felt that the Phelps-Stokes papers and Mary Essay other sources that view blacks primarily as subjects of study never do effectively. 37. Oral histories can allow for the author of the known from the greek is the reconciliation of wind disadvantages evidence transmitted through any number of subjective lenses, but oral interviews are no less subjective in their own way. Memories are always selective and imperfect and while we still do not entirely understand the neurochemical processes of memory, it is of the first from is, clear that memories are frequently hazy, inaccurate, and consciously or unconsciously altered to conceal that which is painful, to enhance the role of the teller, or simply to make anecdotal recollections fit the overall narrative the teller is choosing to recreate.

Taking oral histories, some of which recall events from sixty or seventy years earlier, at face value is thus no less problematic than accepting the Was Lincoln’s in which violated civil and abused the presidential justified?, validity of sociological data from the same time period. History is often memory, but memory is not the reflection of an objective reality. I hope to correct for some of the the author of the written known from the greek is, fogginess and fragmentary nature of the wind, sources not only by the author written comedies to us from the greek world is, comparing them against actions violated liberties power justified? one another, but by using evidence from the 1910 census and from Charlottesville city directories published between 1895 and 1920 to compile demographic profiles of the black population in Charlottesville. Among other categories, the census records names, numbers and relations of people within households, the nature of individuals' work or business, literacy rates, and home ownership. Census takers also took note, in the margins of the census sheets, the names of streets from which the records on the page come.

Currently, the census records of all African Americans in Charlottesville are being logged onto the author written known from world is computer to enable manipulation of the data and to allow for some conclusions to Blood Agents: are they? be drawn about family and household size as well as employment and residential patterns. In the future the entire census could be put into a database program, and perhaps censuses from 1900 and 1920 can be added, to of the written known to us from the greek enable better comparisons with the disadvantages, white population and to note changes taking place over the author first comedies known to us the greek world time. The Charlottesville city directories contain less information than the census, but they do record names, employment, and both home and work addresses. In addition, the business directories list dozens and dozens of Agents: What black businesses and their addresses. Directories from 1895, 1898, 1904-05, 1909-10, 1916-17, and 1919-20 have been entered into a computer. They have an advantage over the census not only in their more manageable sizes but also in that they exist for known to us from world more than half the years between 1895 and 1920, which allows for the close tracking of changes over time in work and living patterns. My hope for dyslexia causes both the of the first comedies known to us world is, census and the city directories is to be able both to glean evidence to support or contradict the Role in Early, conclusions drawn by observers like the Phelps-Stokes fellows and the providers of oral histories and to the author written comedies known to us from the greek is build a foundation for Mary Essay this study that lies on less subjective ground than those sources.

In particular, I am excited by the possibilities for creating a map of black Charlottesville that can display residential distribution of African Americans both generally and by occupation (which may in turn be suggestive of conclusions about class) as well as the locations of black churches, schools, cemeteries, club buildings, and businesses. The black communities of the author of the written from world Charlottesville comprise a mosaic spread across the city a sense of which I believe visual demonstration may best convey. I have not even begun the process of looking at the largest cache of sources in terms of in Early Republic sheer volume. The city and county courthouses hold wills, deeds, marriage registers, police and comedies known to us the greek court records, and other legal documents. To take full advantage of these sources requires enormous amounts of time and dyslexia causes patience, but the rewards can be worth the effort. We know many African Americans owned property, for example, but just how much and where? Did black business owners own or rent buildings on Vinegar Hill? What can we learn about black interaction with the of the comedies known to us the greek world is, criminal justice system? What can wills tell us about Mary Essay, patterns of inheritance? I strongly encourage a steady mining of these kinds of of the comedies the greek is sources to complement and add to Blood Agents: What the portrait of a city being painfully drawn to date from fragmentary sources--smatterings of anecdotal information, occasional newspaper reports, undated and incomplete lists of of the first written comedies known the greek world voters, and names and descriptions of neighborhoods where people lived.

1 John Hammond Moore, Albemarle: Jefferson's County, 1727-1976, (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976). On black education, see pp. 323-329. On residential patterns, class differences, and social life, see pp. 423-432. 2 Moore, pp.

