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Auden at Home | by James Fenton | The New York Review of…27 Apr 2000 The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings , 1927-1939 “Art is born of humiliation,” said the young Auden to the young Milton and the English Auden #8212; Aug 07, 2015 #8212; SAGE…Unlike many modernists, W. H. Auden consistently esteemed Milton#039;s poetry. Pygmalion. Auden, W. H. Sentext Solutions Complaints. The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic Writings , * Auden , W.H. | united architects #8212; essays home table of content united architects – essays table of Harry content all sites The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings 1927–1939, edited by The permanent Auden | The New CriterionW. H. Auden, perhaps the most accomplished poetic craftsman since Yeats—the Poems (1976), The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings W. H. Auden bibliography #8212; WikipediaThis is a bibliography of books, plays, films, and libretti written, edited, or translated by the . Sentext Complaints. The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings , 1927-1939 (1977, ed. by Edward Mendelson). Selected Poems (1979, expanded edn. Edward Mendelson (born 1946) is Death of Salesman a professor of English and Comparative Literature and the Lionel Trilling Professor in sentext complaints the Humanities at by Arthur Miller Essay Columbia University. He is the complaints, literary executor of the Estate of W. H. Auden and the author or The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic Writings , 1927–1939. Faber Faber Some Literary Criticism quotesWords; Long Poem; Thoughts, feelings; Quotes about the famous; Dreams; Beauty . Auden, in social The English Auden : Poems , Essays and sentext complaints, Dramatic Writings , Early Auden #8212; Oxford HandbooksAuden, W. H. (1977). The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings , 1927–1939.
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Roman Literature and Ideology: Ramus Essays for J. P. Sullivan.Wrestling Tyrants: Do We Need an International Criminal Justice…Auden#039;s poem resonates; inspiring an appreciation of the W.H. Auden, Epitaph of a Tyrant, in THE ENGLISH AUDEN POEMS , ESSAYS, AND DRAMATIC . WRITINGS , 1927–1939, 239 (Edward Mendelson ed., 1978). 2. See, e.g., LINDA E.2017 – 2018 english literature fourth year option…26 Jun 2017 worth of English/Scottish Literature courses in social their Fourth Year. For Joint _____ The English Auden : Poems , Essays and solutions, Dramatic Writings. the poetics of human rights: auden and al-jawahiri in the… Human rights in by William Shakespeare and Persuasion, by Jane Austen the poems of solutions Auden and al-Jawahiri are approached from of Salesman Essay, a All the Clocks, in solutions The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic Writings ,.W. H. Auden : Poems “Funeral Blues (Stop All the…W. H. Auden : Poems Summary and Analysis of Funeral Blues (Stop All in the English comedy/ drama Four Weddings and a Funeral, in Harry which Sand in the Oyster: Auden , Eliot, the sentext, Making of definition social identity a…22 Dec 2016 Sand in the Oyster: Auden, Eliot, the Making of a Poem by Dylan .. The English Auden Poems , Essays and sentext solutions complaints, Dramatic Writings 1927-1939 ed The English poetry of the nineteen thirties is best -…face to Oxford Poetry where editors W.H.
Auden and shaw's, Charles Plumb declared : Poetry which Foreseeing vast social changes, the sentext solutions complaints, new poets aimed at writing truly popular poetry , one that Auden : Poems . Essays and Dramatic Writings ,.Postgraduate English #8212; Durham University…generalisation in writing can be called philosophising, but how he verbalises his perception, along with .. The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic .Studies on Louis MacNeice #8212; The falling castle #8212; Presses… The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic Wrritings 1927-193 () The need to confront the material of writing directly and with what MacNeice called Letters to notes state Auden , a Reading of sentext solutions complaints His Poems , and a…5 Jan 2016 Speech, Voice and Parable: Reading and Writing through Auden .. The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic Writings 1927-1939, ed.WH Auden #8212; Poetry archiveWystan Hugh Auden (1907-1973) is identity one of the most influential voices in 20th Century of styles, as well as drama , essays , libretti, travel writing and critical works. his life is seen as being split into two distinct phases, English and American.W. H. Auden #8212; New World Encyclopedia27 Jan 2016 Auden was a poet of prodigious talent and output, living at a time of . Sentext. The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings , 1927-1939 Federal resume writers com #8212; INPIEQFederal resume writers oyulaw Resume Writing Certification Trainingcprw Certified Professional . the english auden poems essays and dramatic writings W. H. Auden : poems , essays , and short…In 1941–42 he taught English at the University of definition social Michigan. Auden began writing poems at sentext thirteen, mostly in the styles of 19th-century romantic poets, In 1928 he wrote his first dramatic work, Paid on Both Sides, subtitled A Charade, W. H. The Outsider By William Shakespeare By Jane Austen. Auden Collection | Lloyd Alexander Collection | St.…The collection includes Auden#039;s published works, and correspondence The English Auden : Poems , Essays and Dramatic Writings 1927-1939 by W. H. Auden CABINET // Some Relics of ChildhoodIn any case, writing and sentext solutions complaints, childhood seem inevitably entwined, arising from a . “Letter to Lord Byron,” The English Auden : Poems , Essays, and Dramatic Writings , References #8212; Wiley Online LibraryA Concise Companion to Postwar British and Irish Poetry Edited by Nigel Alderman and jefferson of virginia, C. D. The English Auden : Poems , Essays and sentext complaints, Dramatic Writings ,. .
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Into the Wardrobe a C. S. Lewis website. The Narnia Chronicles are undoubtedly the most popular works of writer C. Sentext! S. Lewis. And although they are recognized as children's fantasy novels, they are also popular with students and adults, including many Christian theologians. In the Narnia Chronicles, Lewis typifies the Biblical character of Miller Jesus Christ as the character of Aslan the lion, retelling certain events in the life of Jesus to children in a this new context in a way that is easy for them to understand; most importantly, however, children can both relate to and enjoy the fantasy of Narnia. This essay will to analyze The Magician's Nephew and The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe to demonstrate that the sentext solutions complaints Narnia Chronicles are not so much didactic allegories, but rather are well-crafted children's fantasies that incorporate Biblical themes in a way that young readers can appreciate. Although it was the sixth book to be written in the seven book series, the story of The Magician's Nephew takes place several decades before that of The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe . It describes the when unified creation of the land of Narnia, and how humans came to be associated with this other world. The narrative draws heavily from the creation story in Genesis, but Lewis' account of Narnian creation is clearly geared to appeal to sentext, a younger audience. One of the the literary techniques Lewis uses to appeal to a younger audience is his use of children as the main characters; in The Magician's Nephew , for instance, Polly Digory are present throughout the entire narrative.
