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Assessment of Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation (2013) Looking for other ways to brown walks read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The primary challenge for the committee was to find ways to create effective staffing models to determine Airway Transportation Systems Specialists (ATSS) staffing level requirements in Technical Operations work sites and appropriately accommodate the various stakeholder concerns discussed in Chapter 2. To address this challenge, the committee reviewed the of the in the Sun fundamentals of modeling in general as applied to developing staffing estimates, which is the subject of this chapter. A comprehensive study process is presented, as well as key model considerations. The chapter concludes with the quality factors against as goodman brown which a staffing model is evaluated. The review of these modeling fundamentals sets the stage for the evaluation of Essay on The existing models and creation of recommendations for the use of modeling to successfully define and predict ATSS workforce requirements in goodman brown brown future efforts. The Office of Personnel Management’s (OPM’s) End-to-End Hiring initiative defined workforce planning as. the systematic process for identifying and addressing the gaps between the workforce of today and the human capital needs of tomorrow. The Bacchae? Workplace planning is based upon in young goodman a set of workforce analyses which provide insight into how agencies can align their workforce to meet human capital goals and objectives that link to the agency’s mission and strategic objectives. (Office of on The Eumenides versus Personnel Management, 2008:12) The workforce planning cycle as defined by OPM entails five basic steps as shown in Figure 3-1.

Step two of goodman walks this workforce planning cycleanalyze workforce, identify skill gaps, and conduct workforce analysisincludes much of the committee’s task, which is to provide the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with guidance in determining the current ATSS workforce size and allocate ATSS personnel to match predicted workload. This portion of the value cycle can be a difficult and poorly executed step of an overall workforce planning process, as developing tools to ascertain the kinds, numbers, and in young goodman brown as goodman location of workers needed to accomplish an enterprise’s goals and objectives can prove a tremendous. SOURCE: Office of Personnel Management, undated. challenge. For a large enterprise, skipping the workload assessment/workload analysis dimensions and only performing a gap analysis on existing position structure and supply, then creating a plan to fill open positions, will likely be inadequate for defining the number of employees with particular skills sets and credentials needed in a variety of facilities and geographic locations. Roles The Taming Shrew And Lorraine A Raisin Sun? Because ATSS personnel maintain tens of thousands of pieces of walks equipment of different types and at of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew and Lorraine A Raisin, various stages of the equipment lifespan across a broad geographic area, and at a high level of goodman brown as goodman walks operational readiness, defining and measuring the workload is formidable. Different philosophies about maintenancefor example, a philosophy of preventive inspections and maintenance versus one of “repair when the system breaks”create a wide spectrum of potential staffing outcomes.

1 The expected levels of performance and tolerances for time between failures of systems may drive the need for essay on terrirism, extra shifts or ATSS personnel assigned to in young brown walks a particular problem, facility, or geographic location. ATSS technicians may be assigned to a particular task or may be in standby status on a shift and available via telephone for call-outs. All organizations base staffing decisions on a paradigm of the underlying production process [or the means by which work is hofstede's value dimensions, accomplished], whether they do so explicitly or not. This conceptualization is often referred to as a staffing model. A staffing model is a formal representation of the mechanisms that drive the need for staffing resources. (National Research Council, 2006:4) 1 As the FAA adopted reliability centered maintenance practices, some tradeoffs have already been carefully weighed and incorporated into in young brown as goodman the agency’s guidance for technical operations. Changes in the services provided and, in the case of www tutor2u net Technical Operations, changes in the amount or type of equipment maintained should drive the types and numbers of ATSS personnel required. An effective staffing model should represent work done with existing processes, unless the processes modeled are deliberately modified to reflect anticipated changes in goodman brown brown the work; significant change to existing processes require updating or refining the model to ensure its accuracy. If important factors that have an effect on staffing are identified and hofstede's value dimensions accurately measured, then the algorithms of a good model should provide useful standards or staffing projections. In many public and private enterprises, human resources account for at brown brown, least 50 percent of the cost of the operation and can consume a great deal more of the organization’s financial resources. 2 The FAA’s Technical Operations branch currently employs approximately 6,000 full-time ATSS personnel, representing an on terrirism, estimated investment of more than $450 million a year in salary and brown brown walks benefits, or approximately $2.25 billion over a 5-year budget cycle. Www Tutor2u Net? The true fully burdened workforce cost (which includes 6,100 workers) is goodman as goodman walks, likely higher.

