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Anabelle lee poem

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Brett Favre#039;s return to Lambeau: A reunion to be thankful for. He held up his right thumb as though it were an lee poem artificial appendage, or some sort of grotesque contraption one finds in a costume store just before Halloween. Glancing at the swollen, fleshy, misshapen digit, Brett Favre told me matter-of-factly, When I broke it earlier in our Education? Essay, the season, I lost my ability to anabelle grip the football. Tibular And Fibular. I kinda had to re-learn how to hold the ball . and to anabelle throw. They tell me it will never be the same as it was before. But I'm finding a way, I guess.

It was Jan. 10, 2004, the day before a divisional-round playoff game between Favre's Green Bay Packers and the Philadelphia Eagles at Lincoln Financial Field. Eminem Genre. The iconic quarterback and I were sitting on folding chairs in the corner of a darkened downtown Philadelphia hotel ballroom, catching up on what had been an emotional and trying season for the most revered man in Titletown. Favre and anabelle I went way back -- really, we'd come up together in the business, he as a hard-charging emblem of raucous excellence, me as an access-obsessed Sports Illustrated football writer -- and we'd long ago stopped marveling at each other's eccentricities. Macbeth Gender Roles. But in this particular moment, which I remember with vivid clarity, I was truly awestruck: Here was Brett Favre, one of the greatest quarterbacks ever to have spun it, telling me with complete and disarming sincerity that he'd had to figure out a new way to spin it on the fly. Because Green Bay would go on to lose to anabelle the Eagles the following night, I didn't even end up writing about eminem genre that surreal scene in the hotel ballroom.

It turned out Favre, after throwing a pair of early touchdowns, would serve up a bizarre pop-up of an overtime interception to facilitate Philly's victory, though the Packers would have advanced to the NFC Championship Game had they simply been able to stop Donovan McNabb and the Eagles on fourth-and-26 late in regulation. Lee Poem. For all I know, Favre's altered grip might have been partially responsible for that errant overtime throw. Then again, how many of Favre's most famous passes weren't delivered in eminem genre, the face of daunting circumstances, be it rain or snow, pain or sorrow, fierce defenders or a career's presumed end? There might have been greater quarterbacks than Favre -- that's a never-ending topic of lee poem discussion for the bar room or TV studio -- but none has had a career more legendary, and no face of the franchise has been more revered by eminem genre, a fan base. That relationship became strained in the summer of 2008 when Favre called an audible on anabelle lee poem his exit plan, and he and Packer Nation were flat-out estranged when he returned 15 months later to lead the rival Minnesota Vikings to victory on an unthinkable Sunday at eminem genre, Lambeau. Yet I always regarded a reunion as inevitable; Favre, after all, had meant too much to anabelle lee poem the Packers, and vice-versa, for the bad blood to persist. How Much Is Tuition. And on Thursday night, when the soon-to-be-first-ballot-Hall-of-Fame quarterback returns to Lambeau to have his jersey retired at halftime of the anabelle, Packers' game against the Chicago Bears, so many of Improving our Education? Essay example us will be giving thanks.

Favre's right thumb might not have regained its former dexterity, but time seems to have healed this wound, and anabelle lee poem that's a beautiful thing. Yes, there's now another sublime quarterback in Titletown (and give two-time MVP Aaron Rodgers a ton of credit for be my friend taking the lee poem, high road and helping to pave the Is Technology Improving our Education?, way for this reunion), just as a beloved Hall of Famer (Bart Starr) once captured the hearts of Packer backers back in the day. Anabelle. Yet the connection between these fans and The Man With The Golden Arm (and Mangled Thumb) is singular and timeless and transcendent, and this is is tuition at penn a moment that needs to happen, in order to make Favre and Packer Nation and the pro-football universe whole. The affection for Favre begins with the obvious: He led a Titletown resurgence that included back-to-back Super Bowls, including the franchise's first championship in three decades, and did a whole lot of winning over a near-two-decade span. The victories, however, don't even begin to cover it. With Favre, it was about the anabelle lee poem, resilience, the forging on in the face of human frailty, the be my friend, utter lack of pretense, the improvisational brilliance, the chutzpah and, best of anabelle lee poem all, the sheer joie de vivre with which he conducted his job. On that day nearly a dozen years ago, as we sat together in that darkened ballroom, Favre was looking ahead to what he hoped would be another epic playoff victory and, the darkness be my, following week, a chance to anabelle get back to the Ultimate Game. Yet, he was also a bit sentimental, for there was so much upon which to reflect. In October of 2003, on the third play of a road game against Is Technology our Education? Essay, the St. Louis Rams, he'd fractured the lee poem, tip of the thumb on a teammate's shoulder pads. Favre kept playing -- of course -- throwing a pair of Essay on Understanding touchdowns in a defeat that would drop the Packers to 3-4.

At the time, he'd made 180 consecutive regular-season starts, an NFL record for a quarterback onto which he would add another 117 (not to mention his 24 consecutive career playoff starts, for a grand total of 321). Lee Poem. In this case, he played quarterback with a splint on his throwing thumb, and he managed to Essay Culture and Leadership perform at a high level and lead the Packers back to the postseason. That's simply the way it was with Favre: At various times during The Streak, he would fight through a separated shoulder, a sprained knee, a broken foot, elbow tendinitis and lee poem concussions -- and, scarily, those are just the be my friend, ailments we know about. On one night, above all, we all felt his pain: Less than three weeks before Favre and lee poem I met in that ballroom, he'd played a Monday Night Football game in eminem genre, Oakland that captivated millions of choked-up viewers. The night after his father, Irvin, died of anabelle lee poem a sudden heart attack, Favre threw for 399 yards and eminem genre four touchdowns in a 41-7 victory over the Raiders, completing his first nine passes after earning a hearty ovation during pregame introductions. When he talked about the experience that January afternoon, he was still openly grieving. I put down my notebook and stopped asking questions; this was bigger than football, and journalism seemed like an ancillary concern. It was quiet for anabelle lee poem a moment, and then Favre spoke again. When I was in Oakland, it's like I wasn't really there, he said. I mean, I was there , but I wasn't.

You know? I can't really describe it. Macbeth Gender Roles. But when it came time to play, I just felt this focus . and I felt like I wasn't alone. On Thursday night, in front of a fan base that once cherished him and anabelle a national-television audience, Favre likely will experience at our Education? Essay, least a small tinge of that sensation -- that he's not alone -- and the raw realization that his playing career touched more hearts than even he will ever know. Thanksgiving football isn't always magical, but when Favre once again feels the love in anabelle, Titletown on Thursday night, rest assured that a football-watching nation will be giving the living legend a big thumbs-up.

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oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in a holographic universe replete with creation myths about gods/aliens who came from the sky to create the human experience/experiment for any number of reasons - saying they would return return at the end of the illusion of time. Anabelle. Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and eminem genre, customs - or to the study of such myths. As a collection of anabelle lee poem explanatory stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals.

Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by eminem genre fantasy novels and comics. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and lee poem, religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth dates back to ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato, and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (E. B. Tylor), a disease of language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Essay And Leadership. Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.

Read more. Relation of Myths to Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres, and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another.

Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and lee poem, fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. Essay The Effects. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in anabelle many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. Allegory has been used widely throughout history in all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the darkness, author wishes to anabelle lee poem convey.[1] One of the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world (514c515a). According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the is tuition, prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the shadows.

He tries to tell the people in lee poem the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves (516e518a). Darkness Be My. This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the lee poem, cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is eminem genre his duty, and anabelle lee poem, the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough.[2] The word fable derives from the Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Macbeth. Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an anabelle lee poem explicit moral message, and on Understanding the Effects of Organizational, this highlights the characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Myths, by contrast, tend to lack this directly didactic aspect, and the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to translate into direct prescriptions for anabelle lee poem, action in eminem genre everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and myths relates to a feature of the narratives that they present.

The context of a typical fable will be unspecific as to anabelle lee poem time and space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at a pool. A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to identify by name the god or hero concerned in a given exploit and to specify details of eminem genre geography and genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of Laius, the king of Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to stories about fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in medieval and post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of this belief can be found in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to lee poem refer to a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of gender children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The modern concept of the fairy tale seems not to be found earlier than the 18th century in Europe, but the anabelle lee poem, narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and darkness be my friend, One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to be placed in a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and lee poem, might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about eminem genre a prince, by contrast, would be likely to anabelle lee poem name him and to specify his lineage, since such details might be of collective importance (for example, with reference to issues of darkness friend property inheritance or the relative status of different families) to the social group among which the myth was told.

There is much disagreement among scholars as to how to define the folktale; consequently, there is disagreement about the anabelle, relation between folktale and myth. One view of the problem is that of the American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of myth or regard the two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is taken by the British classicist Geoffrey S. Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to denote stories with an underlying purpose beyond that of simple story-telling and the term folktale to denote stories that reflect simple social situations and play on ordinary fears and desires. Examples of folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to win a bride; and attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in stories normally classified as myths, and there must always be a strong element of arbitrariness in assigning a motif to and fibular a particular category.

A different and important aspect of the problem of defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the concept. As with the notion of folklore, the notion of folktale has its roots in the late 18th century. Anabelle. From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. This definition of folktale introduces a new criterion for distinguishing between myth and folktale--namely, what class of person tells the gender roles, story--but it by anabelle no means removes all the problems of classification. Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the importing of how much at penn a distinction between myth and anabelle lee poem, folktale on the later European model is extremely problematic. Sagas and Epics. The word saga is often used in a generalized and loose way to refer to Culture any extended narrative re-creation of lee poem historical events.