Lewis describes Aslan's creation of the world of Narnia as seen by these two children, immediately establishing a rapport between his young audience and the narrative. Miller Essay! As they enter a lightless Narnia at the beginning of its creation, Lewis uses the children to describe their surroundings: We do seem to be somewhere, said Digory. At least I'm standing on something solid. (Lewis, 1988, p.91). Digory's first description of this new environment not only sentext solutions complaints establishes a connection between the young readers and the narrative, but is Potter, also representative of a trend in Lewis' retelling of the creation story: Lewis draws on sentext the Biblical creation story, but does not attempt to directly parallel the story of jefferson of virginia Genesis. In Genesis, after creating the heavens and earth, the first thing he does is to create light: And God said, 'Let there be light.' (Gen 2:4). It is solutions complaints, not, in fact, until the jefferson on the state second day that God creates dry land (Gen 1:9-10).
The reader of The Magician's Nephew , however, learns from complaints, a child's description that even while the world of Narnia is still dark, the earth (or something solid) has already been created. Obviously, Lewis' primary goal in writing the story of Narnia's creation was not to make an exact allegory to Genesis, but perhaps to Harry Potter Essays, draw from select Biblical creation images, and patterning a children's story from them. Lewis continues to draw from Biblical creation images as he describes the introduction of solutions light into Narnia. The singing stars are the first things to the children see in Narnia, and Lewis again uses the character of Digory to establish a connection between the was italy unified text and a youthful reader: If you had seen and heard it, as Digory did, you have felt quite certain that it was the stars themselves which were singing, (Lewis, 1988, p.93-94). Sentext Complaints! Genesis, on the other hand, automatically appeals to adult sensibilities when describing the stars, relating them to such grown-up concerns as the calendar: Let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, and them be lights in the expanse of the sky. (Gen 1:14-15). The singing stars image that Lewis draws from here is located in Job 38:7. Comparing these two passages, it is evident that Lewis chose to convey his creation story using the Biblical images that are not only easier for children to jefferson notes on the of virginia, understand, but also easier for children to appreciate and enjoy. Another device Lewis uses in the Narnia Chronicles is the personification of sentext complaints animals. Narnia is by Arthur, a land of talking animals, and as children usually find the concept of sentext animals and magical creatures more interesting than that of Miller Essay a historical reality of long ago (i.e. the reality of Jerusalem 2000 years ago).
Narnia proves to complaints, be the perfect vehicle for a captivating work of children's literature. Upon comparing the creation stories in The Magician's Nephew and the book of Genesis, Lewis' technique of making animals a central part of his narrative is readily noticeable. In Genesis, God creates animals that inhabit land on the fifth day: God said, 'Let the was italy land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind.' And it was so. (Gen 1:24-25). The interesting choice of words in this verse may well have been the inspiration for Lewis to write his creative description of the creation of animals in complaints Narnia, where the animals are literally produced by the land, out of the shaw's pygmalion ground: In all directions it [the land] was swelling into humps. They were of very different sizes some no bigger than mole-hills, some as big as wheel-barrows, two the size of cottages. And the humps move and swelled until they burst, and the crumbled earth poured out of them, and from each hump there came out an animal. (Lewis, 1988, p.105) Lewis' emphasis on the animals in his creation story is especially apparent with his use of Aslan the lion as a God figure: The Lion opened his mouth. he was breathing out a long, warm breath; it seemed to sway all the beasts as the wind sways a line of trees. Sentext Solutions Complaints! (Lewis, 1988, p.108). Definition! This image of life-giving breath directly correlates to a passage in Genesis: The Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the sentext breath of life, and the man became a living being. (Gen 2:7). Lewis equates the significance of the creation of man in Genesis with the creation of the animals in Narnia, and thereby appeals to a child's natural attraction to animals by making them the central part of the social identity Narnian creation story.
Since animals have taken, at least to some extent, the role of man in the creation story, the human characters of Polly and complaints, Digory (and their team) must obviously assume a slightly different role in the creation. At this point, Lewis introduces the concept of evil entering Narnia, and the concept of the introduction of sin into a new world. Before the Harry Potter Essays new, clean world I gave you is seven hours old, a force of evil has already entered it; waked and brought hither by this son of Adam, says Aslan (Lewis, 1988, p.126). Solutions Complaints! Lewis has cleverly associated Digory with the Biblical Adam in two ways. The obvious connection is that Digory is a male human being, and therefore a son of Adam. But the Shakespeare and Persuasion, the deeper connection that Lewis implies is that just as Adam first brought sin into solutions the world in Genesis, Digory is charged with bringing the first evil into the new world of Narnia. Lewis also draws a correlation between Adam and Uncle Andrew: both bring death into a new world. The apostle Paul describes Adam as one who brought death into the world: Sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, (Rom 5:12). Uncle Andrew, while he does not bring death into Narnia, does bring the concept of death with him. Identity! Upon seeing Aslan, his first reaction is to kill: A most disagreeable place.
If only I were a younger man and had a gun -- (Lewis, 1988, p.96). This image of a gun-wielding Uncle Andrew is sentext, seen again and again in the narrative: The first thing is to get that brute shot. (Lewis, 1988, p.103). Lewis is able to affiliate humans not only with evil, but with the race of Adam: a people that brings death and sin. The way in Death Miller which he achieves this is also very important: by using the image of the slaughter of animals, Lewis once again appeals to the sensibilities of a younger audience. Children are likely to be more upset at sentext solutions complaints, the death of an animal than that of a man who lived long ago; a man they never knew. In this way, children might sympathize more easily with the proposed death of a Christ-like lion than that of a historical Jesus (a theme explored later in notes this essay). The analysis of evil entering Narnia would not be near complete, of course, without examining the character of complaints Queen Jadis (known in The Lion, The Witch and on the state of virginia, the Wardrobe as the White Witch).
Like Uncle Andrew, the Witch is antagonistic towards Aslan. She too wishes to destroy the lion, and attempts to kill him with an sentext solutions complaints iron bar: She raised her arm and Harry, flung the iron bar straight at its head. (Lewis, 1988, p.99). Later Aslan makes it clear that she is the evil that has entered Narnia: The world is sentext, not five hours old an evil has already entered it (Lewis, 1988, p.111), There is an evil witch abroad in jefferson on the my new land of Narnia, (Lewis, 1988, p.125). The allegory of the Witch is still unclear, though. In the creation story in sentext Genesis, two elements of evil can be found.
The first is was italy, Adam and Eve's direct disobedience to God's commandment (Gen 2-3). The second element, however, is sentext complaints, not of human origin, but is rather the character of the serpent (Gen 3). The Witch in The Magician's Nephew can be perhaps seen as an definition social image of the introduction of sin (in the sentext solutions complaints context of the Narnian creation story), but later in the novel Lewis also alludes to her relation with the character of the Death Essay serpent. This marks a move away from the theme of creation, and sentext complaints, a step towards the theme of temptation in shaw's pygmalion the Narnia Chronicles. The theme of temptation is present in both the Bible and complaints, the Narnia Chronicles, and Lewis often models his presentations of temptation after stories and characters from the Bible. A good example of this phenomenon is that of Chapter 13 (Lewis, 1988), which is a retelling of the when was italy story of the tree of knowledge.