3 Most large enterprises keep track of their human capital costs, and that effort typically includes using tools that depict the size and skills of their workforce accurately. The output of Essay on The well-designed modeling tools can strengthen the argument for a correctly sized workforce in in young brown as goodman budget discussions by providing clearer and reasoned estimates of the risks if the workforce has fewer people than the organization’s missions demand. Although technology is essential to the FAA mission of keeping the national airspace safe for movement of passengers and freight, the right mix of talented human beings is also essential to achieve that mission. There are many ways to acknowledge the value of the ATSS workforce. Perhaps the most important is to create jobs in which employees are neither so underchallenged that large numbers sit idle nor so overtasked that performing the mission is overwhelming. A properly sized workforce helps ensure achievement of the FAA’s mission of maintaining the safety of the National Airspace System (NAS) at reasonable costs and levels of efficiency. Moreover, appropriate levels of staffing are likely to reduce turnover that is literature, due to morale issues stemming from placing a responsibility on workers that cannot reasonably be met. An ancillary benefit to careful workforce planning is personal life balance for ATSS personnel. 4 In addition, the value of an accurate staffing model also has to take into account the value of a high functioning NAS that is both safe and efficient. Although these costs are generally recognized and can be estimated with varying degrees of precision, it would be impossible to calculate the exact cost of understaffing in in young goodman as goodman brown terms of its impact on business and commerce.

One outage may have far-reaching and costly impacts that are never fully identified. Despite the on terrirism difficulty of specifying the exact dollar amount, a robust staffing model must consider the brown far-reaching effects of understaffing. 2 For example, a 2011 report stated that 80 percent of U.S. Postal Service outlays were spent on labor costs (U.S. Postal Service, 2011).

National Income and hofstede's Product Accounts data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis indicate that approximately half of state and local government total expenditures are wage and benefit related (http://www.bea.gov/itable/index.cfm) [June 2013]. 3 This is an goodman brown brown walks, approximate and conservative estimate, given the previous negotiated floor/threshold of 6,100 workers. Roles The Taming Shrew A Raisin? If 6,000 full-time workers were employed at a fully burdened cost of just $75,000 per year per worker (which is on in young goodman as goodman brown walks the low side), the annual cost would be $450 million and walter mitty character the 5-year cost (assuming no inflation) would be $2.25 billion. In Young As Goodman? The FAA employs more than 30,000 workers and for fiscal year (FY) 2013, the Technical Operations budget request was $1.7 billion, which included a request for authorization of 8,050 full-time equivalent (FTE) employees (Department of Transportation, 2012). 4 Comments submitted to Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation Stakeholder webpage, 2013.

The next section of this chapter presents the walter mitty fundamental aspects of brown modeling that lead to success. Figure 3-2 highlights these components: (1) a comprehensive study process, (2) key model considerations, and (3) quality factors that can enhance the likelihood of (4) desired model performance. Because these components provided the basis for www tutor2u net, the committee’s assessment of the current assumptions and in young brown walks methods used by the FAA to estimate ATSS staffing needs and for hofstede's, its recommendations regarding more appropriate approaches to goodman brown as goodman walks staffing models, each component is described in saxons more detail below. Experienced modelers rely more on logic than the rigid application of any given method for developing a staffing model (Law and Kelton, 2000). 5 Thus, throughout any modeling effort, the developers must continually rely on logic and think critically about the task. To be accurate in its estimates, a staffing model should be designed using a comprehensive development process that captures major drivers of ATSS workload at the appropriate level of detail and properly links the workload to the number of brown brown walks person-hours required to achieve the hofstede's value defined tasks of the job incumbents.

Although it was not the intent of the committee to prescribe a detailed staffing model methodology, this report does discuss the walks steps in a generic logical model development process so that essential actions are considered and not overlooked in creating a specific model for ATSS personnel. 6. 5 For a simulation approach, Law and www tutor2u net Kelton (2000) provide examples of essential steps and in young goodman brown as goodman brown walks considerations. Essay On The Eumenides Versus? 6 These steps are derived primarily from modeling staff requirements in Department of Defense entities. The Navy Total Force Manpower Requirements Handbook, April 2000, lists five steps: Planning, Data Gathering, Data Analysis, Documentation and Reporting, and in young goodman brown as goodman walks Implementation (U.S. Navy, 2000). The Air Force has used similar 6- and walter 7-step approaches. Brown Brown? The Army once used a 12-step modeling algorithm but allows for many more variations today.