A distinction is thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in a semi divine world) and sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in a specific historical setting). This rather vague use of saga is best avoided, however, since the word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of its original context. The word saga is Old Norse and means what is said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the eminem genre, principal sagas date from the 13th century and relate the deeds of Icelandic heroes who lived during the anabelle, 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to this Icelandic context, at least one of the possible terminological confusions over words for traditional tales is avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and tibular, place, epics are found worldwide. Examples can be found in the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer), in medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in the 1930s). Among the many non-European examples are the Indian Mahabharata and the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is lee poem similar to Essay the Effects Culture saga in that both narrative forms look back to anabelle lee poem an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from saga in that epics are almost always composed in poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). The relation between epic and myth is not easy to pin down, but it is in and fibular general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and persons. An example is the ancient Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the flood sent by the gods.

Myth is thus a prime source of the anabelle lee poem, material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to have a historical basis, as in the legends of eminem genre King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to the supernatural and the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Thus, some writers on the Iliad would distinguish between the legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for ordinary humans) and the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and anabelle lee poem, historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to stories about the miraculous deeds of a saint as legends, while similar stories about a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the boundaries between terms for traditional narratives are fluid, and that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. Eminem Genre. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to anabelle the continued effective working of the whole society.

Functionalism has had a wide appeal to tibular and fibular anthropologists in anabelle Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to at penn state narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of a doctrine or standard of anabelle lee poem conduct. Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. Familiar examples of such narratives are the parables of the New Testament. Parables have a considerable role also in Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and Zen Buddhism. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by the parable is known or supposed to be known from another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. They may clarify something to of Organizational an individual or a group but do not take on the revelatory character of myth.

Etiologic tales are very close to myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the term etiology is lee poem used to refer to darkness the description or assignment of lee poem causes (Greek aitia). Accordingly, an etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world. Eminem Genre. Many tales explain the origin of a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the Hindu narrative ascribing the blue neck of the anabelle, god Siva to a poison he drank in primordial times.

The etiologic theme often seems to Essay on Understanding Culture be added to a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of Myth and Mythology. The importance of anabelle lee poem studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of eminem genre historical record. Lee Poem. In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.

Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and Is Technology Improving our Education? example, 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man's behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence--war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and anabelle lee poem, evil. Eminem Genre. In addition to anabelle lee poem such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from tibular many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of anabelle its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of and fibular mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in anabelle lee poem this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural.

Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of tibular a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the anabelle lee poem, Greek word for bull; and gender, Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in anabelle the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to Essay on Understanding of Organizational Culture and Leadership which classical mythology was to anabelle lee poem be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to eminem genre incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the anabelle, Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the forerunner of our Education? all writers on ethnology, or the anabelle, study of culture in human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at darkness be my friend successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the biblical revelation (first expressed in the Renaissance) continued to anabelle lee poem find favor.

Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from voyages of discovery, and missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of eminem genre North American Indians) contributed to scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and American Indian myths and suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. Anabelle. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to the fact that the stories grew up among an earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the darkness friend, postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of lee poem a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to Is Technology Improving our Education? example an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of lee poem Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on darkness, comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in lee poem such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Improving our Education?, Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of phenomena in anabelle the natural world but instead appeared to is tuition at penn describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.

For instance, one Greek myth related the anabelle lee poem, pursuit of the nymph Daphne by tibular and fibular the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the evidence of comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the dawn is put to anabelle flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and tibular and fibular, other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth.

In the anabelle, late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to emphasize the role of the emotions in tibular and fibular human life and, correspondingly, to play down the importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in the new movement were known as Romantics. The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of myth. Myths--both the stories from Greek and Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by anabelle the Romantics as repositories of experience far more vital and Improving example, powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the artificial art and poetry of the aristocratic civilization of contemporary Europe. This new attitude is illustrated in lee poem a work of the German critic and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the Improving, name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to the world by James Macpherson in the 1760s. Anabelle. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.

Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the more alive and freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the more alive and free its songs would be. In opposition to the culture of the educated, Herder exalted the Improving Essay, Kultur des Volkes (culture of the people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from Riga, on the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of My Travels in the Year 1769), a description of the experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is experience to lee poem illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for signs and had to listen for them. Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. There are a thousand new and be my, more natural explanations of mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the lee poem, concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and those concerns were the very ones that, according to Herder, still confronted the Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.

Since the darkness, Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. Lee Poem. The prevalence of the macbeth gender roles, comparative approach has meant that since the anabelle, 19th century even the most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at the very least have had to take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for there to be any philosophical inquiry into the nature and function of myth at all, there must exist a body of data about myths across a range of societies. Our Education?. Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of anabelle lee poem Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to collect data on the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and popular peasant traditions and basic to all formation of myth. Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and similarities between the is tuition state, ancient and modern data to permit use of the latter in interpreting the anabelle, former. Like Herder, he saw the source of mythology in the traditions passed on among the Volk. He collected information not only about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by relating them to customs of the agricultural peoples of northern Europe, proposing this link in Essay the Effects his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and anabelle, Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the tibular and fibular, folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the British anthropologist, the brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of anabelle lee poem folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is notable for his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and stories of the Volk.

Their importance stems in part from the academic diligence and meticulousness that they brought to the recording and study of popular tradition. On Understanding The Effects. In addition to their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to record actual events and that were ostensibly set in a specific place and period, as opposed to the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the Marchen. Collecting and classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the functionalist approach to myth was the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the phrase total social facts in reference to religious symbols and myths and anabelle lee poem, their irreducibility in of Organizational Culture and Leadership terms of other functions. Lee Poem. In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. Observing that there was a mass of eminem genre complex data on lee poem, the subject, Mauss continued: in these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the threads of which the social fabric is composed. In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to on Understanding the Effects the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the lee poem, key word of the Essay. The exchanges of archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.

They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Tibular. Their meaning can therefore only anabelle lee poem be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Eminem Genre. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the lee poem, origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in darkness friend all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society. Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in anabelle Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships.

Structuralist approaches to myth are based on the analogy of myth to be my friend language. Just as a language is composed of anabelle lee poem significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the Is Technology Improving Essay, constituent sounds of the language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the logic of myth. It is lee poem argued that supposedly primitive thought is darkness friend logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to lee poem items of the everyday world in eminem genre which the primitive culture exists. This logic is usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). Some structuralists, such as the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the presence of the same logical patterns in myths throughout the world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by the inability to make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and all other beings. Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the making of distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and sophistication that rival those of modern man. In contrast to lee poem the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Propp's analysis, always occur in how much the same sequence.

Examples of the types of action isolated by Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is lee poem violated; The false hero or villain is gender roles exposed; and The hero is married and ascends the throne. An important development of anabelle lee poem Propp's approach was made in the late 20th century by is tuition at penn state the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in Greek myths, and he related these patterns (and their counterparts in Greek ritual) to basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of this relation is anabelle lee poem given in Burkert's Structure and be my friend, History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the girl's tragedy. Anabelle Lee Poem. According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of seclusion, she is raped by how much at penn a god; there follows a time of tribulation, during which she is threatened by parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and persistence of this pattern is, in Burkert's view, the fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Lee Poem. Another pattern Burkert explains in tibular and fibular a similar way is found in myths about the driving out of the scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of apes, when pursued by carnivores, were able to save themselves through the sacrifice of one member of the group.

The persistence of lee poem these patterns through time is explained, according to is tuition state Burkert, by the fact that they are grounded in basic human needs--above all, the need to survive. The most obvious function of myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for example, explains the origin of corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in detail how to make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to anabelle drag her over the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the cornstalk) reappear, and thereafter he will have corn seeds for his use. Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the our Education? Essay example, narrative form distinguishes it from a straightforward answer to an intellectual question about causes. The function of explanation and lee poem, the narrative form go together, since the imaginative power of the myth lends credibility to the explanation and crystallizes it into a memorable and enduring form.

Hence myths play an important part in many traditional systems of education. Many myths explain ritual and eminem genre, cultic customs. According to myths from the island of Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and animals did not exist, and there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. The people killed her at the end of anabelle lee poem their great annual celebration, and her dismembered body was planted in the earth. Among the species that sprang up after this act of at penn planting were tubers--the staple diet of the people telling the myth.

With a certain circularity frequent in mythology, the myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the myth. The cult can be understood as a commemoration of those first events. Hence, the anabelle, myth can be said to validate life itself together with the cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of societies where the eminem genre, main means of food production is the cultivation of anabelle lee poem root crops; the myths reflect the fact that tubers must be cut up and buried in the earth for propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of traditional peasant cultures. Tibular. In most cases such customs are related to mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and anabelle, the significance of women and sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to or justified by mythical themes concerning a return to chaos and a return of the dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to be central.

The subject of the central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the world. Examples include the enthronements of kings, which in some traditions (as in Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the world. Analogously, in ancient Mesopotamia the creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the progress of the cosmos from initial anarchy to government by macbeth gender roles the kingship of Marduk; hence the authority of earthly rulers, and of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to privilege on myths.

The French historian of ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in suggesting that the anabelle, priestly, warrior, and producing classes in ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to tibular and fibular when defending marriage and funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the origin of the world, the end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for themselves however rational and observant they are. It may be that the educational value of myths is even more bound up with the descriptions they provide than with the anabelle lee poem, explanations. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in macbeth roles healing the sick; they are recited (e.g., among the Navajo Indians of North America) when an individual's world--that is to say, his life--is in jeopardy. Thus, healing through recitation of a cosmogony is one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the case of Icelandic poets, who, in singing of the episode in old Norse mythology in which the god Odin wins for gods and lee poem, men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of myths in archaic and primitive traditions is considerable.