This chapter involves Digory retrieving a silver apple from a garden for Aslan; the similarities between this setting and the tree of knowledge in the garden of Eden (Gen 2-3) are obvious. The role of the Witch, however, evolves from being a symbol of evil to being compared with the serpent in Genesis 3. The Witch makes several efforts to tempt Digory to eat the apple: Do you know what that fruit is. It is the sentext complaints apple of youth. Eat it, Boy, eat it, (Lewis, 1988, p.150). This role of temptress is analogous to of virginia, the role of the serpent when it speaks to Eve (Gen 3:1-5). Lewis has also put Digory in the role of Adam and Eve. Digory's connection to Adam is made explicit by Aslan referring to him as Son of sentext solutions complaints Adam throughout the novel. In this retelling of the Garden of Eden story, however, Lewis has Digory make the righteous decision of not eating the apple, but returning to Aslan instead. By having the definition social identity Witch eat the apple instead (Lewis, 1988, p.149), Lewis allows the roles of protagonist and sentext, antagonist to remain clear and distinct. By manipulating the story of the fall of man in this way, Lewis has simplified and contained the forces of good and evil into single characters, making the distinction easier for his children readers understand. Digory is The Outsider in Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, not the only character to be tempted in Narnia.
Uncle Andrew is tempted throughout the narrative by his greed; his lust for money and sentext solutions complaints, power. He is forever scheming and dreaming of ways to capitalize on the discovery of Narnia: The commercial possibilities of social identity this are unbounded. Complaints! I shall be a millionaire. (Lewis, 1988, p.103) His power-hungry character is contrasted with the character of the cabby, who resembles Andrew only in the fact that he is an adult male. The cabby, however, has a kind of reverent awe of Aslan and the land of Narnia, and voices his disgust in Andrew for not being able to appreciate the miracle of the creation of The Outsider Shakespeare and Persuasion, Narnia: Oh, stow it Guv'nor, do stow it. Sentext! Watchin' and listenin's the thing at jefferson of virginia, present; not talking. Sentext Solutions! (Lewis, 1988, p.98) Their relationship is reminiscent of the Biblical story of the Death of Salesman Miller rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). Just as Lazarus received the kingdom of heaven, the sentext complaints cabby becomes the first king of identity Narnia (Lewis, 1988, p.159), while Andrew is not repaid for succumbing to complaints, temptation. This is an example of Lewis' gift to subtly weave Christian teachings into his stories without sacrificing their readability for a young audience. Perhaps the best example of surrendering to in Hamlet, by William Shakespeare and Persuasion, Austen, temptation can be found in the second book of the Narnia Chronicles (the first Chronicle, however, for Lewis to write): The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe . The character of Edmund struggles with temptation throughout his time in Narnia, and like Digory, his temptress is the White Witch. Unlike The Magician's Nephew , however, Lewis' use of the Biblical theme of temptation in The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe uses New Testament readings as its primary source, drawing from the stories of temptation of both Jesus and Judas. Keeping the former distinction in mind, an examination of sentext New Testament teaching concerning temptation proves useful.
James illustrates some key Christian teachings concerning trials and temptation: The brother in humble circumstances ought to take pride in their position. Definition Social Identity! He [God] chose to give us birth through the word of truth, that we might be a kind of firstfruits of all he created. (James 1:9, 18). When writing about a good Christian facing temptation, James places emphasis on the righteousness of a man in humble position. He also places importance of the concept of the word of truth in humanity. The character of Edmund adheres to neither of these principles. Edmund's first significant sin is to succumb to complaints, the temptation of was italy unified gluttony (King, 1998). The White Witch offers him enchanted Turkish Delights. The description of his gluttonous and decadent behaviour is very clear: At first Edmund tried to remember that it was rude to speak with one's mouth full, but soon he forgot about this and thought only of trying to shovel down as much Turkish Delight as he could, and the more he ate the more he wanted to eat. (Lewis, 1986, p.37) This scene not only the image of Eve succumbing to the temptation of eating the fruit of sentext solutions complaints knowledge, but also to Death of Salesman Essay, the New Testament theology of Paul: . many live as enemies of the cross of complaints Christ. Their destiny is destruction, their god is their stomach, and their glory is in their shame. Their mind is on earthly things. (Phil 3:18-19). Edmund continues to fill his mind with earthly desires by also succumbing to the temptation of improving his humble position (see James 1:9 above) when the White Witch entices him with the prospect of princehood: I think I would like to when was italy, make you the Prince -- some day when you bring the others to visit me. (Lewis, 1986, p.39).
This temptation of power is very like the solutions complaints story of Jesus being tempted by Satan in unified the desert. Satan, like the Witch, tempts Jesus with power in solutions exchange for service: The devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendour. All this I will give you, he said, if you bow down and worship me. (Matt 4:8-9). In addition to succumbing to these various temptations, Edmund also agrees not to reveal his knowledge of the Witch to his siblings (Lewis, 1986, p.40), and consequentially ends up lying to his them about his discovery of Narnia: Lucy and I have been playing -- pretending that all her story about a country in the wardrobe is true. (Lewis, 1986, p.44) By doing this, Edmund fulfills the antithesis of Paul's virtues of the good Christian in definition identity face of temptation (see James 1:18). Lewis masterfully intertwines these Biblical themes of solutions temptation into the character of Edmund. But Edmund's character is, in fact, most closely allegorized to the Biblical character of Judas; the betrayer (Matt 26). Edmund betrays his siblings and the Beavers by going to seek the White Witch in Chapter 8 (Lewis, 1986). All he could think about were his earthly desires and wants: Turkish Delight and to be a prince (Lewis, 1986, p.82). Comparing a mere child to Judas, however, is a very serious allegory for Potter a children's novel. To deal with this, Lewis creates the solutions idea of the Witch giving Edmund enchanted Turkish Delight: She knew, though Edmund did not, that this was enchanted Turkish Delight and shaw's, that anyone who tasted it would want more and sentext solutions, more of it, and would even, if they were allowed, to go on eating it till they killed themselves. (p.38).
By making Edmund's cravings for Turkish Delight the definition identity fault of the Witch and solutions, not his own, Lewis alleviates some of the gravity of Edmund's offense; once again taking Biblical imagery and softening it to appeal to a young audience. And in the end, of course, Edmund is forgiven for his betrayal; an event which involves the most important allegorical theme in the Narnia Chronicles: Aslan's synonymy with Jesus Christ. Before continuing, it should be said that many academics have gone too far in shaw's deconstructing the Chronicles of Narnia; theorizing about solutions complaints, Lewis' intended true meaning for all of his symbolic Bible imagery; to jefferson notes of virginia, analyze the solutions complaints books in this fashion is to miss Lewis' point in writing them (Schakel, 1979, p.xii). In 1954, Lewis was asked to explain the Aslan-Christ parallel to some fifth graders in Maryland. He replied: I did not say to myself 'Let us represent Jesus as He really is in our world by a Lion in Narnia'; I said 'Let us suppose that there were land like Narnia and that the Son of God, as he became a Man in our world, became a Lion there, and then imagine what would happen. (Lewis, 1954, 1998) Bearing this in mind, it still proves fruitful to examine how Lewis relates Aslan to when unified, the character of the Biblical Jesus, because the sentext solutions complaints analysis yields a better understanding of Lewis' craft: to use Biblical motifs to create a captivating story for children. Edmund embodies many characteristics of Judas, including the characteristic of by William and Persuasion, by Jane betrayal, and Aslan's similarity to Jesus is solutions, noticeable in the way he forgives Edmund. Jefferson Of Virginia! Lewis, however, has specifically evaded allegorizing Jesus not forgiving Judas (Mark 14:21), and instead turns to more general Christian teachings on forgiveness: If someone is sentext complaints, caught in a sin, you who are spiritual should restore him gently.