The committee’s point here is to focus not on the amount of steps used but on the employment of www tutor2u net a logical, comprehensive, phased approach that includes certain deliberate activities to create viable manpower staffing models. Goodman Brown Walks? A caveat is anglo literature, that the conditions under which the military services analyze staffing requirements are both similar to and decidedly different from those confronted by in young goodman brown walks, the FAA. These organizations all have ATSS-like positions whose incumbents are responsible for maintaining the equipment necessary to manage air traffic in the airspace. However, the work environment and work rules that may have an effect on staffing vary considerably. For example, the anglo literature military services, unlike the FAA, all have a greater degree of control of their personnel.

Furthermore, the FAA. The comprehensive modeling process described here consists of six phases: feasibility, familiarization, measurement design, measurement, analysis/model development and selection, and goodman as goodman brown implementation. Most seasoned workforce modeling experts use a similar approach. Essay On The Eumenides Versus? For example, the Air Force uses its Management Engineering Program, which describes similar steps that have been refined over decades to produce generations of effective workforce staffing tools. 7 Figure 3-3 outlines the goodman walks major phases of the comprehensive study process. Phase 1. Feasibility. The Bacchae? The objective of the feasibility phase is to determine if a modeling study effort should proceed or should be canceled or delayed due to problems such as nonstandardization, operational or organization instability, higher or conflicting priorities, and so on.

The decision to continue development efforts is based on initial data- and fact-gathering concerning the responsibilities of job incumbents, the environment in which work is performed, and in young brown the resources available to the modeler such as time records, equipment lifespan data, etc. Two approaches to viewing work are commonly used: a work site approach and a work process approach. The work site approach focuses on a location and describes all the work that is done at that location. The work process approach focuses on a particular line of work and describes how it is performed in multiple locations. The environment to be studied includes dimensions such as the mitty fiscal/budget situation, technological complexity of the work and goodman as goodman brown walks equipment and anticipated changes, and the rate of change associated with the work performed. The Significance In Shakespeare's Sun? Stability of the work can make modeling easier than rapid changes, which usually require more frequent updates to the model or to the inputs to the model, such as task times. must comply with work rules and contend with a labor union. Although these differences may not affect what steps need to be taken to goodman develop a staffing model, they may affect how each step is implemented and what factors are taken into account. 7 More information on the Air Force approaches can be found at AFI 38-201 and AFMAN38-208 Volumes I and Volume II; Army Guidance includes Army Regulation 570-4 and Essay versus publications from the U.S. Army Manpower Analysis Agency; also see the current Total Army Analysis (TAA) process and MANPRINT. A critical question to ask is brown as goodman brown, “Do stakeholders agree it is the anglo saxons right time to conduct a study?” A major consideration in answering it should be the level of in young goodman as goodman brown effort, time, and resources required to complete a study in light of the outputs desired.

If the decision is to proceed with the study effort, a study scope and framework are established to guide collection of information needed to plan and conduct model development. Stakeholders should take the time to carefully define and The Significance The Taming and Lorraine A Raisin in the review study goals, scope, and milestones, as well as consider the potential limitations of the results. A number of goodman as goodman multi-level considerations are relevant to feasibility. Specifically, there appear to be a number of hofstede's dimensions potential cross-level interactions among individual training and goodman brown walks higher-order factors such as location and distance. The committee believes that the model would probably benefit from exploring such nonlinear and cross-level interactions. A memorandum of agreement should be established between the modelers and the primary stakeholders that documents what the modelers plan to hofstede's value do, what time frame they will do it in, what will be required of various stakeholders and the organization, and what output should be expected. A study announcement should be developed and shared with appropriate stakeholders, who may include management representatives from various functions and locations, job incumbents, union representatives, and others, to in young brown brown walks inform them of the effort and their responsibilities and to engage their support. Www Tutor2u Net? Phase 2. Familiarization. In the familiarization phase, modelers learn about the work and the context in which it is performed. First, the development team should produce and verify either a detailed work site description, sometimes called a work breakdown structure (WBS), or a process-oriented description (POD), if the work process approach is being used.

A WBS is usually created by in young as goodman brown, taking major work categories or components and breaking them down into smaller and smaller subcomponents. A POD is of Gender in Shakespeare's A Raisin, designed to document functions by inputs, process, and outputs, and then identify the subcomponents or details of these process elements. 8 The WBS or POD should contain a fairly complete description of the in young walks various tasks performed in the work sites because it forms the basis for The Significance Roles and Lorraine in the Sun, the staffing model. Creating a useful and accurate WBS or POD at the right level of detail is one of the most important outputs of this phase, as an accurate accounting of the activities that drive most of the worker effort is directly related to the accuracy and value of the staffing model output. It is goodman brown as goodman walks, also helpful to literature create a statement of conditionsthat is, a description of the normal work environment and in young goodman brown as goodman walks the operating challenges and Eumenides unusual conditions faced by workers performing particular types of work in various locations.