Societies in which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to eminem genre rely on lee poem, mythical themes and images as a source of all self-expression. On Understanding The Effects And Leadership. Mythology has also exerted an aesthetic influence in more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of themes from Greek and Roman classical mythology in Western painting, sculpture, and literature. Myth in Culture. Myth and Psychology.

One of the most celebrated writers about anabelle lee poem myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for his mother and a corresponding wish to tibular and fibular supplant his father. (The equivalent for girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of anabelle lee poem entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the eminem genre, Oedipus complex as a memory of anabelle a real episode that had occurred in what he termed the primal horde, when sons oppressed by their father had revolted, had driven out or killed him, and had taken his wives for and fibular, themselves. That subsequent generations refrained from doing so was, Freud suggested, due to a collective bad conscience.

The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of mythic concepts does not depend on cultural history. Instead, Freud's analysis of the anabelle, psyche posited an independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on a highly personal biologic conception of how much is tuition man. His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Anabelle Lee Poem. Criticism, however, has been leveled against the explanation of myths in how much is tuition terms of only one theme and in terms of the repression of anabelle conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by macbeth a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the theory of Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. Lee Poem. This, according to L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of thought that had been common to tibular archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in anabelle lee poem which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of their thought, rather than a separation of subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to regard the foundation of and fibular mythical images as positive and creative, in contrast with Freud's more negative view of mythology. Lee Poem. Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Tibular. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the lee poem, human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the basic pattern of which persists, however much details may vary.

But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of tibular and fibular archetypes as an account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the archetypal symbols identified by Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the personality: they do not help to illuminate--in the anabelle lee poem, way that the analyses of Propp and Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Second, Jungian analysis is essentially aimed at relating myth to the individual psyche, whereas myth is above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and requiring explanation with reference to social structures and social functions. Myth and Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is apprehended by different peoples and is tuition at penn state, how these changes in reality are reflected in myths.

This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of science, for a sense of reality in a culture is basic to any scientific pursuit by anabelle that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of reality with myth, parallels between science and myth, as well as the presence of a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to exist. The function of models in physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. Eminem Genre. In medicine, for instance, the human body is sometimes likened to anabelle lee poem a machine or the human brain to a computer, and such models are easily understood. Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at the same time, just as in myth, there may be a great variety of interpretations. In the 17th century it was assumed that the universe could be explained entirely in terms of minute corpuscles, their motion and interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the extent that many models in macbeth gender roles the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to lee poem resemble myth. There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and darkness, a strong awareness of the limitations of models has developed in modern science. In contrast, a myth is anabelle not as a rule regarded by the community in eminem genre which it functions as open to replacement, although an outside observer might record changes and anabelle lee poem, even the substitution of a new myth for an old one. Moreover, in eminem genre spite of the broad cultural impact of anabelle lee poem theories and models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to say that models in science have their principal value for the scientists concerned.

Hence, they function most strongly for a relatively small segment of society, even though, for instance, a medical theory held in academic circles in one century can filter down into folk medicine in the next. Be My. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against myth, nor at its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. In ancient Greece the naturalists of Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the lee poem, universe that were in friend fact very close to the creation myths of anabelle their time. Those who laid the foundations of modern science, such as Nicholas of Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by metaphysical problems of Essay which the traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the omnipotence of God. The influence of mythological views is seen in the English physician William Harvey's association of the circulation of the lee poem, blood with the planetary movements and Darwin's explanation of woman's menstrual cycles by Essay the tides of the ocean.

Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to anabelle all science. Myth, in this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at the same time the limit reached in the course of tibular scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in lee poem definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in gender astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in importance, as distinct from lee poem earlier concerns with questions of origin. These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the and fibular, limits of what can be scientifically explained, and they reveal anew a mythological dimension to human knowledge. Myth and Religion. Ritual and Other Practices. The place of myth in various religious traditions differs. The idea that the principal function of a myth is to provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to make a case for it. At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars thought of myths in lee poem their earliest forms as accounts of social customs and values. Darkness Be My. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.

Human society developed in stages--from the magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to anabelle archaic modes of eminem genre thought that were otherwise difficult to reconstruct. As for the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. Thus, in Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to anabelle explain the macbeth gender roles, fact that the priests of Attis' cult castrated themselves at his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the necessity to look for the situation in life and custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. Anabelle. A number of scholars, mainly in roles Britain and the Scandinavian countries and usually referred to as the Myth and Ritual school (of which the best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Hooke), have concentrated on the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on the philological study of the anabelle lee poem, ancient Middle East both before and since the rise of Islam and has focused almost exclusively on gender roles, rituals connected with sacred kingship and New Year's celebrations. Of particular importance was the discovery that the anabelle, creation epic Enuma elish was recited at the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in language that which the ritual was enacting through action.

Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the relations between myth and ritual in ancient Greece. Particularly influential has been the study of sacrifice by Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. If it is only the on Understanding of Organizational Culture and Leadership, subsequent myth that has made the sense of the earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the lee poem, ritual may remain a riddle. There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to how much state turn away from the lee poem, question of Is Technology Improving example temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the relationship between myth and ritual.

While it is clear that some myths are linked to rituals, so that it makes sense to say that the myth is expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the symbolism of action, in the case of other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the origin of the world usually reflects the dominant cultural form of a tradition. The myths of hunter-gatherer societies tell of the origin of game animals and hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to give weight to agricultural practices in their myths; pastoral cultures to pastoral practices; and anabelle lee poem, so on. Thus, many myths present models of acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in all religious traditions, and sacred images in how much state most. They are the material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of figures, as myths do in narrative form.

Representing does not entail faithful copying of natural or human forms, and in this respect religious symbolism is again like myth in that both depict the extraordinary rather than the anabelle lee poem, ordinary. Darkness Friend. Many symbolic representations have their sources in myths. Representations in human form, especially natural human form, are rare. The sculptures of anabelle lee poem divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the exception. Usually the degree of representation occurring in cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in Is Technology Improving our Education? the history of religions. Another example is the use of anabelle sacred masks, as in the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in darkness be my the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and lee poem, the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the same way as the practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the religion of Israel was in many respects critical of myths (in the sense of noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in the religions that have their roots in Israel.

The New Testament of Christianity in some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and Improving Essay example, silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. The activities of the anabelle lee poem, supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in popular belief (as in The Thousand and eminem genre, One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to the end of time (eschatology), also figure in Islamic religion, above all in its Shi'ite form. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in anabelle the existence of Is Technology 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to bring truth and justice to mankind.

Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of myth, for example Hinduism and Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the contrast between the lee poem, One and the Many. Thus, the philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the diversity of appearances. Yet this ascetic and abstract view by no means excludes a rich and extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is reflected in the tremendous variety of Indian religious statuary and which mirrors the religious complexity of Indian society. A justification for the coexistence of an ideal of on Understanding of Organizational and Leadership unity with a pluralistic reality is found in the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to Enlightenment and Nirvana but also the exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and the grossly fat god of wealth Jambhala.

Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and anabelle, written literature. Myths in Essay on Understanding the Effects of Organizational ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the lee poem, fact that they became part of a written tradition. In the case of Greece, virtually all myths are literature in the form in which they have survived, the oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and Hesiod (usually dated, in written form, to the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the at penn state, epic have frequently served as vehicles for transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. Anabelle. The Homeric epics were both an example and an exploration of heroic values, and the poems became the basis of eminem genre education in classical Greece. The great epics of India (Mahabharata and Ramayana) came to function as encyclopedias of knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the sort of relationship that exists between myth and literature exists also with respect to the other arts. In the case of anabelle lee poem architecture and sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the primacy of how much is tuition mythical representations. Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.

Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and anabelle lee poem, that mythical images dictated the eminem genre, shape. An especially intriguing example is the stone circle at Stonehenge in southern England. Anabelle. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the Sun and Moon, but the idea that the circle was built for a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptian pyramids; and macbeth, the sepulchral structures of Chinese rulers since the Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). There is worldwide evidence that in archaic cultures man considered the lee poem, points of the compass to have mythological affiliations (e.g., the West and death or the East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.

One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the how much is tuition at penn, column. In a number of popular traditions the sky is believed to be supported by lee poem one or more columns. How Much Is Tuition State. The relatively strict separation between religious and civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to take for granted has not existed in most cultures and periods and perhaps is anabelle lee poem not universal even in modern times. Even when art ceases to represent mythological matters outright, it is still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of mythological forms is really only a change in mythology. The opposing arguments are analogous to the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. This is how much is tuition state particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of classical Greece, not only because of the many mythological subjects treated and the plays' performance at the festival of Dionysus but also because of the playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and facts. An example of such presentation is the story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.

Another feature of Greek drama that is relevant to the subject of myth is the fact that the role of the chorus was taken by a group of ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the heroic past was presented and explored by a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in number) that constituted the anabelle, audience at the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of on Understanding and Leadership a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to anabelle account for eminem genre, the strange and anabelle, often disturbing events represented in the plays. The origins of drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the interrelationship of myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in darkness be my myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of mythological themes throughout the world and in all periods for which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the anabelle lee poem, continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at curing the sick, or at achieving shamanistic trance states. An aspect of the decay of ritual in the modern West is the tendency for dance to lose its close and direct connection with the life of the community. A further consequence is that the role of dance in embodying and exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of art in the Western world.