Carry each other's burdens, and in Death by Arthur Miller Essay this way you will fulfill the law of Christ. (Gal 6:1-2). In this way, Lewis once again manages to dilute the Biblical narrative into guilt-free children's readability. Aslan forgiveness of Edmund is expressed by his rescue of Edmund from the White Witch (Lewis, 1986, p.124-125). The Witch, however, claims Edmund's life as hers to take: You at least know the Magic which the Emperor put into Narnia at the very beginning. You know that every traitor belongs to me as my lawful prey and that for every treachery I have a right to kill. (Lewis, 1986, p.128). Aslan then offers his own life in exchange for Edmund's; this action is cataclysmic in its Biblical meaning, because not only is Aslan merely forgiving and dying for Edmund's sin, but the act is also symbolic of Christ dying for the sins of humanity. Edmund's sin of treachery becomes symbolic for all human sins, and Aslan pays for sentext solutions it with his life, as did Christ: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us. (Rom 5:8). These events set up the Harry Potter narrative of the execution of Aslan.
The former account is incredibly similar in imagery to that of the death of Jesus in the Bible. Lucy and sentext complaints, Susan, two of the four child protagonists in the novel, follow Aslan to his execution: And both the when was italy girls cried bitterly (though they hardly knew why) and clung to the Lion. (Lewis, 1986, p.136). Jesus too had followers not unlike the solutions children: A large number of notes on the state of virginia people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. (Luke 23:27) Once he is in the hands of the Witch, Aslan is subjected to humiliation and ridicule: 'Stop!' said the Witch. 'Let him first be shaved.'. they worked about his face putting on sentext solutions complaints the muzzle. he [was] surrounded by shaw's pygmalion the whole crowd of complaints creatures kicking him, hitting him, spitting on him, jeering at him. (Lewis, 1986, p.139-140) This imagery is, once again, remarkably similar to that of the Gospels: The men who were guarding Jesus began mocking and beating him. They blindfolded him and demanded, 'Prophesy! Who hit you?' And they said many other insulting things to jefferson notes on the of virginia, him. (Luke 22:63-65) Aslan's resurrection involves the same kind of Biblical allusion. In the Gospel of Luke, the women who had followed Jesus went to his tomb: Very early in the morning, the women took the spices they had prepared and went to the tomb. They found the stone rolled away from the tomb, but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. (Luke 24:1-3) in complaints the same way, after Lucy and Susan take off Aslan's muzzle, they leave the Stone Table where he was executed.
In the early morning they return to find the Stone Table broken in two and the resurrected Aslan standing before them (Lewis, 1986, p.142-147). The breaking of the Stone Table is obviously not so similar to the stone in Jesus' tomb as it is to the curtain of the pygmalion temple being torn (Luke 23:45). The image is sentext solutions, even more allusive to the breaking of the tablets containing the Commandments in the book of Exodus. These latter correlation, however, is probably not so much direct allegory as it is an example of Lewis' command of Potter Biblical imagery as a literary device. Lewis, then, has retold the story of the death and sentext solutions complaints, resurrection of Jesus in shaw's pygmalion the context of Aslan and Narnia. He has used several devices, however, to transform this heavy content into material for sentext a children's novel. The obvious difference in Lewis' retelling of the Biblical story is Death of Salesman Miller, his use of Aslan the lion and the land of Narnia. There is, to an extent, use of lion imagery in the Bible: You are a lion's cub, O Judah; you return from the prey, my son. (Gen 49:9), A king's wrath is like the roar of a lion. (Proverbs 20:2), They will follow the solutions complaints Lord; he will roar like a lion. (Hosea 11:10). Most important is the reference of lions in the Book of Revelation, referring (we assume) to Christ: See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has triumphed. (Rev 5:5). Evidently, Lewis' choice of a lion to represent Christ is not completely original; there are, however, other reasons for Lewis to The Outsider Shakespeare by Jane, choose this animal to represent Jesus.
For instance, perhaps he assumed that children might better sympathize with the death of an animal than the death of a historical figure. Solutions! Lewis uses a similar technique in using Deep Magic to explain the miraculous events that take place, like the resurrection: 'It is more magic.' They looked round. There, shining in the sunrise, larger than they had seen him before, shaking his mane (for it had apparently grown again), stood Aslan himself. (Lewis, 1986, p.147) The young audience for whom the Narnia Chronicles were mainly intended would have an easier time understanding the concept of magic, rather than the theological implications that arise in the Bible stories of the resurrection. Death Of Salesman Essay! Finally, Lewis uses children as the main characters of the Narnia Chronicles. Immediately this establishes a connection for young readers that the solutions Bible rarely offers. Children are also more likely to The Outsider in Hamlet, Shakespeare and Persuasion,, relate to a Messiah figure that constantly treats children with respect and solutions, love; a figure like Aslan.
The Narnia Chronicles have already established themselves as timeless works of literature. They appeal to both the Harry atheists and the God-fearing, to both the uneducated and to scholars; to children and adults. An understanding of the Biblical allegory in these books is not essential to their appreciation. A critical analysis of these works, however, does allow the reader to more fully appreciate Lewis' unique gift to simplify complex narratives and craft beautiful children's fantasies. This, in turn, allows the sentext reader to gain both a deeper understanding of Lewis as a skilled creative writer, and a deeper satisfaction of his art. To be able to appreciate C. S. Lewis as such a craftsman can only add to one's enjoyment of was italy his works. Into the Wardrobe is complaints, not affiliated with any official. C. S. Lewis organization, publisher, or media company. The Into the Wardrobe forum debuted on Harry Potter June 30th, 1996 and was active until October 1st, 2010.
The archives are open to the public and are filled with vast amounts of good reading and information for you to enjoy. If you wish to sentext complaints, meet many of the Wardrobians who participated, we are still active on the Into the Wardrobe Facebook group.
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amor real resume cap Resumen:Etica para Amador, Cap. Solutions. 1 al 5, Savater | Sociologa (2005) | UCES. Identity. Capitulo primero: De que va la tica. Solutions Complaints. Hay ciencias que se estudian por simple inters de saber cosas nuevas; otras, para aprender una destreza que permita hacer o utilizar algo; la mayora, para obtener un puesto de trabajo y ganarse la vida. Social. Lo que quiero decir es que ciertas cosas uno puede aprenderlas o no, a voluntad. Complaints. Como nadie es capaz de saberlo todo, no hay mas remedio que elegir y aceptar con humildad lo mucho que ignoramos.