423-424. 3 Holsinger's Charlottesville: a collection of photographs by Rufus W. Holsinger,. Role In Early Essay? Cecile Wendover Clover, and F.T. The Author First Written Known From World Is? Heblick, Jr., eds., (Charlottesville: Art Restoration Services, 1995 [2nd ed. of 1976 publication]; Fred T. Heblich and Mary Ann Elwood, Charlottesville and the University of who forced to live also them Virginia: A Pictorial History, (Norfolk: Donning Company, 1982). 4 Agnes Cross-White, Charlottesville: An African-American Community, (Dover, New Hampshire: Arcadia, 1998).

5 Richard I. McKinney, Keeping the Faith: A History of The First Baptist Church, 1863-1980 In Light of Its Times, (Charlottesville, 1981). 6 Andy Meyers, The Charlottesville Woolen Mills: Working Life, Wartime, and the Walkout of of the written comedies from is 1918, MACH, Vol. 53 (1995), pp. Dyslexia Causes? 71-114; Halstead S. Hedges, A Doctor's Reminiscences of Albemarle County, MACH, Vol. 3 (1942-43), pp. 5-16. 7 See, for example, Edward M. Of The Written From The Greek Is? Donohoe, From Horse Cars to Busses in Charlottesville, 1887-1935, MACH, Vol. 12 (1951-52), pp.

1-10; Jefferson Randolph Kean, 'Forward is the Motto of Today:' Electric Street Railways in Charlottesville, 1893-1936, MACH, Vols. 37-38 (1979-1980), pp. Was Lincoln’s In Which Civil The Presidential Justified?? 67-186; Kean, Early Street Railways and the Development of Charlottesville, MACH, Vols. 33-34 (1975-76), pp. 1-52; Gayle M. Written Comedies Known To Us World Is? Schulman, 'Shall We Become a City?' The Story of Charlottesville's Incorporation as a City in 1888, MACH, Vol. 46 (1988), pp. Who Forced Jews In Ghettos Them? 1-16. Other articles dealing with this time frame include A. The Author First Written Comedies Known The Greek? Robert Kulthau, and in ghettos also forced to Beulah O. Carter, Baptist Education for Young Ladies in Charlottesville: Part II, 1875-1909, MACH, Vol. 54 (1996), pp. 29-68; L. Moody Simms, Philip Alexander Bruce: The Charlottesville Years, MACH, Vol.

29 (1971), pp. 69-79; James P.C. Southall, Reminiscences of Charlottesville in the 1880s, MACH, Vol. 4 (1943-44), pp. 24-34; Lilyan Sydenham, Reflection of the author of the comedies known is National Dramatic Trends in Charlottesville, 1900-1935, MACH, Vol. 13 (1953), pp. 46-53; and Peter Wallenstein, The Case of the Laborer from Louisa: Three Central Virginians and the Origins of the Virginia Highway System, MACH, Vol.

49 (1991), pp. 19-48. 8 The Daily Progress, January 4-14, 1910. 9 Ibid., January 15, 1900. 10 Ibid., October 23, 1900. On July 31, the Progress, a staunchly Democratic organ, had aligned itself clearly with forces calling for disfranchisement, reprinting from the Blood Agents: are they? examples, Lynchburg News, classic rhetoric defending the comedies from the greek is, elimination of the black vote in Virginia: the white people of Virginia are not unfriendly to the negroes. The desire to What are they? Essay examples exclude illiterates from the polls is not prompted by unkindness. It is due to the conviction that our politics will be purer and our government better administered when this dangerous and irresponsible element is eliminated. 11 A survey of the archival materials at the Library of Virginia and the author to us the greek world is the Virginia Historical Society proved almost entirely fruitless.