9 Modelers also find it useful, if not essential, to capture an initial set of goodman brown as goodman walks key baseline data, such as the present structure of the organization, the number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) funded and currently employed, the allocation of character workers across the organization, and staffing information such as details about as goodman brown walks personnel accessions by location and specialty. On Terrirism? Another component of this familiarization phase is the identification of in young goodman brown potential workload factors (i.e., those factors that affect the hours of walter mitty character available labor for a work site) and the data sources in which information about each factor reside. Historical data related to the number of employees, time to completion for various tasks, failures and in young goodman walks outages, etc., can be useful for trend or regression analyses whose results can inform the model of staffing needs. The Significance Roles Shrew And Lorraine In The Sun? If the organization does not maintain or does not usually collect data on some of these potential factors, it must consider how best to gather the information. 8 Unlike a classic WBS, the in young goodman as goodman Air Force shift to a POD allows ready process mapping and modeling, and may tie more directly with specified outputs of the activities, which in turn may potentially be more directly linked with performance measures. 9 It should be noted that U.S.

Air Force manpower studies, and their classic end product, an value, Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS) include a statement of conditions. For more information, see AF/A1MR (2011). required for in young, accurate modeling and continue to maintain the data bases related to these factors. Examination of documents related to the job under study, such as official guidance, directives, standards, policies, performance measures, and transformation plans related to the organization, the work, or the equipment can also increase the modeler’s understanding of the job and of anticipated changes in the work. Phase 3. Measurement Design. In the measurement design 10 phase, the information gleaned from the feasibility and familiarization phases is used to determine a comprehensive study approach that includes the modeling tools, data inputs to the model, and the means to gather the data for the model. A critical question for the study team is how the data relevant to the modeling task will be gathered. Literature? For example, the team might use interviews of subject matter experts, a time study based on samples of work, or a by-location, by-work-element shift profile analysis. 11 Any combination of methods for collecting data may be used, but the approaches to goodman brown walks collecting data need to be clearly defined, preferably tested on a sample of the overall workforce, and then refined based upon the lessons learned in the test, prior to conducting full-scale data collection. In addition, the Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming team must be aware of the in young goodman brown brown walks potential impact on the people who provide the data of any intervention necessary for Essay on The versus, data collection, especially direct observations. Otherwise, the team may receive distorted information about the nature of ATSS work.

The measurement plan should define samples that are representative of the population and goodman brown as goodman brown walks sufficient to make the types of The Significance of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's Shrew and Lorraine Hansberry's in the statistical inferences necessary for modeling. When the job under study involves a large number of workers across many work locations, the modeler does not necessarily have to measure in detail the work of every person at every location; instead, a subset of workers and locations that represent adequately the overall population will be sufficient in most cases. The modeling effort needs to include enough data points to goodman as goodman walks be representative of the various types of facilities, types of equipment and tasks, and work centers to literature be statistically significant. If the organization is in young brown brown, investing in a model covering thousands of FTEs, a 90 percent confidence level or higher may be desired. At one extreme, a belief that 100 percent of a large population should be measured can incur excess costs and essay time that consume study resources. At the other extreme, only measuring a few locations or relying on goodman as goodman walks a small input sample, in an effort to expedite the effort or save resources, is even more likely to produce an unrealistic model outputwith disastrous results if applied to the whole workforce. The quality of the of Gender Roles job information gathered must be considered, and when data are deficient, steps must be taken to improve the accuracy of the information to in young as goodman be used in the model. Several approaches to data verification exist. For example, multiple data collection teams can gather data and measure work performance at different sites.

If multiple teams are used to conduct measurement and data collection, the The Significance Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the and Lorraine in the study team must provide guidance to standardize the methods for data harvesting. If instead a “same eyes” approach is in young brown brown, used, one team travels to all locations to collect data. Some modelers use a workshop or series of workshops facilitated by the study leads to anglo literature collect data from subject matter experts. Often, the best approach is a combination of methods for systematically studying the tasks required in the job, the frequency with which the tasks are performed, and the corresponding number of person-hours needed to accomplish the tasks properly. 10 For more information, see U.S. Air Force (1995a, 2003). 11 Time studies, work sampling, elemental time, and other methods are not discussed in depth here but may be researched more in Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers , Lehto and Landry (2013), and other industrial engineering texts.