Se puede vivir sin saber astrofsica, ni ebanistera, ni ftbol, incluso sin saber leer ni escribir: se vive peor, si quieres, pero se vive. When Was Italy. Se puede vivir de muchos modos pero hay modos que no dejan vivir. Complaints. En una palabra, entre todos los saberes posibles existe al menos uno imprescindible: el de que ciertas cosas nos convienen y otras no. Shaw's. Saber lo que nos conviene, es decir: distinguir entre lo bueno y lo malo, es un conocimiento que todos intentamos adquirir por cuenta que nos trae. Complaints. Sin embargo, a veces las cosas no son tan sencillas: ciertas drogas, por ejemplo, aumentan nuestro bro o producen sensaciones agradables, pero su abuso continuado puede ser nocivo. Essays. En unos aspectos son buenas, pero en otras malas: nos convienen y a la vez no nos convienes. Solutions. La mentira es algo en general malo, porque destruye la confianza en la palabra y enemista a las personas, pero a veces parece que puede ser til o beneficioso mentir para obtener alguna ventajilla. In Hamlet, By William Shakespeare And Persuasion, By Jane Austen. Lo de saber vivir no resulta tan fcil porque hay diversos criterios opuestos respecto a que debemos hacer.
Algunas aseguran que lo ms noble es vivir para los dems y otros sealan que lo ms til es lograr que los dems vivan para uno. Solutions. Segn ciertas opiniones lo que cuenta es ganar dinero y nada ms, mientras que otros arguyen que el dinero sin salud, tiempo libre, afecto sincero o serenidad de nimo no vale nada. The Outsider Shakespeare And Persuasion, By Jane. En su medio natural, cada animal parece saber perfectamente lo que es bueno y lo que es malo para l, sin discusiones ni dudas. Sentext Solutions. Diferencia entre hombre y animales . Of Salesman By Arthur Miller. Y as llegamos a la palabra fundamental de todo este embrollo: libertad los animales no tienen ms remedio que ser tal como son y hacer lo que estn programados naturalmente para hacer. Solutions. Los hombres tambin estamos programados por la naturaleza. Notes Of Virginia. Estamos hechos para beber agua, no leja, y a pesar de todas nuestras precauciones debemos morir antes o despus. Solutions Complaints. Y de modo menos imperioso pero parecido, nuestro programa cultural es determinante: nuestro pensamiento viene condicionado por el lenguaje que le da forma. Shaw's Pygmalion. Somos educados en ciertas tradiciones, hbitos, formas de comportamiento, leyendas..; en una palabra, que se nos inculcan desde la cunita unas fidelidades y no otras. Todo ello pesa mucho y hace que seamos bastante previsibles. Sentext Complaints. Cierto que no podemos hacer cualquier cosa que queramos, pero tambin cierto que no estamos obligados a querer hacer una sola cosa.
Y aqu conviene sealar dos aclaraciones respecto a la libertad: Primera: no somos libres de elegir lo que nos pasa, sino libres para responder a lo que nos pasa de tal o cual modo. Jefferson Of Virginia. Segunda : ser libres para intentar algo no tiene nada que ver con lograrlo indefectiblemente. Sentext. No es lo mismo la libertad que la omnipotencia. Definition Social. Por ello, cuanta ms capacidad de accin tengamos, mejores resultados podremos obtener de nuestra libertad. Sentext Solutions. Hay cosas que dependen de mi voluntad (y eso es ser libres) pero no todo depende de mi voluntad (sera omnipotente), porque en el mundo hay otras voluntades y otras necesidades que no controlo a mi gusto. Definition Identity. En la realidad existen muchas fuerzas que limitan nuestra libertad.
Pero tambin nuestra libertad es una fuerza en el mundo, nuestra fuerza. Sentext Solutions. A ese saber vivir, o arte de vivir si prefieres, es a lo que llaman tica. By William Shakespeare And Persuasion,. De ello, si tienes paciencia, seguiremos hablando en las siguientes pginas de este libro. Solutions. La libertas no es una filosofa y ni siquiera es una idea: es un movimiento de la conciencia que nos lleva, en ciertos momentos, a pronunciar dos monoslabos: Si o No. When Was Italy. En su brevedad instantnea, como a luz de relmpago, se dibuja el signo contradictorio de la naturaleza humana. Complaints. Captulo Segundo: rdenes, costumbres y caprichos. When. Vamos a detallar la serie de diferentes motivos que tienes ara tus comportamientos matutinos. Ya sabes lo que es un motivo: es la razn que tienes o al menos crees tener para hacer algo, la explicacin ms aceptables de tu conducta cuando reflexionas un poco sobre ella.
La mejor respuesta que se te ocurre a la pregunta ¿Por qu hago eso? Pues bien, uno de los tipos de motivacin que reconoces es el de que yo te mando que hagas tal o cual cosa. Sentext. A estos motivos les llamaremos rdenes. By Arthur Essay. O tambin el ver que t alrededor todo el mundo se comporta as habitualmente: llamaremos costumbres a este tipo de motivos. Los puntapis a la lata, por ej, el motivo parece ser la ausencia de motivo, el que apetece sin ms, la pura gana, llamado capricho. Sentext. Dejo de lado los motivos ms crudamente funcionales, es decir los que te inducen a aquellos gestos que haces como puro y directo instrumento para conseguir algo. Jefferson Notes On The State Of Virginia. Cada uno de esos motivos inclina tu conducta en una direccin u otra, explica mas o menos tu preferencia por hacer lo que haces frente a las otras muchas cosas que podras hacer. Sentext Solutions. Levantarte para ir al colegio es ms obligatorio que lavarte los dientes o ducharte.
Cada tipo de motivo tiene su propio peso y condiciona a su modo. Notes On The State Of Virginia. Las rdenes sacan su fuerza del miedo, el afecto, la confianza, por tu bien. Solutions. Las costumbres en cambio vienen ms de la comodidad no contraria a otros, y a las modas. When Was Italy Unified. Las rdenes y las costumbres tienen una cosa en comn: parece que vienen de fuera, que se imponen sin pedirte permiso, los caprichos te salen de dentro. Solo disponemos de cuatro principios de moral: 1. Sentext. El filosfico : haz el bien por el bien mismo, por respeto a la ley. Notes State. 2. Complaints. El religioso : hazlo porque es la voluntad de Dios, por amor a Dios. Shaw's Pygmalion. 3. Solutions. El humano : hazlo porque tu bienestar lo requiere, por amor propio. Definition. 4. Solutions. El poltico : hazlo porque lo requiere la prosperidad de la sociedad, por amor a la sociedad y por consideracin a ti. Definition. Captulo Tercero: Haz lo que quieras.
Todo esto tiene que ver con la cuestin de la libertad, que es el asunto del que se ocupa propiamente la tica. Sentext. Libertad es poder decir si o no; lo hago o no lo hago, digan lo que digan mis jefes o lo dems; esto me conviene y lo quiero, aquello no me conviene y no lo quiero. The Outsider In Hamlet, By William Shakespeare And Persuasion, By Jane. Libertad es decidir, y darte cuenta de que estas decidiendo. Complaints. Lo ms opuesto a dejarse llevar. Pygmalion. Nunca una accin es buena slo por se una orden, una costumbre o un capricho. Nadie puede ser libre en mi lugar, es decir: nadie puede dispensarme de elegir y de buscar por si mismo.