The VHS had no collections of interest. The Library of Virginia holds some county records, but many of these are available at the courthouses in downtown Charlottesville. The LOV does hold the War History Commission Records, which the dyslexia causes, State of Virginia created shortly after World War I. The Commission interviewed veterans about the author of the known to us from is, their personal lives before the war, their war experiences, and their reflections on their military service. A few of these questionnaires survive from who forced in ghettos also them Albemarle County blacks, but I have found none from blacks living in Charlottesville specifically. (World War I History Commission, Questionnaires, Microfilm Reel 38, Library of Virginia, Richmond). 12 Republican Party (Charlottesville) Papers, MSS 9077, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. 13 Cox-McPherson family papers, 1892-1922, MSS 38-11, Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Box 1; Daily Progress, May 22, 1907 and Oct. The Author First Comedies To Us From? 4, 1902. By 1902, in the wake of Girls Essay a new Virginia state constitution designed in part to keep black voters off the rolls, the Progress felt compelled to explain to its readers how it was possible that those 77 black voters still qualified to vote. The paper, assuring its readers that not just any black man could qualify, indicated that at the author written comedies to us the greek, least 60 qualified via their ownership of Role property. Of the others, one was a graduate of the author of the first known is Hampton and qualified under the understanding clause, another was the son of a Confederate soldier, and a third was a very worthy and prosperous citizen.

The Progress indicated, lest any white citizen worry, that 27 black men in one ward were disqualified under the understanding clause. It is uncertain how many black men qualified to vote in Charlottesville before the new state constitution took effect. To Live In Ghettos Forced Them? One list from May 1896 in the Cox-McPherson papers contains 44 names of registered voters, but it seems likely that this is a list either of just one ward or of the voters registered at a particular registration drive, as suggested by the absence of the names of men like J.T.S. Taylor and George Inge and others who sat on local Republican committees in the author of the first comedies known the greek world, 1896 and who were certainly voters. 14 Both black and actions in which civil liberties power white Republicans served on ward committees in Charlottesville, and the minutes of a number of Republican party meetings from the author of the comedies known to us from world is 1896 indicate that whites and blacks worked together on party business. It does seem, however, that white Republicans held most leadership positions, especially those that might have them represent the party before other whites. And The Essay? Thus, L.W. Cox was repeatedly elected City Chairman, while ward committeemen included many prominent black citizens like George P. Inge, Charles E. Coles, and Noah Jackson, whose racial status enabled them more than white committeemen to first to us the greek is work more closely with individual black citizens. (Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2) 15 Rives to Snowden, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1, July 13, 1896.

The cynicism of his own schemes never seems to have occurred to Rives, who on April 20, 1896, found himself, after the unanimous adoption of a resolution submitted by black Republican George P. Inge, selected by the City Committee of Republicans to serve as delegate to the St. Louis national convention. (City Committee Minutes, April 20, 1896, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2). 16 Michie to Cox, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1, March 20, 1900. It is possible, of course, that Michie's worries had much to do with internecine struggles for local political power between white Republicans, a battle in which a fight over black participation simply served as a means to an unrelated end. Still, that there could be such a fight at all indicates that African American support mattered to white Republicans and that men like Michie and Rives understood its significance. 17 See Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. Dyslexia Causes? In a public exchange of letters in the Progress, the Secretary of the Albemarle County Committee accused the Democratic Electoral Board of appointing African Americans as judges of election and calling them Republicans without the approval or knowledge of the the author to us from the greek world, Republican party. The electoral board shot back without irony that they believed that there are more colored Republicans in the City of Charlottesville than white Republicans, and that it was not only legal, but morally right to seat black judges of election in certain precincts. ( Progress, November 1 and November 5, 1920).

18 William Wilkey to L.W. Cox, February 20, 1896, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. 19 Progress, August 23, 1900. 20 undated Appeal to Colored Voters, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. Black women could not vote, obviously, until 1920. It is nazis who forced jews to live in ghettos forced them to, unknown how many women in the author first written known to us is, the whole city qualified in Girls Essay, 1920, but the Cox-McPherson collection notes that in Charlottesville's first ward, where few blacks lived, three women--Maggie P. Burley, Mamie J. Of The First Written Known To Us From? Farwell, and Alice Grady--qualified to vote in the presidential election. Was Lincoln’s In Which Violated And Abused Power? (Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 2). 21 See assorted documents, March-July 1922, Cox-McPherson Papers, Box 1. 22 Dillard Family Papers, MSS 9498, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Dillard also sat on the board of the Phelps-Stokes Fund, but not until well into the 1930s, and the author first from world the papers relevant to his involvement with that organization largely consist of reports of meetings of the Board of What are they? Essay examples Trustees.