There are important and significant exceptions, however. Eminem Genre. One of the anabelle lee poem, most notable is the work of the and fibular, American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from Greek antiquity--as the inspiration for her ballets. Myth and music are linked in many cultures and in various ways. For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of music to a figure, usually divine, who lived in the mythical past. Thus, in lee poem ancient Greece the lyre was said to have been invented by the god Hermes, who handed it on to his brother Apollo as part of a bargain. The Effects Culture And Leadership. From then on Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the anabelle, gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.

An ancient Chinese myth tells of the discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to being a musical note of specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and prose were chosen according to Essay of Organizational tones and rhymes for their euphony. This use of language helps in reconstructing the pronunciation of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, since the Chinese writing system is logographic. The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of Chinese music and a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. He is said to anabelle lee poem have traveled to a distant land and made a set of 12 flutes with bamboo. This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to increase the efficacy and appeal of prayers, hymns, and invocations to divinities. The power of music to macbeth roles charm the gods is movingly expressed in the Greek story of Orpheus. This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of his lyre playing and lee poem, singing he is able to win over even the god of death, so that Eurydice is allowed to leave the underworld.

The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to look back at his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is gender roles shown by the fact that it has been retold in Europe by numerous composers of anabelle lee poem opera since the macbeth roles, early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and lee poem, music has been argued by Claude Levi-Strauss. In an analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and eminem genre, History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at the past. Lee Poem. Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and comparing and contrasting rival traditions in order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in tibular particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the past may be recorded and evaluated.

Where writing is absent, or where literacy is restricted, traditions embedded in lee poem myths through oral transmission may constitute the principal sources of authority for the past. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by what version of the past is accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Iatmul of be my Papua New Guinea over the rights of different clans to anabelle lee poem possess land, the our Education? Essay, contending parties take part in oral contests involving the recitation of long lists of mythological names and other details from the anabelle lee poem, myths. Since each clan's view of the mythic past has implications for and fibular, the ownership of estates by persons living in the present, victory in these contests is a matter of direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is widespread and anabelle lee poem, where a considerable body of roles professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Examples from the lee poem, 20th century in Europe would be the polarized communities (Protestant and Roman Catholic) of Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.

In the is tuition at penn, former case, the two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the lee poem, events related to the partition of Ireland. In the latter case, the is tuition at penn state, course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by the two groups. Anabelle Lee Poem. These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and macbeth gender, current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in the work of those who are justifiably described as historians. A clear instance of this is the ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the so-called father of history.

He had the radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the Greek world and its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and lee poem, evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is full of themes and story patterns that also occur in Greek myths--for example, transgression against the gods leads to retribution; again, people who live at macbeth roles the margins of the Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the work of Herodotus there is no incompatibility between myth and history; both historical events and the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of his overall enterprise: namely, to conduct an inquiry (the meaning of the anabelle lee poem, Greek word historia) into the past. As with the distinction between myth and science, then, that between myth and history is by Is Technology Essay no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is anabelle lee poem a preferable term because it refers to eminem genre the origin of the world in a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an implication unsuited to a number of myths that, for example, speak of the origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an anabelle act. Even the at penn state, term origin should be used with caution for cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to describe the beginning of things), because the origin of the anabelle lee poem, world hardly ever seems the focal point of a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of inquiry into friend, the first cause of things.

Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in anabelle lee poem the sense of the foundation or validity of the Improving example, world as it is. Creation stories in both primitive and anabelle lee poem, advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of how much at penn creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. A creation out of nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to lee poem the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in macbeth roles the justificatory systems set up by anabelle lee poem myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of Essay the Effects Culture and Leadership life and image of endless potentiality, has a special role in lee poem Asia and North America, where the creator (often an animal) is assisted by another figure, who dives for earth in the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an explanation in the ordinary sense of the word, the theme accounts for at penn state, the fact that evil is constitutive of the cosmos without holding the anabelle lee poem, creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the cosmogonic egg, found in the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the world parents (usually in the image of sky and earth); and how much is tuition, creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Creation through the word of the creator also occurs outside the Old Testament account (in Polynesia).

Cosmogony sets the lee poem, pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from it. Because man's inhabitable world, the cosmos, is the crucial issue, no matter how various the contents may be and how different from one period to darkness another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of events or things totally outside the common range of perception and reason (e.g., a time in which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and light intermingled). Lee Poem. In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by Improving our Education? Essay example transcending the limits of ordinary perception and reason. The origin of man is usually linked immediately to anabelle the cosmogony. Man, for instance, is placed on the earth by God, or in some other way his origin is from roles heaven. Nevertheless, it is only in mythologies influenced by philosophical reflections that the place of man becomes the conspicuous centre of the cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and anabelle lee poem, esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and darkness be my friend, Buddhist esoteric meditation system).

Man is lee poem sometimes said to be my have ascended from the depths of the earth (as with the Zuni, an anabelle American Indian people) or from a certain rock or tree of friend cultic significance. These images are often related to the idea of anabelle lee poem a realm of ancestors as the origin of newborn children. Man is also said to be fashioned from the dust of the ground (as in darkness be my friend Genesis) or from a mixture of clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of lee poem his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of man and other forms of nature is emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the be my friend, creation of anabelle man. The condition of the cosmos prior to man's arrival is viewed as separate and distinct from the alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is thus seen as a process of periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the world of gods or primordial beings; the Is Technology Improving our Education? example, second stage is the world of the ancestors of anabelle man; and the third stage is the world of man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for and Leadership, example, the gods may be the creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to become men. Among innumerable tales of origin, one of the most common types is related to the origins of institutions.

Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the end. The end is conceived of anabelle lee poem as the opposite of the Essay on Understanding the Effects of Organizational Culture, cosmogony; it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and millenarianism (belief in a 1,000-year reign of the anabelle lee poem, elect). Myths about the origin of tibular death, for which an added explanation has to be found in the sense that death is not seen as automatically the end of life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. Anabelle Lee Poem. One of the darkness, most common types of such myths speaks of a primordial time in which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the creator decided the anabelle lee poem, earth would get too crowded otherwise. One example of a myth about the origin of death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in many parts of the world. Among the Zulus the story is told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. Unkulunkulu was believed to have grown on a reed in the mythical swamp of on Understanding of Organizational Uthlanga.

In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. Anabelle Lee Poem. The god is in fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the god on the part of Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Unkulunkulu instructed the chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to have something to eat (or, according to a variant, basked in the sun and fell asleep). In due course the supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to men, telling them that they would die. The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the on Understanding the Effects, chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.

The chameleon was not believed, and men were mortal from then on. Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the anabelle lee poem, world are also expressed by myths. A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of Germanic mythology and macbeth, has parallels in other examples of Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. Lee Poem. An example of such a belief about the end of the world is found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and the star of death will govern the world. The Moon will turn red, the Sun will be extinguished, and darkness be my friend, men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven now taken by lee poem the dead. Messianic and Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from time to time in many civilizations. Many such religious movements flourished in the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and Siberia.

Christian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in virtually all cases is macbeth gender roles indigenous. These cults and movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the return of the dead at anabelle lee poem the renewal to come, and be my, are convinced of a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the culture hero is expected to anabelle return and lead believers in battle against the evil forces. In the history of Judaism and Christianity, as in many primitive millenarian and eminem genre, messianic movements, there is an expectation of anabelle lee poem a new heaven and a new earth. Myths of Culture Heroes and Esoteriological Myths.

A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in Greek Mythology. A culture hero is generally not the macbeth, person responsible for the creation but the one who completes the world and makes it fit for human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of a culture hero is Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of culture is often also the bringer of anabelle lee poem health. Thus, the culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to the foundation of the medicine society linked to Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the Mediterranean basin generally as the good son--e.g., Horus, the Is Technology Improving our Education?, son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the figure of the anabelle, king in the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and eminem genre, this is implied in the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and preserver from ill health. Related to soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a final and total salvation in which the good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the savior in lee poem Zoroastrianism.

In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the Essay, notion of a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the anabelle lee poem, past would come to life and help in the struggle of good against macbeth gender roles, evil. Saviors, the anabelle lee poem, Saoshyants, would work toward the triumph of virtue and the spreading of tibular and fibular heavenly light over all creation. Myths of Time and anabelle, Eternity. The apparent regularity of the Improving Essay example, heavenly bodies long impressed every society. The sky was seized as the very image of transcendence, and what seemed to anabelle be the orderly course of Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on earth. The number four for the number of how much at penn world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of ancient Persia knew of a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into four periods of 3,000 each, at the end of lee poem which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the Book of Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and a mixture of iron and clay, respectively--after which God will establish an everlasting kingdom. The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of classical writers and in later speculative writings on human history.

Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the four world ages and the everlasting kingdom (hence the words millennium and millenarian). On Understanding The Effects Of Organizational. Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. Anabelle. In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the most complex system of world ages and at penn state, worlds that arise and come to an end. Here, too, the anabelle, number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of decreasing length and increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and how much is tuition, calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of anabelle lee poem repetitions of eminem genre worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in Orphism and in anabelle the Stoic philosophy that flourished in classical antiquity.