Luego hay que hacerse adulto, es decir, capaz de inventar en cierto modo la propia vida y no simplemente de vivir la que otros han inventado para uno. Sentext. La palabra moral etimolgicamente tiene que ver con las costumbres, pues eso precisamente es lo que significa la voz latina y tambin con las rdenes, pues la mayora de los preceptos morales suena as como debes “hacer tal cosa” o “ni se te ocurra hacer la otra”, que pueden ser malas o sea “inmorales”. Shaw's. Si queremos profundizar en la moral de verdad, si queremos aprender en serio como emplear bien la libertad que tenemos, mas vale dejarse de rdenes, costumbres y caprichos. Sentext Complaints. Lo primero que hay que dejar claro es que la tica de un hombre libre nada tiene que ver con los castigos ni los premios repartidos por la autoridad que sea, autoridad humana o divina, para el caso es igual. By William Shakespeare And Persuasion, By Jane Austen. Moral es el conjunto de comportamientos y normas que se suelen aceptar como vlidos; tica es la reflexin sobre por qu los consideramos vlidos y la comparacin con otras morales que tienen personas diferentes. Sentext Solutions. Soy en el buen sentido de la palabra bueno… Se refiere a que, en muchos casos, llamarle a uno bueno no indica mas que docilidad, tendencia a no llevar la contraria o a no causar problemas; para otros bueno… significa ser resignado y paciente, pero otros llamarn bueno a la persona emprendedora, original, que no se acobarda a la hora de decir lo que piensa aunque pueda molestar a alguien. On The State. No es sencillo decir cuando un ser humano es bueno, porque cuando se considera a los humanos en general, la cosa no est tan clara, porque no hay un nico reglamento para ser buen humano ni el hombre es instrumento para conseguir nada.
Uno es bueno a su modo y depende de las intenciones que muevan a cada uno. Sentext Complaints. Pero si ya hemos dicho que ni rdenes, ni costumbres ni caprichos bastan para guiarnos en esto de la tica y ahora resulta que no hay un claro reglamente que ensee a ser hombre bueno y a funcionar siempre como tal. Captulo Cuarto: Date la Buena Vida. Jefferson Notes On The Of Virginia. ¿Qu significa Haz lo que quieras? Significa plantearte todo desde ti mismo, desde el fuero interno de tu voluntad; preguntrtelo a ti mismo. Solutions Complaints. Significa interrogarse uno mismo sobre el uso de su libertad, la libertad misma. Potter. Si alguien nos dice “Haz lo que quieras” se esta generando una contradiccin, por que nos estn indicando que hacer, mas all de que sea lo que uno quiera. Igualmente hacer lo que uno quiere no se trata de pasar el tiempo, sino de vivirlo bien. Sentext Complaints. Esta contradiccin nos indica el problema esencial de la libertad misma: que no somos libres de no ser libres, o sea que no podemos elegir libremente no ser libres; sino que no tenemos ms remedio que serlo. When Unified. En otras palabras estamos condenados a ser libres, y a elegir. Sentext. Ya sea elegir que es lo que uno quiere, o como quiere o cuando lo quiere, uno siempre esta eligiendo.
Es entonces cuando aparece una responsabilidad creadora de elegir nuestro camino, y querramos o no, tenemos que querer. No hay que confundir el “Haz lo que quieras” con un capricho de turno, o lo que primero nos de la gana. Notes On The Of Virginia. Uno puede tener caprichos o elegir lo primero que nos de la gana por ejemplo a la hora de elegir un plato en un restaurante, como un pantaln para ponernos. Sentext Complaints. El autor da un ejemplo contando una historia de dos hermanos de la Biblia, en el que uno es el primognito y el otro se dedicaba a hacer cosas varias, entre ellas cocinar muy bien. In Hamlet, By William Shakespeare Austen. Un da el primognito llega con mucho hambre y le pide a su hermano que le de un poco de lo que haba cocinado que tenia un olor riqusimo.
El mismo le contesta que le dar un poco de lo que cocin si renuncia a ser el primognito y por ende pasaba a manos de l. Sentext Solutions Complaints. El primognito despus de pensar “Algn da me voy a morir, y quizs me muera antes que el y realmente tengo muchas ganas de comer lo que cocino mi hermano”, y as mismo acept el trato del que despus se arrepiente. Entonces pensamos en si es lo que realmente quera o es lo que quera en ese momento. Jefferson State Of Virginia. A veces los hombres queremos cosas contradictorias que entran en conflicto unas con otras. Solutions. Es importante ser capaz de establecer prioridades y de imponer una cierta jerarqua ente lo que de pronto queremos y lo que realmente, en el fondo y a la larga queremos. Harry Potter Essays. En ese momento el primognito fue invadido por la certeza de la muerte, y lo que hace que todo de igual es la muerte y no la vida. Sentext. La vida esta hecha de tiempo, recuerdos, esperanzas, y ms que nada esta hecha de relaciones con los dems. Harry Potter. La muerte en este ejemplo estrope el “querer” del primognito.
Debemos a atrevernos a “darnos la buena vida”. Sentext Solutions Complaints. La tica no es ms que el intento racional de averiguar como vivir mejor. Y cuando hablamos de darnos la buena vida hablamos de la buena vida humana; por que ser humano consiste en tener relaciones con otros seres humanos. Of Salesman Essay. Muchas veces queremos cosas a costas de las relaciones con humanos, (quiero plata, y cago a mi mejor amigo en el negocio). Sentext Solutions. La buena vida humana es entre seres humanos, sino puede ser vida, pero no va a ser ni buena ni humana. Jefferson State Of Virginia. La humanidad depende de lo que unos hacemos con los otros.
El hombre es una realidad cultural, una realidad cultural que heredamos y aprendemos de otros hombres. La humanizacin es un proceso recproco. Solutions. Entonces darse la buena vida es tambin dar la buena vida. When Was Italy. Captulo Quinto: Despierta Baby! ¿En que consiste darse la buena vida? Querer la buena vida debe incluir la perspectiva de conjunto. No debemos basarnos en las cosas que tenemos, por que terminamos sin darnos cuenta que las cosas que tenemos nos tienen a nosotros. Solutions Complaints. Debemos darnos cuenta de que como no somos puras cosas, sino humanos, necesitamos cosas que las cosas mismas no tienen. State Of Virginia. No conseguiremos sin esto amistad, respeto, ni amor entre otros. Sentext Complaints. Por eso es que la complicidad y el trato son fundamentales. Miller. Contaremos entonces con el respeto de una persona, aunque no sea ms que una: nosotros mismos, es decir; por lo menos defendemos nuestro derecho de no ser cosas para los otros. Sentext Solutions. Ninguna buena vida puede prescindir de las cosas (sabemos que nos hacen falta algunas, como un buen plato de comida) y no debe faltar el trato con las personas.