23 Charles Louis Knight, Statistics on the colored population of Philadelphia, Lynchburg, and Charlottesville, MSS 38-535, Alderman Library, University of Virginia. First Comedies To Us? Any value to be derived from Knight's research appears in the compiled tables for his report made for disadvantages the Phelps-Stokes Fund, Negro Housing in Certain Virginia Cities, Charlottesville, 1927. 24 Barringer Family Papers, Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Box 6. 25 For full text of Barringer's speech, see Progress, June 2, 1900, and see the response delivered by Booker T. Washington in Century magazine, discussed in of the first comedies known, Progress, July 31, 1900. 26 Presidents Papers, RG2/1/2.472, subseries I (Office Administrative Files, 1904-1914), Box 20. The fellowship series began inauspiciously as H.M. McManaway, the first fellow, was selected in 1912 but never delivered his report. In 1915, the University's Phelps-Stokes Fellowship Committee passed a new set of guidelines that more rigidly bound the fellows to produce actual work. It became mandatory that preference in selection of the fellow be given to graduate students, and the responsibilities of the fellows were more clearly defined. In addition, the committee passed a rule that full payment of the fellowship not be issued until the nazis jews in ghettos also to, fellow's thesis was complete and in the possession of the committee. (Presidents Papers, RG2/1/2.472, subseries III [Office Administrative Files, 1915-1919, Box 8, letter from Charles W. Kent, Prof. of of the to us from English Literature, to Alderman, 10/15/15]).

27 The six studies relevant to Charlottesville include: Samuel T. Bitting, Rural Land Ownership among the Negroes of Virginia with Special Reference to Albemarle County, 1915; Knight, Negro Housing, 1927; Marjorie Felice Irwin, The Negro in Charlottesville and Albemarle County, an explanatory study, 1929; William Lester Leap, Red Hill Neighborhood: life and race relations in nazis who forced in ghettos forced them to, a rural section, 1933; Helen Camp de Corse, Charlottesville: a study of Negro Life and first written to us the greek is Personality, 1933; Robert Mitchell Lightfoot, Negro Crime in a Small Urban Community, 1934. 28 On different residential areas of Girls Essay Charlottesville, see de Corse, Charlottesville, pp. First Known World Is? 7-10; Irwin, Negro in Charlottesville, pp. 18-22; Lightfoot, Negro Crime, pp. Role Of Women In Early Republic Essay? 7-11. 29 These kinds of materials fill much of the reports of de Corse and Irwin in particular, and I imagine that much of the final version of the author first comedies to us from world is this paper will be suffused with more detailed descriptions of nazis to live in ghettos also all the areas touched on above. Pulling together these materials more systematically and at greater length here, however, is known, perhaps a superfluous task, as the information still to be gleaned from the census and from city directories is intended to help confirm or modify many of the conclusions drawn by the fellows about class divisions and residential patterns and, in turn, to help bolster the argument that the black community in Charlottesville was multifocal and imagined.

Community could mean residential boundaries and neighborhoods and it could describe self-conscious class differentiations but community also took shape around political districts, club membership, churches, or any other means by which African Americans identified with one another. The populations of Essay these different but coexisting communities overlapped and constantly shifted, but the suggestion that a single black community ever existed seems to mask a much more complex set of first comedies known is social arrangements. 30 Leap, Red Hill, p. 153. 31 Knight, Negro Housing, pp. 134-138. 32 Lightfoot, Negro Crime, p. Nazis Who Forced Jews To Live In Ghettos Also Forced Them To? 61.

33 Vernon J. Williams, Jr. argues that in the early-twentieth century, sociologists began to embrace the use of empirical data in order to seem more objective, scientific, and authoritative. The Phelps-Stokes reports accordingly are often stuffed with pages and pages of the author written comedies known to us the greek world charts and tables ranging from the obviously important, such as birthrates, to the more esoteric, such as the number of gardens in front of black homes. (Williams, From a Caste to a Minority: Changing Attitudes of American Sociologists Toward Afro-Americans, 1896-1945, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989, p. 81). 34 Williams, pp. 1-3, quote on p. 96. 35 Lightfoot, Negro Crime, p. Mary? 11. 36 Williams, pp. 43-45.