A measurement approach must be consistent with the later phases of analysis and model selection. Consequently, the brown study team must anticipate the types of models to be explored, designed, and ultimately implemented. At times, the phases of the study process are iterative, so that the modelers must reconsider earlier decisions based on decisions made in www tutor2u net later phases. Often, the goodman brown limitations of available data and the feasibility of collecting more robust data constrain the type of modeling possible; when accurate models are required, such constraints must be remedied with extensive data collection plans. However, costs are a relevant factor in most modeling projects, and the team, in conjunction with the organization’s management, must decide what approaches to Essay on The Eumenides the Bacchae data collection are affordable. They must also consider the financial implications of understaffing and overstaffing if the model’s validity is weakened by insufficient data collection. In Young Goodman? Phase 4. Of Gender Roles In Shakespeare's Hansberry's In The? Measurement.

This phase involves the execution of the measurement plan created in phase 3 and refined through testing. Data collected in this phase contribute to model selection and serve as the input to in young goodman brown the selected model. On The Versus? The quality of the data collected significantly affects the value of the as goodman model; thoughtful measurement can make or break the study. All data obtained in this phase must be consistent with the Essay Eumenides versus plans for in young brown as goodman, the study and should be validated by character, examining the data for completeness, accuracy, and logical consistency. In Young Brown? Phase 5. Analysis and Model Selection. The purpose of model development is to depict accurately the worker to workload relationship in order to value dimensions derive the number of workers required by function or discipline and by facility type. Often, correlation and regression techniques are employed to examine the data and goodman brown as goodman determine the value worker-workload relationship. Study experts frequently discover several subpopulations that should be grouped and then develop separate tools to portray the worker-workload relationships for each group.

In the case of the goodman as goodman ATSS modeling challenge, the mitty five different types of facilities may be suitable for individual groupings. Alternatively, the five disciplines might form the basis for as goodman brown, grouping. For example, a model for depicting Core/Large Airport requirements and a separate model for GNAS, or a model for anglo, Environmental and goodman as goodman walks another for Communications, may produce more accurate results. Essay? Statistical tests of the relationship may be used to determine the sufficiency or best fit of the model equation. The end result should be an equation with a related set of statistical tools that the organization can use to determine the staffing requirements. These tools are often used at the location level and then aggregated to obtain total system requirements. Ideally, algorithms produce a set of tables that indicate the correct number and skill mix for a work site to goodman brown as goodman accomplish its mission sets. For example, the Air Force manpower management engineering process has built-in “Smart Sheets” that take workload factor data as input and produce electronic reports showing the number, skills, and www tutor2u net grades of full-time workers required to in young goodman as goodman brown walks match the workload. The more transparent and accessible for use the model is to different levels of the organization, the on terrirism more likely the model is to be embraced by personnel at those levels. However, access to the model output may be limited, based on the user’s needs so as not to overwhelm the in young as goodman brown walks user with massive amounts of information that are not relevant to that user. Model design should also take into account the model’s adaptability to changing conditions.

An effective model must accurately depict the current worker-workload relationships, but the better model also offers “scalability” so that the model can be easily updated as the work or the Eumenides versus work environment change. For example, NextGen and the eventual removal of older equipment are expected to have an. extensive effect on the work actually performed, as well as on the frequency with which many tasks are performed. Brown As Goodman? Often a modular approach is used so that the relevant components of the model can be updated without overhauling the essay on terrirism entire model. As with any other modeling effort, a sensitivity analysis would also be appropriate to assess how sensitive the in young brown as goodman walks model outputs are to changes in various input variables. Another component of The Significance Roles Hansberry's in the Sun model design is adherence to good human-systems integration (HSI) practices, including safety and human factors concerns. The model and its output should ensure that the staffing levels reflect what is necessary to protect workers’ health (U.S. As Goodman Brown Walks? Air Force, undated).

Often, the model design phase includes validation and verification 12 elements, especially for essay, highly complex models. A rigorous verification process in which predictions are compared to real-world situations of the past for which outcomes are known is begun at the same time the model is being developed. Data from the in young as goodman brown walks validation and verification effort can be used to hofstede's value dimensions refine the model or enhance the data inputs to it. The verification, validation, and acceptance (VVA) processes used to improve the model and increase the organization’s confidence in it can take other forms. For example, qualified operations research or staffing model experts, teamed together with functional experts, can evaluate the assumptions, data quality, and in young brown modeling algorithms and point out opportunities for walter, improvement. VVA activities should be practiced throughout the brown as goodman brown modeling effort, both before and after implementation. Other, more robust, formal VVA approaches may be useful and worthy of careful consideration; however, as Carson (2002) noted, “a model developer intermixes debugging, verification and validation tasks and exercises with model development in on terrirism a complex and iterative process it should also be noted that no model is ever 100% verified or validated.” The final determinant of the walks value of the model will be the accuracy of the predictions regarding labor necessary to achieve the goals of the job class. Anglo? This determination can be done retrospectively with past situations and prospectively after implementation. Phase 6. Implementation.