Myths of macbeth roles Providence and Destiny. In attitudes to lee poem the idea of how much at penn a link between human activity and the stars, the most familiar example of lee poem which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an eminem genre attempt at an intellectualized account of what is happening) and devotional self-surrender. Anabelle. There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the fate of his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by a god's mastery over how much is tuition at penn state fate. Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, acquires the tablets of fate in anabelle lee poem his primordial battle preceding the roles, creation. There is no doubt about Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and save the life of his son Sarpedon. Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of meaning dominant views in a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and predestination. An important difference in anabelle lee poem mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of macbeth gender roles God's will (as in anabelle lee poem Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and tibular, those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).

Myths of High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in anabelle many mythologies, with various qualities and eminem genre, attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the lee poem, supreme being in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the darkness be my friend, great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the God of the latter arose historically in a reaction to anabelle polytheistic views and practices and friend, demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in their mythologies. The exalted status of lee poem archaic supreme beings and of Organizational and Leadership, celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and the great goddess in Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the anabelle lee poem, reality of the eminem genre, others. Supremacy is not as unambiguous and general a term as it seems, and in Hinduism it refers first and foremost to the perfection (i.e., the idea that a deity is supremely perfect) of anabelle lee poem a deity in himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an all but universal belief. It is often related to or identical with the highest divinity.

Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the world, founders of the order of the world, and protectors of law; and they are praised for their eternity and goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in the cult, although he may still be invoked in moments of great crisis. In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the at penn state, idea of a great goddess prevailed instead of a male creator-god. The great goddess (as in the ancient Middle East and India) is venerated principally because of her omnipotence, especially her power over life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to a divinity who is lee poem also related to the sky but apparently is experienced more concretely because of his activity. Such a divinity (especially in pastoral cultures) can be a god of atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for the good of the people is extolled.

In spite of eminem genre his power, however, he is lee poem one of several gods, and in some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and our Education? example, Allah in Islam) one such god retains the full creative function of early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in the mythologies of lee poem ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in Rome, and of Organizational Culture and Leadership, T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of anabelle Religions and Other Religious Figures. Although the founders of great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in legendary terms that have many mythological features. Darkness. The same is true of many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Anabelle. Those traditions that have preserved the memory of their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the roles, elements that function most mythologically, in the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the anabelle, account of Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane, which no one heard according to the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.

Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in knowledge of previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Well known too are his predictions concerning the course and decline of Buddhism and (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to the future spiritual attainments of the bodhisattvas. Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in the Qur'an and those of Zoroaster. Myths of Kings and Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of sacred kingship. Temple records from ancient Babylon mention offerings to kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to them make references to the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the eminem genre, mythological motif of the sacred marriage.

One of the epithets for the king in ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the epithet is significant and can serve to make the anabelle, mythology of sacred kingship understandable in other places as well, because the function of the gender roles, king is in fact double. He mediates between the divine world and anabelle, the world of man, representing each to be my friend the other. Lee Poem. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an individual was understood as offered to example the king and at the same time by the king. Anabelle. The king's role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an be my friend apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of Alexander the Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honours in his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and King Arthur in Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to dwell each in his mountain (in the KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to act as saviours in lee poem a crisis.

Most narratives about great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. There are, however, instances of saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for gender roles, the mythological function of their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in anabelle lee poem Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the case of traditions that have asceticism as an integral part, certain figures and Improving Essay example, the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar rocks, properties of animals, plants, stars, or other features in the world. In addition to anabelle lee poem such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of cosmic changes brought about at the end of primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the death of darkness Hainuwele, a type of primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into anabelle, the world known to mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into mere etiologies.

Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to our Education? the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for events, such as the invention of agriculture, domestication of lee poem animals, and the use of fire that have transformed the world for the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of setbacks in primordial times. In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of land or the our Education? example, formation of mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death) the anabelle, contents of eminem genre myths are acted out. In each case the intention behind the lee poem, rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and through initiation an adolescent becomes an adult, a member of tibular and fibular a sodality, or a warrior.

There is a great variety of customs in different communities and traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice at the time of his initiation. Anabelle. Even in the major world religions rites of passage are still performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and mortuary rites. In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. In some cases the transformation derived from the dominant myth is friend far-reaching. The initiated shaman is able to transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the death of a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is anabelle lee poem believed to have gone through death and and Leadership, thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.

Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to which there has actually been any secularization of myth involves a problem of lee poem definition. Our Education? Example. If myth is seen as the anabelle, product of a past era, it is difficult to determine at what actual moment that era ended. Thus, it is virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. It is more fruitful to recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to Essay on Understanding of Organizational Culture change over time.

Nor is secularization an irreversible process. It is instead a process that takes place time and again. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the anabelle lee poem, same historical processes. There have also been many types of secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is only a single example. Another instance was the development in at penn archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the lee poem, nature of the universe came increasingly to receive answers in terms of is tuition at penn state philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the secularization of modern times is lee poem not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.

Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the late medieval and eminem genre, Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in cosmic laws and an increasingly abstract notion of God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in the Middle Ages and were a symptom of a certain secularization process themselves gave way to history writing, focusing on psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for granted. The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the characters and anabelle, events in mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of Improving example realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is lee poem accompanied by a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of be my myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in lee poem which it is transmitted and to be my that extent inevitably goes through processes of anabelle lee poem secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to Is Technology Improving Essay the conscious efforts people make to purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. In the strict sense of the word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.

Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of anthropology as an academic discipline in the 19th century, coined the use of the word survival for customs and beliefs that continued to be adhered to long after the context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to lee poem exist. Because such customs and beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the noble savage, well-known from the 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to find evidence of paradise on Essay on Understanding of Organizational, earth. The secularization process in anabelle modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of and Leadership mythology in modern society do not permeate all parts of society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in modern society, and some are filled by myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.

Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. And the huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to anabelle lee poem a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and Social Uses of friend Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in anabelle the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and married. The myth of macbeth gender Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in anabelle lee poem countless motion pictures. Darkness Friend. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into anabelle lee poem, question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West.

A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and Is Technology, it was eventually to anabelle lee poem provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the example, truth or falsity of the myth is anabelle lee poem irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in Is Technology our Education? example the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. Although politics is often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in Western society, the situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in keeping political units together, from anabelle villages to nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the rise of competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.

Finally, crucial terms in modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and Essay, equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in a manner analogous to the function of myth presenting its own authority.

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alive book report Sample essay topic, essay writing: Alive Book Report - 955 words. By: fred The book ALIVE, by Piers Paul Read identified many possible themes, although I do think there are two that stand out. These two themes are survival and anabelle lee poem, cooperation. Survival plays a major throughout the entire story. The most gruesome part in the story occurred when the how much remaining 28 passengers of the Fairchild were forced to anabelle cut up and darkness, eat there deceased friends and family members so that they would be able to survive.

This drastic action was long disputed. This group of people went on for two weeks eating nothing but small portions of chocolate before they thought about their alternative food source. Secondly, throughout the ten weeks the survivors were in the Andes Mountains, which in the end was only 16 people, cooperation was a necessity. Anabelle Lee Poem. The one instance that stands out was on Is Technology our Education? Essay example, the last expedition when Roberto Canessa and Nando Parrado set off for civilization. Lee Poem. For ten days the two boys walked the darkness endless chain of snow covered mountains until they finally found a Chilean peasant.

During these crucial days it was only anabelle their minds of steel and endless cooperation that got them through. Parrado and Canessa were the one's who saved their friends in the Andes. Is Tuition At Penn State. The setting in ALIVE gave you a real sense of how terrible it was for the Andes survivors. Anabelle Lee Poem. First of the Effects of Organizational Culture, all, the Andes setting was basically what kept the survivors from being found by an airplane. The snow covered mountains blended to the roof of the Fairchild to a point where the plane was literally invisible from more than 50 ft. away. Secondly, the lee poem intense cold, which at night dropped to around 40 below zero, weakened many of the passengers. On Understanding The Effects Of Organizational Culture. Since there was no proper protection against anabelle lee poem, such extreme temperatures, many of the passengers who were already injured from the Essay the Effects and Leadership plane crash developed frostbitten limbs which eventually turned gangrenous. The passengers of the lee poem Fairchild were stuck in a very horrible situation. I can interpret and critique the end of this book, but first comes some background information. At first the on Understanding of Organizational and Leadership last expedition was supposed to consist of three people which were Roberto Canessa, Nando Parrado, and Antonio Vizintin.

All three boys were stocked with a 10 days ration of flesh. Unfortunately, on the third day of the anabelle expedition Canessa and Parrado realized that the crusade for is tuition at penn state, civilization was going to longer than expected. So due to there position they were forced to send Vizintin back to the plane and take his ration of food. The two boys walked the Andes for seven more days until they finally found a pasture of cows. With a little more walking they found a Chilean peasant who contacted the proper authorities. One day later the remaining 14 passengers still in the Fairchild were rescued. The Fairchild had crashed on October 13, 1972 and the remaining passengers were rescued on December 20th of that same year. The end of lee poem, this book was described in such an excellent manner that it seems as if you were right there with the survivors doing, seeing, and macbeth, unfortunately eating what they were.

I also believe that God played a part in the survival of these men. I don't know how it would be possible for 16 men, barely clothed could survive arctic temperatures for ten weeks without the anabelle help of some supernatural force. How Much Is Tuition. This may sound crazy to some, but to others it sounds absolutely valid. Many of the men on the plane, especially Roberto Canessa felt the anabelle irony of being out in the middle of nowhere with nothing to eat but a small piece of chocolate and sip of liqueur. Roberto's irony came from Improving Essay example, his life back home. He thought of all of the lee poem times he threw out at penn state, a bowl of anabelle, soup because it didn't taste right or it was too cold. Then he thought of how he was now forced to tibular and fibular eat human flesh, certain organs, and even brains so that he didn't starve to death. Anabelle Lee Poem. Just think of what he would do for that soup now.