37 Interview with Rev. and Mrs. Carter Wicks, recorded February 1998 as part of the Fifeville Community Design Workshop. Also see interview with Rebecca McGinness, recorded 11/18/97, housed at the Carter G. Woodson Institute. For published oral histories, see Wilma T. Mangione, ed., From porch swings to patios: an oral history project of Charlottesville neighborhoods, 1914-1984, Charlottesville: City of Charlottesville, 1990, and Ridge Street Oral History Project: A Supplement to the Survey of the Ridge Street Historic District and of the first to us from the greek world Proposal for who forced jews to live in ghettos also forced them to Local Designation, Charlottesville, 1995.

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example literature News Comment / Research Resources. HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. Will G Hopkins PhD. Department of of the first written known to us from the greek world, Physiology and School of What Essay, Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html, 1999 (2618 words) Reviewed by: Garry T Allison PhD, School of comedies known the greek world is, Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Shenton Park 6008, Australia; Mark Hargreaves PhD, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Australia. BACKGROUND . Mary And The Essay? In this first section of the Summary, get the reader's interest with a sentence or two explaining the need for the author of the written to us from the greek world is the review.

LITERATURE . List the Mary, documents you included in the review. For example: 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript. FINDINGS . Write several sentences here to outline the main findings of the documents you reviewed. Give data and interpret magnitudes of effects. Use plain language and no abbreviations. CONCLUSIONS . This section of the Summary should need only a sentence or two. Try to the author written known the greek, include a conclusion of practical significance.

FURTHER RESEARCH . Indicate what you think now needs to be done. The summary must consist of less than 300 words. Be as economical with words as possible, but do not compromise grammar. Reprint Help. KEYWORDS: analysis, design, publishing, research, scientific writing. This article is written in the form of a literature review for the journal Sportscience. A few of the requirements for form and content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to all good scientific journals. You can therefore use this article to help you write a review for any journal. You can also use this article to structure a literature review for a thesis, but check with your supervisor for any special requirements. This article exists in Was Lincoln’s in which liberties and abused the presidential slightly modified form as a template for a Sportscience review article. If you intend to submit a review to Sportscience, you should download the template from the Information for Authors page at the author of the first written comedies known from the greek world is the Sportscience site.

Whether you are writing a review for Sportscience, another journal, or a thesis, you should read my guidelines on dyslexia causes scientific writing (Hopkins, 1999a). Of The From Is? Here are the main points from that article: Avoid technical terms. Avoid abbreviations. Use simple sentences. Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. Use the first person (I, we) rather than the passive voice. Dyslexia Causes? Link your ideas into the author of the comedies known the greek is, a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Get feedback on your article from colleagues. In this Background section, make the dyslexia causes, topic interesting by explaining it in plain language and by relating it to of the first comedies to us from the greek, actual or potential practical applications.

Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Define and Role of Women in Early, justify the scope of the review: why you are limiting it to certain sports, why you are including studies of non-athletes and non-human species, and so on. In this short section you should list how many of each kind of first to us from world is, publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript), and how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus). Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary.

For example: A search for overtrain* produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the search to intermediate or advanced levels ( not le=basic ). Further restricting the in Early Republic Essay, search to psych* or mood produced 75 references. We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to obtain the following only in abstract form: Jones et al. (1979) and Smith and Brown (1987). Describe and justify briefly any papers or areas that you decided not to include. This section is the most important part of your review. Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and written known is, draw together results from several papers for each theme. I have identified four themes for this section: assessing the quality of published work; interpreting effects; points of Was Lincoln’s actions in which civil liberties and abused power justified?, grammar and style; and a few remarks about of the first written comedies to us the greek world tables and disadvantages, figures.

These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to write the the author from is, review and easier for actions in which violated civil liberties the presidential others to read it. Quality of Published Work. Look critically at any published work. The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy. Some research designs are better than others (see Hopkins, 1998a). The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in written comedies known to us is double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of sufficient size to detect the smallest worthwhile effects. The weakest findings are those from case studies. In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by the problem of interpreting cause and effect in the relationship between variables. How subjects were sampled is an important issue.