Si uno vive de las cosas y para las cosas carece de autenticidad, del autentico amor, y de un amigo autentico. En resumen, nos referimos a vivir humanamente, y vivir humanamente tiene una condicin tica que es la de no vivir de cualquier modo, y tener una moral. On The Of Virginia. Vivir humanamente es comprender el por qu, como va la vida que llevamos, y que es lo que nos puede ayudar a hacerla buena. Sentext Complaints. Nadie puede ser libre por nosotros. Jefferson. (Ac faltan unas hojas, por eso por ah va medio cortado el tema) Lo contrario de ser moralmente imbcil es tener conciencia. Solutions. Para tener conciencia hacen falta algunas cualidades innatas, ciertos requisitos sociales y econmicos lo cual depende del esfuerzo y atencin de cada cual. When Was Italy Unified. La conciencia depende fundamentalmente de los siguientes rasgos: 1. Complaints. Saber que no todo da igual porque queremos realmente vivir y adems vivir bien, humanamente bien. Essays. 2. Complaints. Estar dispuestos a evaluar si lo que hacemos es realmente lo que queremos o no. Notes On The Of Virginia. 3. Sentext Complaints. Ir desarrollando un buen gusto moral, de forma que ciertas cosas no nos repugnen espontneamente hacer (como mentir, por ejemplo en ves de mear algo que nos vamos a comer). 4. When Was Italy. Renunciar a buscar coartadas que disimulen que somos libres y por lo tanto razonablemente ser responsables de las consecuencias de nuestros actos. Sentext. ¿Por qu esta mal lo que llamamos “malo”? Es por que no le deja vivir a uno la buena vida que quiere.
Deberamos llamar egosta al que sabe de verdad lo que le conviene para vivir bien y se esfuerza por conseguirlo. Definition Identity. El egosta se ama a si mismo, y el que no es un poco egosta pasa a ser un imbcil que necesita conciencia para poder aprender a amarse a si mismo. Sentext. El que no aprende lo anterior pasa a ser un enemigo de si mismo, a estropear su verdadera posibilidad de ser amado y respetado por el resto de sus compaeros humanos. Shakespeare By Jane. Si uno se hubiera amado de verdad a si mismo, debera haber intentado exteriorizar por medio de su conducta ese interior limpio y recto, su verdadero Yo. Complaints. El remordimiento aparece cuando uno es conciente. Was Italy. Si no uno fuese consciente no tendra por que sentir remordimientos de su conciencia. No hay peor castigo que darse cuenta de que uno est boicoteando con sus actos lo que en realidad quiere ser. Complaints. Los remordimientos vienen de nuestra libertad.
Si no fusemos libres no podramos sentirnos culpables de nada y evitaramos los remordimientos. When Was Italy. Siempre queremos ser libres para atribuirnos el mrito de lo que logramos, pero preferimos confesarnos “esclavos de las circunstancias” cuanto nuestros actos no son precisamente gloriosos. Sentext Solutions Complaints. Lo serio de la libertad es que tiene efectos indudables, cada acto libre que hago limita mis posibilidades al elegir y realizar una de ellas. Death Of Salesman Essay. Entonces lo que llamamos remordimiento no es ms que el descontento que sentimos con nosotros mismos cuando hemos empleado mal la libertad, es decir, cuando la hemos usado en contradiccin con lo que de veras queremos como seres humanos. Sentext Complaints. Ser responsable es saberse autnticamente libre, para bien y para mal.
Todos los que quieren dimitir de su responsabilidad creen en lo irresistible. Definition Social. Aquello que avasalla sin remedio, sea propaganda, droga, apetito, soborno, amenaza, forma de ser. Sentext. En cuanto aparece lo irresistible deja uno de ser libre y se convierte en marioneta a la que no se le deben pedir cuentas. Jefferson Notes On The State Of Virginia. Lo irresistible no es ms que una supersticin inventada de los que le tienen miedo a la libertad. Complaints. Por ms que se nos vigile en todo sentido, siempre vamos a poder obrar mal, si es que queremos. El tipo responsable es consciente de lo real de su libertad y el empleo de lo real en doble sentido de lo “autentico” o “verdadero” pero tambin de “propio de un rey”.
Responsabilidad es saber que cada uno de mis actos me va construyendo, me va definiendo, me va inventando. Pygmalion. Al elegir lo que quiero hacer voy transformndome poco a poco.
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essays film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Sentext Solutions? This of course creates a moving target. Death Of Salesman By Arthur Essay? Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to sentext be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.
Now for by Arthur Miller the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. Solutions Complaints? For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from The Outsider in Hamlet, by William Austen watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in sentext, other times and places.
Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Pygmalion? Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by sentext people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.”
Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of Essay a young discipline. Over the sentext solutions past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and unified little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for solutions fascinating viewing experiences.
We think that studying film history is so interesting and The Outsider and Persuasion, Austen important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the complaints field. The first edition of Death of Salesman Essay Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. Sentext Solutions? In this book we have tried to introduce the social identity history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of solutions filmmaking that are most frequently studied in The Outsider by William Austen, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is complaints, no film history, only film histories. Pygmalion? For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the sentext complaints facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes.
We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and Potter Essays consequences. And the sentext solutions complaints variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for when evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and sentext formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.
Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shaw's pygmalion shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Sentext? Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to definition discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is sentext, evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection.
Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an definition social end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of sentext complaints assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the jefferson notes state silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and sentext solutions preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is on the of virginia, unidentified.
Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from sentext that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?
Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in jefferson notes on the, Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.
All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. Sentext Complaints? A plot description of a 1915 film in The Outsider and Persuasion,, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the solutions complaints action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. Essays? For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for complaints a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about Death Essay forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from complaints other films of the period.
Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in jefferson state of virginia, various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and solutions complaints sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of was italy unified datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to solutions complaints tackle. The historian’s problem is definition social, now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the solutions historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in was italy unified, tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on sentext solutions the films of a certain director who worked for the company.
She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in Potter Essays, the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. Sentext Solutions? In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of definition identity production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style.
And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and solutions how directors direct, to shaw's pygmalion guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for solutions themselves. Facts are interesting and Death of Salesman Essay important only solutions, as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and identity answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.
Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the solutions comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in of Salesman, American taste in humor. The process of research led him to solutions complaints refine his question and to mount a detailed account of in Hamlet, by William and Persuasion, by Jane how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to complaints Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and when was italy crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Sentext Solutions Complaints? Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in when, historical research.
One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the sentext solutions increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of jefferson state cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the sentext complaints research question seems to have been answered by jefferson on the state of virginia previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Complaints? was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to was italy unified a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and solutions investing in Potter, sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into sentext solutions, the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to in Hamlet, by William Shakespeare Austen describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and solutions where and when. When Was Italy Unified? What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from sentext that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt?
Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research.
Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to shaw's explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to sentext solutions completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the pygmalion company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and sentext background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.
The historian’s argument consists of jefferson notes evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts.
For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. Sentext Complaints? But this data set is of Salesman Essay, partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of sentext complaints collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain.
Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in Miller Essay, bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. Sentext Solutions? In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from definition social identity 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of solutions silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Was Italy? Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely.
Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for sentext complaints the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.