Implementation of a new staffing model can be complex and requires close attention to in young brown brown how the model is introduced. How the model is implemented will have an essay on terrirism, effect on the level of acceptance achieved throughout the goodman as goodman organization. At some point, the recommended model must be presented to saxons decision makers for approval for use. Revealing the “test” impact of the model to management and workers within a public-sector function with many diverse stakeholders can be challenging, as there will typically be perceived “gainers and losers” by location as the workforce is adjusted by the model results to match the work requirements. It will be useful to stakeholders to have an honest picture of the future staffing levels derived from the model, as well as an explanation of how they were derived. Budgets also need to be adjusted before implementation, particularly when there are increases to the staffing levels. Budget for new personnel salaries as well as hiring and training costs must be allocated when increasing staffing levels. When staffing levels decrease, the costs of goodman as goodman brown reductions in force and redeployments must be factored into budgets. Roles In Shakespeare's The Taming Hansberry's A Raisin In The? The committee had several discussions regarding how an effective model would look and how it could predict an effective number of ATSS personnel necessary for maintaining the NAS in in young goodman a safe, efficient, and effective manner. These discussions did not focus on www tutor2u net a total number of ATSS personnel, but there was an understanding that, should the model generate a number greater than 6,100, the anticipated FAA budget would need to be quickly increased to avoid the.

12 Validation is the process of determining the degree to which a model or simulation and its associated data are an accurate representation of the real world from the perspective of the intended uses of the model. Verification is the process of determining that a model or simulation implementation and its associated data accurately represent the developer’s conceptual description and specifications in DODI 5000.61 (Department of Defense, 2009). negative implications for the safety and efficiency of the NAS. In that case, the FAA’s Air Traffic Organization would have to in young goodman brown as goodman walks employ risk mitigation to on The the Bacchae compensate for in young as goodman brown walks, the less than sufficient staffing while the budget was approved and additional personnel were hired, trained, and Essay on The versus the Bacchae assigned to the appropriate sites. Conclusion 3-1: Dedicated budget requirements for the ATSS are likely to result from application of any comprehensive manpower staffing model and in young goodman will need to value be addressed. Public announcements related to increases or decreases in goodman as goodman walks head count must be crafted to help outsiders understand the situation and win the public’s approval. Often, examples of locations where the work is radically different are persuasive in demonstrating how the local uniqueness was addressed. For example, higher levels of staffing in locations that experience special environmental conditions, such as corrosive salt water, extreme temperatures and weather, or extended travel to service remote equipment may serve to demonstrate the sensitivity of the model.

13. Value of a Logical, Comprehensive Design Process. Following a comprehensive design process that contains the essence of the six phases described above should greatly enhance the likelihood of creating an effective staffing model that enables the workforce to achieve the organization’s goals. Some of the phases overlap, and ideally, study leaders intentionally look backward and forward in the process so that the end result is on terrirism, logical, valid, and compliant with the stated purpose. In particular, data examination during the measurement and in young goodman brown as goodman brown walks analysis phases may necessitate revised data collection procedures or additional research. Moreover, those who develop the model need to plan for future improvements to it as modeling methodology and data collection procedures evolve and as the FAA obtains greater understanding of the causes of variability in the tasks performed by ATSS. Insights gained at any phase can redirect the study in unexpected ways; thus, the study team needs to be not only hofstede's value, flexible but also seasoned in handling unexpected situations and in young goodman as goodman walks understanding which approaches are most likely to be effective in a given situation.

Recommendation 3-1: The FAA should execute a modeling process that allows for future improvements in data modeling techniques and applicability. There are many other key model considerations that contribute to the success of modeling efforts. In this section, the committee reviews important considerations that will enhance the walter character staffing model. Consider the Difference Between Workforce Required, Workforce Funded, and in young brown Workforce Filled. Staffing standards produced by a given model are not identical to authorized or filled positions; required , funded , and filled are three different ways to describe the workforce and the numbers required. Staffing models may generate a fairly useful recommendation for defining a required workforce that is often refined by highly knowledgeable staff and managers, who then must compete for necessary funding in a resource-constrained public sector environment. Thus, the required workforce is not the same as the. 13 These conditions are termed as a “variance,” which is an adjustment to the model for on The Eumenides, FTE time added or subtracted from the in young goodman brown brown core requirements and www tutor2u net is used and described in in young goodman brown Air Force manpower requirements determination literature such as Air Force Manual 38-208, Volumes 1 and 2 (U.S. Literature? Air Force, 1995a, 2003). funded workforce.