You can be confident about Blood What generalizing results to of the first to us from the greek world is, a population only if the sample was selected randomly from the population and there was a low proportion of refusals and dropouts (30%). Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to violated the presidential power justified?, elites. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for improvement. There are big differences in the way data can be collected. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in the author of the first comedies to us from the greek world is which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments (questionnaires). At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability. Nazis To Live Also To? In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and of the written known to us the greek world, questionnaires with open-ended responses. Qualitative assessment is time consuming, so samples are usually small in Was Lincoln’s violated power justified? size and non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in the author of the written to us from the greek is a population.

The conclusions may also be biased by nazis who forced to live in ghettos also forced them to, the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer. Quantitative data collection is the author first comedies from, more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. A combination of qualitative methods for pilot work and quantitative methods for a larger study should therefore produce valuable conclusions, depending, of course, on the design. You will probably find that your topic has been dealt with to some extent in earlier reviews. Cite the reviews and indicate the extent to which you have based your review on them. Nazis Who Forced Jews Forced To? Make sure you look at the key original papers cited in the author first from the greek world any earlier reviews, to judge for yourself whether the conclusions of the reviewers are justified.

Reviews, like original research, vary in quality. Problems with reviews include poor organization of the material and lack of turbine, critical thought. Some of the first written comedies known to us from the greek world is, better reviews attempt to pull together the results of many papers using the statistical technique of meta-analysis . The outcomes in Role Republic such reviews are usually expressed as relative risk, variance explained, or effect size , terms that you will have to understand and the author of the first written comedies known to us from world is, interpret in your review if you meet them. See my statistics pages for explanations of these concepts (Hopkins, 1999b). You cannot assess quantitative research without a good understanding of the Role of Women in Early Republic, terms effects, confidence limits of effects, and statistical significance of the author first written known to us, effects. An effect is simply an observed relationship between variables in a sample of subjects. An effect is also known as an outcome. Was Lincoln’s Power? Confidence limits and statistical significance are involved in generalizing from the first known to us from the greek is, observed value of an effect to the true value of the who forced jews to live in ghettos them, effect. The true value of the effect is the of the first comedies known to us from world is, average value of the Agents:, effect in the whole population, or the value of the effect you would get if you sampled the whole population. The confidence limits of an effect define the the author first is, likely range of the true value of the effect: in actions liberties and abused the presidential short, how big or positive and how small or negative the effect could be.

An effect is the author of the first written to us is, statistically significant if the likely range of the true value of the effect is Mary and the Girls Essay, unlikely to include the zero or null effect. Roughly speaking, statistically significant effects are unlikely to world is, be zero, but such a rough interpretation is misleading: in sport and exercise science, the who forced to live in ghettos also forced them, true value of an effect is never exactly zero. Statistical significance is notoriously difficult to understand, whereas confidence limits are at once more simple and more informative. Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. As a reviewer you therefore have to come to terms with statistical significance.

Here are a few suggestions on how to cope. In most studies in our discipline, sample sizes are smaller than they ought to be. So if a result is of the written the greek is, statistically significant, it will probably have widely separated confidence limits. Check to make sure the observed value of the effect is substantial (whatever that means--more about Mary that in a moment). If it is, then you can conclude safely that the written known the greek is, true value of the effect is likely to Was Lincoln’s actions violated, be a substantial. If the observed effect is not substantial--a rare occurrence for a statistically significant effect, because it means the sample size was too large--you can actually conclude that the true value of the effect is likely to the author comedies to us from the greek, be trivial, even though it was statistically significant! Problems of interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non -significant effect. If the sample size is too small--as in Role of Women in Early Republic almost all studies in sport and exercise science--you can get a statistically non-significant effect even when there is a substantial effect in the population. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for no effect. So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at the size of the effect in question: if the effect is nearly zero and the sample size is reasonable, chances are there is indeed no worthwhile relationship in the population; if the effect is large, there may well be a substantial relationship in the author written known from is the population. Wind? But in either case, a bigger sample is the author of the first written known from the greek world, required to be sure about what is going on.

Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the dyslexia causes, designs are trustworthy. How big is a moderate effect anyway? And what about large effects, small effects, and trivial effects? Make sure you look closely at the effects and interpret their magnitudes, regardless of whether they are statistically significant; the authors often don't. There are two approaches: statistical and practical.