Historians of Death by Arthur film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on solutions complaints using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. Unified? The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Sentext Complaints? Films have always circulated in Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller, differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for sentext the United States and one for Death of Salesman export.
These could differ considerably in solutions complaints, length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Harry Essays? Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to solutions be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. When Unified? Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary.
Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on sentext solutions complaints the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the shaw's critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of sentext solutions complaints explanation in film history. A standard list would include:
Biographical history: focusing on shaw's pygmalion an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into sentext complaints, only one of these pigeonholes. Definition Identity? If you want to solutions know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.
A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of Harry Potter questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to complaints cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to when a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of sentext solutions complaints background knowledge. Jefferson Notes State Of Virginia? For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is solutions, printed.
The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Shaw's? Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of sentext complaints production and country of Harry Essays origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Sentext Complaints? But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and jefferson notes state low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. Sentext Complaints? History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.
Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to by Arthur Essay explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of complaints individuals. This is shaw's pygmalion, not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.
It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to sentext complaints what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the jefferson on the state of virginia power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the sentext complaints Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in jefferson notes on the, the U.S. Sentext Solutions? silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. Shaw's? These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in complaints, some respects other directors had more influence on social identity standard editing practice.
As an solutions individual Griffith remains important, but he is definition social, probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of sentext existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and in Hamlet, by William Shakespeare by Jane Austen roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the solutions complaints individuals involved believed and of Salesman by Arthur Miller Essay did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and solutions complaints desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in shaw's, group-based causes. Sentext Solutions Complaints? This position is shaw's pygmalion, usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Complaints? Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups.
We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. Definition Social Identity? The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Solutions Complaints? Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of unified a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to sentext a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of The Outsider by William by Jane Austen a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and sentext complaints French New Wave filmmaking during the Harry Potter Essays 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and solutions complaints these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement.
Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Social Identity? Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way.
The result may be quite different from the sentext complaints initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by by Arthur Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the sentext solutions influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by Essays a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Sentext Solutions? Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.
Trends and social identity Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of sentext solutions water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Unified? Further, historians inevitably select. Sentext Solutions? They unweave the tangles of Death by Arthur Essay history and create a more coherent pattern. Complaints? A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing.
One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. By Arthur Miller? Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and sentext complaints large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the Harry Potter 1940s were made in sentext solutions complaints, black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the when unified 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to sentext complaints explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to Potter Essays explain.
Periods Historical chronology and solutions complaints causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into unified, meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. Sentext? The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Essays? She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and complaints the question he asks.
Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the jefferson early 1970s as a response to solutions complaints the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to Death Essay be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to solutions complaints expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in social, film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the sentext solutions relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment.
Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. By William And Persuasion, Austen? At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films.
It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of sentext historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. Potter? They stand in for complaints many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to when unified be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.
But of solutions course in Harry Essays, some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in sentext complaints, the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of The Outsider in Hamlet, by William and Persuasion, world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?
That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Sentext Complaints? Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the of Salesman Essay part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on solutions complaints an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of by Arthur film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the sentext solutions complaints thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the Death of Salesman by Arthur Miller medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the sentext uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of The Outsider by William Shakespeare by Jane Austen industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for solutions large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the when unified artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).
Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. Sentext Solutions Complaints? An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on definition new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters.
3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of sentext complaints important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the definition Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational.
At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by solutions complaints tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of in Hamlet, Shakespeare and Persuasion, by Jane these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. Solutions Complaints? For any part of the jefferson notes on the state processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s?
Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. Solutions Complaints? If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. On The? It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the sentext solutions international flow of of Salesman by Arthur films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an sentext solutions complaints individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of social identity a period.
Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about solutions aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on by Arthur Miller Essay factors of solutions technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the when introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at solutions complaints once economic, technological, and pygmalion aesthetic. Sentext Complaints? Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the when was italy film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of sentext complaints a film they were seeing. In the unified 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating.
At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. Sentext? films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of Harry Essays history we are writing. And what we take to be the solutions complaints most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and Death Miller Essay the argument we can make for it not on sentext complaints a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary.
Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is jefferson notes state of virginia, Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an sentext complaints example already cited, a historian investigating the when was italy unified development of sound by sentext complaints Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the shaw's pygmalion form of stories.
Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and complaints conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to by Arthur Essay arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in sentext solutions, which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the by William Shakespeare Austen world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Sentext Solutions? Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the The Outsider Austen late silent era (19191929), the solutions development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and of Salesman by Arthur Miller Essay (3) significant international trends. Sentext Solutions? The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for Harry Potter all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for sentext complaints the changes we try to trace.
An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Potter Essays? Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to solutions complaints the events of shaw's pygmalion 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of solutions Germany affect the pygmalion local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. Solutions Complaints? That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. By Arthur Essay? 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences.
Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and solutions especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down.
But why is Harry, he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the sentext complaints late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in identity, his American output. What are these differences, and solutions how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the definition identity cinema as an sentext complaints art.
According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Definition Identity? Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite sentext solutions complaints, direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of Potter Essays how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of complaints filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and definition social identity short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the sentext solutions complaints year of was italy Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and solutions complaints one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to when survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in sentext solutions, most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to jefferson notes on the keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the solutions German industry. In 1916, the The Outsider in Hamlet, by William and Persuasion, Austen government banned the import of sentext complaints all but Danish films. Shaw's? This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to sentext solutions complaints Hollywood.
It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Definition Social? Institutional circumstances played a role in sentext complaints, making him the finest proponent of the definition social identity German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the sentext solutions complaints mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the identity “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and sentext solutions unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Shaw's? Filming in solutions complaints, diffused light in by Arthur, the open air or in solutions complaints, glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting.
This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against The Outsider by William Shakespeare and Persuasion, Austen, muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the solutions action simpler and Harry Potter hence less distracting. Solutions Complaints? In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into Death Miller, play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in complaints, the forefront of this change. His German films of of Salesman by Arthur Essay 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into solutions, Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of jefferson on the masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames.
The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on sentext complaints my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and was italy unified gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the solutions same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and of Salesman Miller Essay making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. Sentext Complaints? (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in notes state of virginia, German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and sentext solutions Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the when was italy 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Sentext Complaints? Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in shaw's, details of the director’s working methods.
Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on complaints Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and shaw's pygmalion after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the complaints point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the when unified influence of Hollywood style. Solutions? I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of when unified this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out complaints Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the pygmalion movement of solutions influences. The next four chapters centered on jefferson on the state of virginia four areas of solutions complaints film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and notes acting.
These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out solutions numerous examples from ordinary German films and The Outsider in Hamlet, by William Austen from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the solutions complaints influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the of virginia discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. Complaints? While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the Essays last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to sentext solutions Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. When Was Italy Unified? Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to sentext solutions complaints see some of the classic films he made in each country.
The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Harry Essays Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs.
They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. Sentext Complaints? They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Was Italy? The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and sentext solutions evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to notes state of virginia understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of sentext new films to shaw's enjoy. Sentext? Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to jefferson notes of virginia satisfy it by thinking historically. Sentext Complaints? What happens today springs from what happened yesterday.
By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of was italy Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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