FAA headquarters can create policy and routines to apply standards on an ongoing, cyclical basis for the creation of staffing plans and projections, and can also provide authorization (i.e., formal funding) and justification through planning, programming, budgeting, and execution covering the ATSS workforce positions. Once positions are recognized and funded, they in turn must be filled. Brown Walks? However, a filled workforce is not entirely dependent on versus hiring. Other tools of the human resource life cycle (recruiting, development, sustainment, retirement, and so on) affect the number of brown positions to be filled. 14 For example, a model could predict a requirement for Essay on The Eumenides versus the Bacchae, 18 FTEs to perform communication systems maintenance in one location, while the budget process may only authorize funds for 16 in that area, and there may be only 14 persons actually “on board” as filled positions.

However, a good staffing model will provide decision makers with information regarding the in young goodman as goodman brown walks expected consequences of under- and over-staffing. If fewer positions than are needed are authorized, for example, the model may indicate that a maintenance backlog is likely to emerge or that the risk of nonavailability of the NAS may increase. If more positions are authorized than are currently in the job, the hiring-training-development cycle needs to begin. Table 3-1 provides an example of staffing in anglo literature one location across the five skill sets and management. An advanced modeling system for in young goodman walks, a large enterprise may have both short term (1-2 years) and longer term (out to approximately 5 years) staffing requirements.

The difference between the two estimates provides forewarning to the organization that changes in staffing levels are likely to anglo occur. Proactive organizations build staffing-process ramps to increase or decrease the number of in young goodman brown brown walks individuals with the skills to match the current staffing needs that are determined by essay, changing equipment, services, and budget realities. In Young Goodman Brown Walks? Once the organization determines the extent of change that is likely to occur, it must adapt other systems (recruiting, hiring, training, etc.) and acquire the necessary funding. 15. 14 These tools fall under the personnel and training domains of HSI and in on The Eumenides the Bacchae themselves may require improved systems and their own respective modeling algorithms outside this discussion. Examples are maintenance training throughput calculations and goodman as goodman walks attrition/retirement/hiring estimating tools, among others.

15 Without straightforward and useful estimates of workload for the out-years, it is challenging to expect a model to predict staffing needswith the exception of creating forecasts based on insightful trend data. Air Force manpower data systems usually show positions for multiple quarters/years out in the budget cycle, and future adjustments are often calculated based on known changes in quantity and type of weapon systems that will be present or approved as missions change. Consider the Difference Between an Allocation and a Sufficiency Model. The National Research Council conducted a study for FAA aviation safety inspectors in 2006 that had a charge similar to that of the current study on walter character ATSS staffing. Many of the goodman brown as goodman former committee’s considerations at that time are applicable to the current task.

Therefore, the present committee has quoted liberally from that prior report in this section. The following passage, for example, is directly applicable to the current study, with a few word changes to apply it to ATSS staffing: 16 For example, the relationship to demand for meals served and the staffing of essay on terrirism a food service operation may be modeled simply as a straight line approximation of a factor of additional workers per brown as goodman brown walks, incremental change in Essay on The versus how many meals are required per goodman brown walks, day. [M]odels, such as one for [ATSS] staffing, may be either allocation models or sufficiency models, or both. An allocation model is one aimed at distributing available resources equitably and effectively irrespective of their collective adequacy, whereas a sufficiency model is designed to Essay on The Eumenides predict the resources needed to in young goodman brown walks sustain system performance at what is anglo literature, deemed an acceptable level. Goodman Brown? A sufficiency model is more difficult to develop. It requires the organization to essay on terrirism make decisions about, and set standards for, acceptable performance and to develop performance measures so that outcomes can be evaluated against those standards (i.e., it can be empirically validated). [B]y providing an estimate of the resources necessary to meet policy and safety goals, a sufficiency model can be the most rigorous way to determine staffing needs and to support budget requests for [ATSS] positions. [D]espite the brown walks distinction between sufficiency and allocation roles, we think that an hofstede's value, [ATSS] staffing model should serve both functions. That is, it should be able to estimate aggregate staffing demand, provide predictions regarding the consequences of alternative levels of staffing, and help guide the as goodman allocation of The Significance of Gender in Shakespeare's of the and Lorraine Hansberry's in the resources across functions, regions, and offices. In Young Goodman Brown Brown Walks? (National Research Council, 2006:32, 39, 40) Consider the saxons Essential Features of the Situation to Be Modeled. “[T]he more faithfully a model captures the essential features of its real-world counterpart, the better able it may be to in young goodman fulfill its intended function” (National Research Council, 2006:30). A powerful example used elsewhere in government, by the U.S. Air Force, is the model employed to hofstede's understand, predict, budget, and in young brown allocate aircraft maintenance manpower.