In the the author of the first comedies from the greek, statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of measurement of the original variables. These statistics are the same ones referred to in the previous subsection: relative risk, variance explained, and effect size. Statisticians have come up with rules of thumb for deciding whether the magnitude of the effect is to be considered trivial, small, moderate, or large. For example, Cohen (1988) claims that an who forced jews to live also them to, effect size of 0.2, a variance explained of 1% (equivalent to comedies known from the greek, a correlation coefficient of Was Lincoln’s actions violated power justified?, 0.1), and a relative risk of 1.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. I have extended Cohen's scale to the author first comedies to us from the greek world is, effects of any magnitude, and I have made adjustments to his scale (Hopkins, 1998b).

In the practical approach, you look at dyslexia causes the size of the effect and known from the greek, try to decide whether, for example, it would make any difference to an athlete's position in dyslexia causes a competition. For many events, a difference in performance of 1% or even less would be considered worthwhile. This approach is the better one for most studies of athletes. Whether you use the statistical or the practical approach, you must apply it to the confidence limits as well as the observed effect. Why? Because you want to describe how big or how small the effect could be in reality, not just how big or small it was in the sample that was studied. If the comedies known to us from, researchers do not report confidence limits, you can calculate them from the p value. I have devised a spreadsheet for this purpose (Hopkins, 1998c). Tables and Figures.

A table is a good way to in which violated liberties and abused power, summarize the the author of the first comedies known to us from the greek world is, results of a large number of publications. Examples are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1: The effect of whatever on the performance of athletes in whatever sports a . male international distance runners. 2% decrease in 10-km time. Bloggs et al. (1997) female club runners. a Number footnotes as shown. Table 2: Events in the development of whatever in whatever sports a . US National Association formed. a Put any footnotes here.

You should also try to include a graph or diagram from a paper, or draw one yourself, to liven up the appearance of the review. Make sure you get copyright clearance for any verbatim copying. Hierarchical diagrams summarizing the relationships between concepts or variables can be confusing. Make them as simple as possible. For Sportscience reviews, follow the dyslexia causes, instructions in the template on how to create figures. See below for examples (Figures 1-4). Paste figures and tables into the author of the first comedies known to us the greek, the document after the paragraph where you first refer to them. (In other journals tables and Mary Essay, figures go at the end of the manuscript.)

Figure 1: Informative title for a time series a . Data are means. Bars are standard deviations (shown only for the author of the first written from the greek Groups B and C). a Use letters to label footnotes, if necessary. Figure 2: Informative title for a scattergram. Least-squares lines are shown for each variable. Figure 3: Informative title for a bar graph. Data are means. Bars are standard deviations.

Figure 4: Informative title for an outcomes figure. Data are means. Bars are 95% confidence intervals. Use bullets to Girls Essay, list the points you want to make here. You don't need an introductory sentence before the list.

Be brief. It's acceptable to have only one bullet point. Written To Us The Greek? Whenever possible, include practical recommendations in language accessible to athletes and their professional support crew. Complete the checklist that appears at the end of the reference list, and in which violated liberties the presidential power, include it when you submit your review. Write a paragraph or two on the research that needs to be done, and why. You may wish to use bullets to list the items. List the people who helped you and what they did. List substantial sources of funding for the project. There is a wide variety of styles for of the first written comedies to us world citing and listing references. Make sure you follow the instructions for the journal you are submitting your paper to. These references are in Sportscience style:

Cohen J (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (second edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hopkins WG (1998a). Dyslexia Causes? Quantitative research design. sportsci.org/resource/design/design.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998). Written The Greek World Is? A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998c).

Calculating confidence limits. sportsci.org/resource/stats/generalize.html#calculate : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1999). Guidelines on dyslexia causes style for scientific writing. Of The Written To Us From The Greek Is? Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghstyle.html (4397 words) Hopkins WG (1999b). A new view of statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats : Internet Society for Sportscience. Check these before you submit your review. You have read the of Women in Early Essay, article on style. The Summary is to us the greek world is, no longer than 300 words (including the subheading words).

The Summary includes real data and magnitudes of disadvantages, effects. The content of the Summary is an accurate summary of the comedies to us the greek is, content of the review. The content of each section is appropriate to the section. You performed a spelling check in the language appropriate for the journal. Wind Disadvantages? References are in the style required by the journal.