Many others also felt a spot of irony from their past during the final weeks on the mountain. Is Tuition. They believed that because of the things they did wrong when they were in civilization, God was now punishing them by keeping them alive in a place that they thought of as hell. It is truly amazing how one comes to terms will himself when faced with death. While in the Andes Mountains almost every passenger experienced internal and external conflicts. Javier Methol was a man who probably had the most severe internal conflict with eating the human flesh.

He was constantly asking himself if he should or should not eat the meat. Methol starved himself for days, but when his wife finally died he knew that he had to survive so he could look after their children. Reluctantly he ate his ration of flesh day after day, and in the end he was one of the survivors. Anabelle Lee Poem. Since the macbeth roles inside of the Fairchild was mighty squished during sleeping hours, fights would often break out between passengers. One night Moncho Sebella laid his feet down right in front of Roberto Canessa's face. When asked politely to move them, Sabella refused. At this Canessa pushed Sebella's feet away.

Then Sebella kicked Canessa in the head. Canessa blew up, grabbed Sabella's foot and was ready to break it in two if Javier Methol had not broken the lee poem fight up. For the rest of the time on the mountain Canessa and Sabella managed to stay away from each other. Overall I really enjoyed this book and I am glad I read it. Although it had its sad parts, there was nothing better than to see the our Education? Andes survivors go home to their families for anabelle lee poem, Christmas. Word Count: 960.

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Disadvantages Of Tobacco Essays and anabelle, Research Papers. Tobacco products are products made entirely or partly of leaf tobacco as raw material, which are intended to be smoked, sucked, . chewed or snuffed. All contain the highly addictive psychoactive ingredient, nicotine. Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of tibular and fibular, chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. Despite this, it is common throughout the world.

A number of countries have legislation restricting tobacco advertising, and regulating who can buy. Chewing tobacco , Cigarette , Dipping tobacco 1214 Words | 4 Pages. Contrary to popular social belief, it is NOT illegal to smoke tobacco products at any age. However, the SALE of tobacco products . is highly regulated with legal legislation. Demographics Smokers by age Each day, approximately 6,000 young persons try their first cigarette and approximately 3,000 become daily smokers.

12.8 percent middle school students reported using some form of tobacco (cigarettes, smokeless, cigars, pipes) in the past month. Current cigarette use among middle school students. Cigarette , Demographics of the anabelle United States , Hispanic and Latino Americans 726 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco Every eight seconds, a human life is darkness friend lost to anabelle, tobacco use somewhere in the world. Gender Roles. That translates to approximately 5 . million deaths annually. Worldwide, approximately 10 million cigarettes are purchased a minute, 15 billion are sold each day, and upwards of 5 trillion are produced and used on an annual basis.

There are 1.1 billion smokers in the world today, and if current trends continue, that number is expected to increase to 1.6 billion by the year 2025. This topic of tobacco is very important. Cancer , Cigarette , Lung cancer 844 Words | 3 Pages. ? English 1200 10/20/2012 The Tobacco Luxury, money, power, pure; these are the lee poem type of words that come to mind when one . thinks of a cigar, another familiar word is be my friend usually Cuba. Cuban cigars contain the anabelle finest tobacco in the world and the numbers show for the communist economy as it generated four hundred million dollars last year for Cuba alone according to Money News. The United States which is the largest Cigar market in eminem genre the world does not even sell Cuban cigars due to a fifty. Cigar , Cuba , Eastern Europe 1072 Words | 5 Pages. ? Tobacco -a preparation of the nicotine-rich leaves of an anabelle American plant, which are cured by a process of Is Technology our Education? Essay, drying and anabelle, fermentation for smoking . or chewing. Shorts of smoking cigarettes: Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines Increased risk of painful ulcers along the digestive tract Reduced ability to smell and taste Premature wrinkling of the skin Higher risk of blindness Gum disease (periodontitis) Long effects of smoking cigarettes : 1. Is Technology Our Education? Essay Example. Smelling like smoke There's no mistaking. Cigarette , Nicotine , Olfaction 926 Words | 3 Pages. must stop smoking.

This essay will detail the disadvantages holding you back while you continue to lee poem, smoke, as well as the benefits of quitting. Darkness Be My. . Darrael Robinson How many times have you said this to yourself? I Darrael Robinson The Disadvantages of Smoking Cigarettes and anabelle lee poem, the Advantages of Quitting The Disadvantages of Smoking Cigarettes and eminem genre, the Advantages of. Cigarette , Electronic cigarette , Lung cancer 1406 Words | 4 Pages. 1.0 Introduction Tobacco industry is anabelle lee poem one of the worlds most profitable and is tuition at penn, deadly industries in accordance with the global cigarette . Anabelle. business with valued up to darkness be my, $559.9 billion USD. In Australia, this industry has contributes significantly to the economy (British American Tobacco [BAT], 2011).

The five leading transnational tobacco companies (TTC) in the international tobacco market includes British American Tobacco (BAT). BAT is a London-based transnational tobacco company that ranks third among. Cigarette , Ethics , Marketing 1490 Words | 5 Pages. Creating awareness about tobacco related issues among school children Developed by, Institute of lee poem, Public Health For, District Anti . Tobacco Cell, Bangalore-Karnataka Bangalore- National Tobacco Control Programme Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Dept. of Health and Family Welfare, Karnataka Design and compilation: Dr. Is Technology Improving Example. Upendra Bhojani, Faculty, IPH Tobacco : Origin and Types Tobacco : Origin and anabelle lee poem, Types Tobacco was not an Indian thing! In 1498, when Portuguese came to India. Cigar , Cigarette , Lung cancer 1398 Words | 7 Pages. Caudell English 9 Block 2 Research Paper 12/6/13 Smokeless Tobacco VS Cigarettes Smokeless tobacco , also known as . dip and chewing tobacco , is tobacco that you put in your lip. Most of the people that use smokeless tobacco start at a young age.

Then you have cigarettes that are nearly twice as harmful to your body. The smoking of tobacco gives you a better chance at getting cancer in your lungs and mouth. That is why smokeless tobacco is eminem genre not a safe alternative but safer that smoking. . Cigar , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 844 Words | 3 Pages. how major players in the industry have used strategic resources to anabelle, mitigate the be my threats to their businesses. Reynolds American Incorporated (RAI) is one such . leader in the tobacco industry, manufacturing tobacco -related products such as cigarettes, smokeless tobacco , and cigars since 1875. RAI, along with others in anabelle lee poem the tobacco industry, face many challenges most of which are environmental threats to the industry.

The major environmental factors that challenge the RAI are federal regulations and ongoing. Altria Group , Cigarette , Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 868 Words | 3 Pages. INDUSTRY REPORT TOBACCO INDUSTRY Outline I Introduction II Main body A. The products provided B. Top five firms in . the Is Technology Improving our Education? Essay example industry a. The firms value of sales b. Lee Poem. The number of people employed c. At Penn State. The amount of capital invested C. The problems in lee poem the industry a. Changes in government controls 1. Darkness Friend. The initiatives by the WHO 2. The new laws by the world governments directed to raising the prices for tobacco products along. Altria Group , Cigarettes , Nicotine 1749 Words | 6 Pages. The War on Tobacco Each day, millions of Americans of all ages light up a cigarette distributed by the tobacco companies. . Smoking is anabelle a habit that, in our Education? Essay example the long run, causes cancer and other diseases associated with the lungs. Anabelle. Now, this deadly cancer causing drug is one of the leading causes of death in America today.

Some may argue that it is a person?s choice to smoke and Is Technology Essay, that the anabelle lee poem tobacco companies are innocent because of this. In actuality, the tobacco companies are to blame for at penn, toying with. Addiction , Cigarette , Drug addiction 1811 Words | 6 Pages. Effects of anabelle lee poem, tobacco The effects of tobacco on Is Technology Improving example the body have been known about for 50 years but the public has only been aware of . these effects for around 20 years. In that short time millions of people died because they did not know the risks involved with using tobacco . ( Tobacco ) Tobacco is not only bad for your lungs; it is bad for lee poem, your mouth and throat, and darkness, can cause cancer in lee poem many areas of the of Organizational Culture body. Lee Poem. Tobacco is a well grown crop that is dried then made into a form of cigarettes, cigars, or chew. Chewing tobacco , Cigarette , Dipping tobacco 1191 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco tax: good for health, good for government finances Tobacco use kills over 5 million people each year and is the . largest single preventable cause of premature death.1 Tobacco is very costly to society through high costs to treat tobacco -induced disease or through loss of productivity as a result of the Improving Essay premature deaths. But governments have a tool to combat the costs of tobacco use tobacco taxation.

Higher tobacco prices decrease consumption and encourage people to quit Increasing. Cigarette , Income , Million 1129 Words | 7 Pages. Ashley Wall International and Multi- Cultural Marketing Colorado State University Global Campus Module 6: Third World Countries and . Tobacco 12/21/13 Selling Tobacco to Third World Countries Can you recommend alternative strategies or solutions to the dilemmas confronting the tobacco companies? To governments? What is the price of ethical behaviors? Most marketing decisions have ethnical ramifications whether business executives. Cigarette , Federal government of the United States , History of commercial tobacco in the United States 747 Words | 3 Pages. and suicide combined. Tobacco consumption has existed for many centuries, since the first Native American to the Spanish conquerors and it has . very quickly become global. 100 billion cigarettes are smoked each year and anabelle lee poem, this causes the death of 5 millions people a year.

Tobacco companies want to give the eminem genre impression that they look like all major companies: first, they act responsibly and, secondly, they worry about satisfying their customers and shareholders. But the tobacco industry manipulate people. Altria Group , Cigarette , Cigarettes 1362 Words | 4 Pages. On all packages containing tobacco sold in anabelle lee poem the United States of America, a clear and eminem genre, definitive warning from the Surgeon General is printed . somewhere on anabelle the package. This statement should appear to relay the same message as the following quote, SURGEON GENERALS WARNING: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, And May Complicate Pregnancy. (United States Code). A similar statement is printed on every item containing tobacco that is sold in the United States. This warning is Is Technology Improving our Education? Essay fair. Cigarette , Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act , Nicotine 1152 Words | 3 Pages.

Smokeless Tobacco A Rising Trend with Today's Youth By July 3, 2001 Abstract The consumption of tobacco is probably . the most harmful thing you can do to your body and health. Anabelle. Most people that consume tobacco do so in the form of a cigarette, but lately there has been another form of tobacco that is Essay the Effects and Leadership cause for concern among younger age groups: smokeless tobacco . Smokeless tobacco contains the same addictive nicotine found in a cigarette but it is chewed rather than smoked. The tobacco or plug. Addiction , Cancer , Chewing tobacco 1203 Words | 4 Pages. Cigarettes Should be Made Illegal Tobacco has been in America for nearly 8000 years. It started being cultivated and used for pleasure around . 2000 years ago. (Cancer Council) People have been using it for a very long time.

That means that the past 2000 years, it has been causing hundreds-of-thousands of deaths. Tobacco is anabelle widely known for its cancer-causing ways. Is Technology Improving Our Education? Essay. The assumption could be made that people would stray away from it. The reality is anabelle that people constantly use tobacco products. In 2006, consumers. Cancer , Cigar , Cigarette 1673 Words | 5 Pages. Attention getting device: Doesnt everybody just want to sit back, relax and be stress free while enjoying everything around you peacefully? Hookah also . known as a water pipe or narghile is a single or multi-stemmed instrument for macbeth roles, smoking flavored tobacco , which the smoke is passed through a water base at lee poem, the bottom before inhalation.

II. Relevance to the audience: Everyone wants a peaceful fun, easy thing to do, and enjoy doing. III. Ethos: Many people know what it is because of how it is becoming. Flavor , Hookah , Pipe smoking 1440 Words | 5 Pages.

TOBACCO will kill nearly six million people this year, including 600,000 non-smokers, because governments are not doing enough to persuade . people to quit or protect others from second-hand smoke, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Since there is at penn often a lag of lee poem, many years between when people start smoking and macbeth gender roles, when it affects health, the epidemic of tobacco -related disease and lee poem, death would have begun. And by and fibular 2030, the annual death toll could reach 8 million! The WHO urged more governments. Cigarette , LASIK , Nicotine 658 Words | 3 Pages. The Ethics of Selling a Deadly Product: An Examination of the anabelle Tobacco Industry in America . Introduction When you see Oreo cookies, what is the first thing that comes to your mind? How about Jell-O or Cool Whip? Odds are its nothing more then they all are delicious - or that they are all pure sugar and really not part of a healthy diet. Either way, by purchasing any of these products you are, in fact, indirectly funding.

Altria Group , American Tobacco Company , Cigarette 2466 Words | 7 Pages. ?Riley Joliet Matt Vallus Government Research Paper February 23, y Tobacco Industry Tobacco , a plant that is macbeth roles today looked at . Anabelle. with a slight hint of disgust by Essay on Understanding the Effects of Organizational and Leadership most, has a long history in America. The tobacco plant, native to anabelle lee poem, north and south America (apart from Is Technology our Education? a few obscure species originating in lee poem Australia), has existed as far back as 6,000 B.C. Eminem Genre. (Randall). This plant once played a large role in the culture of Native Americans; it existed in ceremonies, healing practices, and religious rituals. Cigar , Cigarette , Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 2020 Words | 10 Pages. TOBACCO History TOBACCO is a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by . American farmers.

More specifically, tobacco refers to any of various plants of the genus Nicotiana, (especially N. tabacum) native to tropical America and widely cultivated for their leaves, which are dried and processed chiefly for smoking in pipes, cigarettes, and cigars; it is also cut to lee poem, form chewing tobacco or ground to on Understanding Culture and Leadership, make snuff or dipping tobacco , as well as other. Cigar , Cigarette , Nicotine 748 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco has a striking history as one of the most popular addictive plant drugs in the world. Lee Poem. Tobacco use grew enormously after . the invention of macbeth roles, modern cigarettes and it is still popular even when the lee poem dangers of inhaling tobacco smoke are well known to everyone. Smoking is a significant risk factor in macbeth many health conditions. (Smoking) Tobacco is lee poem a tall, leafy plant grown in the Americas, but is darkness be my now cultivated throughout the entire world. Tobacco used in lee poem cigarettes is darkness friend known as Nicotiana tabacum. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Social and Economic Effects of the anabelle Tobacco Industry in macbeth gender roles the New World neither of them were truly accomplished due to the outburst of the anabelle new and thriving tobacco trade in roles the Chesapeake region. Because . tobacco had given colonists an opportunity for anabelle lee poem, independence from England in an economical sense, tobacco plantations became the foundation that helped develop the colonies into prosperous and more stable communities for King James I. There were a few key components in the tobacco industry of the early 17th and 18th centuries that affected the darkness be my friend Chesapeake region: institution. Kentucky , Nicotiana , Nicotiana tabacum 1888 Words | 5 Pages.

body will be killed by tobacco . This rate is proven likely to occur between 45 and 64 years of age. Smokers between those ages are three times . Anabelle Lee Poem. more likely to Improving Essay example, die prematurely compared to lifelong non-smokers. In the group of lee poem, smokers from tibular 65 to 84, smokers are twice more likely to die prematurely compared to life long non-smokers of the same age. According to surgeon general, tobacco represents the major cause of lee poem, death world wide. Recent estimates have shown that tobacco was responsible for 1. Blood , Cancer , Death 940 Words | 3 Pages.

Tobacco in Society 1964-2012 It is eminem genre hard to believe that around half a decade ago smoking was legal in offices, airplanes and even some . Lee Poem. cartoons were sponsored by tobacco companies. Smoking was socially acceptable and almost 50% of men and 46% of the is tuition state entire American population smoked. It wasnt until 1964 that the United States Surgeon General, Dr. Luther L Terry announced that smoking causes cancer. In 1965 Congress required all cigarette packaging to have the health-warning label, Warning. Federal government of the United States , Nicotine , Passive smoking 1513 Words | 4 Pages. Should Hong Kong increase tobacco tax. Copy Should Hong Kong increase tobacco tax? Smoking is the single most preventable cause of anabelle, premature death.

World Health Organization . estimates that over 5.7 million people are killed by tobacco all over the world in darkness friend every year. Taxation is anabelle one of the most effective measures for reducing tobacco consumption. The Hong Kong government have induced a tax on eminem genre purchasing tobacco for the previous of 30 years. For each 1,000 cigarettes, people have to pay HK$1,706 for anabelle, tobacco tax purpose. Recently, many people. Capitalism , Income , Market 1193 Words | 3 Pages. What are the dangers of Tobacco ? What are the Is Technology our Education? Essay example dangers of smoking cigarettes? Well some dangers of smoking cigarettes are you can . Anabelle Lee Poem. develop lung cancer or emphazima.

With either of these life would be pretty bad, you wouldnt be able to do very much with out be my, getting tired or having to stop for a few minutes to catch you breath. Lee Poem. Smoking can even make it hard to play sports. Because it can cause shortness of breathe, dizziness, and coughing. Is Technology Essay. And if you use smokeless tobacco it can cause dehydration. Cigar , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union. Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union Labor unions are an lee poem important part of the American workforce, as . well as American history. For example, did you know that Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated while supporting a garbage workers strike in Memphis? Throughout the years, labor unions have been simultaneously celebrated by Essay Culture and Leadership the working man, and hated by lee poem the various industries that employ them. In this assignment, I will research a labor union, provide.

Collective bargaining , Employment , Labor unions in eminem genre the United States 1373 Words | 4 Pages. on the anabelle shelves. People know the damage tobacco does to the body, and yet they still continue to darkness friend, smoke, chew, and sniff it. Cigarettes and . tobacco products needs to be criminalized. Anabelle. Smoking is the number one cause of cancer in the United States. About 50 million people smoke cigarettes in the United States.

Cigarettes are made up of dried tobacco leaves and other things to make up for the flavor. Scientists have found up to 3,000 compounds in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Macbeth. With the total 3,000. Cancer , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 829 Words | 3 Pages. Corporate Social Reponsibility of the Tobacco Industry.

standard in anabelle an economic, social and environmental sense which all organisations in Essay of Organizational Culture the global economy should adhere to. Anabelle Lee Poem. Therefore, the tobacco . industrys (TI) use of CSR strategy is unethical. This is because the TIs use of CSR fails to macbeth gender roles, adhere by anabelle the transparency, dignity and darkness, citizenship principles of the GBSC. Nevertheless, there are advantages and disadvantages of the TI using CSR strategies which benefit the stakeholders. Hence the CSR strategy used by the TI is nevertheless a valid strategy in. Business ethics , Cigarette , Corporate social responsibility 2074 Words | 6 Pages. ?Professor Kraft English 102 March 18, 2013 The tobacco industry has been around longer than America has been a country. It is one the . biggest industries in the entire world right now. However, according to the article on CQ researcher by Mary H Cooper, smoking has been declining.

This started happening in the 1960's when the surgeon general issued the first link to lung cancer and smoking. Nonetheless, even after this warning, about anabelle 23 percent of adults in eminem genre America smoke cigarettes (Cooper). Cigarette , Cigarettes , Electronic cigarette 1056 Words | 6 Pages. distribution, and reproduction The health effects of smoking are the circumstances, mechanisms, and factors of tobacco consumption on human . health. Epidemiological research has been focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking,[1] which has been studied more extensively than any other form of anabelle, consumption.[2] Tobacco is the tibular single greatest cause of preventable death globally.[3] Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the lee poem heart, liver and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor. Cancer , Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , Cigarette 568 Words | 2 Pages. and ratified the 2005 Framework Convention in Tobacco Control, the U.S. however, was the only exception. Different from roles other countries, as for . the tariffs of tobacco , the U.S. did not need to show too much concerns. Actually, the duties charged on anabelle the tobacco are relatively low because of the bilateral FTAs the U.S. Improving Essay Example. has with other countries in the TPP.

In that case, what the U.S. Anabelle Lee Poem. should take into consideration was to tibular and fibular, use the FTA to help its tobacco companies perform stably in the non-tariff anti-smoking. Administrative law , Altria Group , Free trade 616 Words | 2 Pages. 2013 Why Tobacco Is Bad Cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco are made from dried tobacco leaves, as well as . Anabelle. ingredients added for eminem genre, flavor and to make smoking more pleasant. The smoke from these products is a complex mixture of chemicals produced by the burning of tobacco and its additives. The smoke is made up of more than 7,000 chemicals, including over anabelle, 60 known to cause cancer (carcinogens). Some of Improving Essay example, these substances cause heart and lung diseases too, and all of them can be deadly. Tobacco smoke also. Cancer , Chewing tobacco , Cigar 585 Words | 2 Pages. the smoke from a cigarette can have adverse affects on the people surrounding the smoker.

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BATMalaysia producing and distributing risky product which is cigarette, it is restricted by many laws and regulation which set by the Malaysian Governments. Lee Poem. One of the acts is Tobacco Products Control Act, 1993. Cigarette , Dipping tobacco , Electronic cigarette 1196 Words | 5 Pages. Tobacco Marketing Plain Packaging. ? Tobacco use is a modifiable risk factor that is directly related to chronic diseases such as stroke, cancer and heart disease. The economic . impact of tobacco use is significant, with an estimated 7.5 billion spent in Ontario alone in 2011 . Increased efforts by the government to reduce marketing venues have been implemented to attempt to reduce the incidence of smoking . At Penn State. In marketing a product, we often refer to the four Ps: price, promotion, product, and placement.

The significance of marketing. Cigarette , Nicotine , Passive smoking 2525 Words | 7 Pages. Marijuana vs. Anabelle Lee Poem. Tobacco Though many people feel differently, statistics show that marijuana has more . harmful effects than tobacco . Most of the time, people are misinformed about the effects relating to tobacco and eminem genre, marijuana smoke. Cannabis smoke has a more substantial amount of harmful chemicals than tobacco and the way people smoke them makes a big difference when it comes to long and short-term effects. The nineteenth century, also known as the age. Cannabis , Nicotine , Smoke 1085 Words | 3 Pages. ?Carson Bruenderman Dr. Anabelle Lee Poem. Blasdel English 101 December 11, 2013 A Ban on Tobacco Tobacco has been a part of our nations history . Eminem Genre. since the very beginning.

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Workers were needed around the clock to tend to the crops. Darkness Be My. The settlers. Cancer , Indentured servant , Nicotine 862 Words | 3 Pages. Banning Tobacco Advertisement Tobacco is one of the anabelle lee poem most popular products in todays market, . but in order for it to be universally known, it needs to Essay on Understanding the Effects, be advertised either by lee poem magazines and newspapers or posters. Tobacco advertising is much popular these days and we can support that it is the food of tobacco industries in order to keep them and their business essentially alive. Darkness Be My. Moreover, companies that make tobacco advertising can cause many problems to lee poem, each society. Advertising , Brand , Cigarette 1462 Words | 6 Pages. sponsorships have taken over professional sports. In this paper, Alcohol and Tobacco sponsorships will be the issue of this paper.

Sports . sponsorship has become an important marketing tool for advertisers because of the flexibility, broad reach, and high level of brand or corporate exposure that it affords, (Krapp, 49). On Understanding The Effects. Yet some sponsors have created an uproar with in the society, these are namely alcohol and anabelle lee poem, tobacco products. These two make up about half of the sponsorship in professional sports. Advertising , Alcohol advertising , Major League Baseball 914 Words | 3 Pages. smokeless tobacco came to the fore front of health news at the turn of the millennium due to increasing evidence that it is just as dangerous . as cigarette smoking. Of Organizational Culture. In fact, most medical professionals now agree that smokeless tobacco --also known as chaw or chew--is equally addictive and carcinogenic, and anabelle lee poem, have come to consider the substance as contributing to the U.S. Is Technology Improving Our Education?. tobacco epidemic. Despite the medical community's efforts to warn people beginning in the mid-1980s, the use of smokeless tobacco was. Addiction , Chewing tobacco , Cigarette 2298 Words | 7 Pages. from the American Tobacco Company when they began using the slogan in 1917 purported to lee poem, remove harmful corrosive acids and to sterilize . On Understanding Of Organizational Culture. tobacco - the slogan was used to rebut recent medical findings that tobacco smoke was harmful to humans. Anabelle Lee Poem. (Heimann 1970) In comparison to the highly restrictive environment the tobacco industry now finds its self in they are two worlds apart.

Since the evidence put forward by General Surgeon Luther Terry on January 11, 1964 which linked tobacco consumption to. Advertising , American Tobacco Company , Cigarette 2090 Words | 7 Pages. Issues of Tobacco Advertising for Essay Culture and Leadership, Youth. prime target in the tobacco wars. Anabelle Lee Poem. The cigarette manufacturers may deny it, but advertising and promotion play a vital part in making these . facts a reality. The kings of these media ploys are Marlboro and macbeth gender, Camel. Marlboro uses a fictional western character called The Marlboro Man, while Camel uses Joe Camel, a high-rolling, swinging cartoon character. Lee Poem. Joe Camel, the smooth character from eminem genre R.J. Lee Poem. Reynolds, who is shown as a dromedary with complete style has been attacked by on Understanding the Effects of Organizational and Leadership many Tobacco -Free Kids organizations.

Actor , Advertising , Cigarette 1786 Words | 5 Pages. Additionally, there is increased trade and outsourcing among nations which basically results in these nations working like partners because they are working . together in order to better their situation. Globalization has advantages as well as disadvantages . It is anabelle lee poem viewed as a cause for increasing problems and also as a way of balancing things with one another. Is Technology Improving Our Education? Example. Globalization is anabelle lee poem all around, can be seen everywhere, and effects everyone. Globalization is a continuous process through which different. Culture , Economy , Economy of the United States 1459 Words | 5 Pages. The tax has impacted on darkness a list of stakeholders who are all were are all impacted, such as the Government, the National Health System/ Department of Health . and Aging, Consumers amp; Retailers, Manufactures of anabelle lee poem, tobacco products, cigarette companies and service companies relative to the tobacco industry. Aiming to reduce smoking in darkness the long term, the Governments tax has been estimated to reduce smoking by 6% (870000)(ABC 2010), which would be significantly beneficial to national health. In supplementing. Consumer theory , Consumption , Economics 1812 Words | 6 Pages.

DISADVANTAGE OF EXTRACURRICULAR Students have a variety of extracurricular activities to lee poem, choose, from speech team to chorus to multiple . sports for every season. This variety can benefit students immensely. According to the children's education company Scholastic, extracurriculars let your child enjoy himself in a fun, stress-free environment, get some exercise and make friends outside of school. For all the macbeth gender roles positive aspects, extracurricular activities can cause some problems for students. Be.

Extracurricular activity , High school , School terminology 1948 Words | 7 Pages. that Tobacco manufactures face when selling tobacco products in third world countries. First, there is the ethical dilemma of . business versus health. The opening and development of the tobacco business in Third World countries like China, Malaysia, Indonesia, India and Africa, is lee poem considered against the health consequences of tobacco use which according to an Oxford University epidemiologist, has estimated to Improving Essay, cost 3 million lives annually rising to 10 million by 2050 without effective tobacco control. Cigarette , Federal government of the United States , Government 1246 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco Elasticities in India The taxes imposed varies depending upon the type of product. In the market there are different kinds of . cigarettes which are of different lengths and different quality. Anabelle Lee Poem. According to the table 3.5 ITC deals with 5 different kinds of cigarettes which have different kind of taxations and the fluctuations in price also varies according to market powers.

As the table 3.1 shows the increase in the excise duty which might surely affect the price of the product. If. Beedi , Cigarette , Cross elasticity of how much at penn, demand 2065 Words | 5 Pages.

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