Mathematical representations of aircraft maintenance processes, repair networks, and anglo literature component failure rates allow analysts to study enormous amounts of data and apply that data to predict with reasonable accuracy, for in young brown walks, example, the number of Air Force maintenance personnel required to on terrirism service and goodman brown as goodman brown walks support a wing of Essay Eumenides fighter aircraft in order to provide a specified desired sortie generation rate. This predictive power is bounded, of in young as goodman walks course, by access to the necessary data and by changes within the system that require updating within the model. Models typically represent the anglo saxons literature relationship of variables through algorithms and equations that may vary in complexity and in young goodman brown walks formalization. 16 Estimating the ATSS staffing needs will require computational power and methods that can capture the complexity of the Roles The Taming of the Hansberry's job demands and generate system-wide estimates. Goodman Walks? Consider Whether the Model Should Be Descriptive or Predictive.

The 2006 report on www tutor2u net Aviation Safety Inspector staffing contains a good explanation of whether a model should be descriptive or predictive. In Young Goodman As Goodman Brown? That account is quoted here with additional wording for clarification and application to ATSS staffing: [M]odels are generally characterized as either descriptive or predictive. Descriptive models typically document the structure and processes of a system, but they do not add a computational component to enable predictions about system behavior as a function of system design. An information flow diagram for a business process is an example of a simple descriptive model. [It shows] the steps, decisions, and outputs of a process, but alone does not offer insight in terms of the www tutor2u net capacity or throughput of the system. Predictive models (like the [maintenance manpower] model) include such a component; hence they do enable prediction. In this project we have focused on predictive models because our charge is to articulate methods for determining the appropriate numbers and types of [Airway Transportation Systems Specialists] as a function of the factors that drive the demand for goodman brown walks, their services. Unless a staffing model can predict with some level of precision how well the [maintenance and service providing] system will perform given the need structure, it would be impossible to anglo literature estimate appropriate staffing levels [objectively]. Brown Walks? (National Research Council, 2006:30) Consider Whether the Model Should Contain Stochastic or Deterministic Elements. Models can also be stochastic or deterministic.

17 The 2006 report includes an in-depth treatment of anglo saxons this subject. Stochastic models, a prominent form of which is the Monte Carlo simulation model, attempt to take into account the unpredictable elements of system behavior, whereas deterministic ones do not. For example, [the repair frequencies and time required for each repair of goodman brown as goodman brown various national airspace subsystems] cannot be predicted with 100 percent accuracy even under optimal circumstances because of unknown factors. (National Research Council, 2006:30-31) Almost every system has some elements of uncertainty in it, so the Eumenides the Bacchae question is in young goodman brown as goodman brown, not whether variability exists but rather how important it is to the system behavior that the model is designed to predict. If ignoring the variable nature of the system is likely to lead to inaccurate predictions or, equally important, a failure to recognize potential staffing risks, then stochastic modeling techniques should be [considered]. However, if the variability is not likely to [significantly] affect model predictions, or the variability is small and unimportant, a deterministic modelone that [minimizes treatment of] the stochastic properties of the systemshould suffice. (National Research Council, 2006:31) These unpredictable elements include an array of factors such as the reliability of www tutor2u net individual components within each device, employee illness, weather, corrosion, and ease of access affecting the time required to complete tasks. Equipment failures are inherently stochastic. The staffing required “on average” may differ significantly from that necessary when multiple failures occur. A stochastic model provides insights on brown as goodman the risks associated with low probability events that may have significant consequences and potentially high costs. A deterministic approach to modeling will typically produce the same results for FTEs needed when the same coefficients or work counts are used, because probability or variation is either not addressed or removed intentionally through the use of averaged process times.

A deterministic approach may involve many input variables, but in mitty simple terms can be represented as an equation where the FTE requirement y is a function of multiple inputs x 1 , x 2 , , x n . A potential risk of deterministic models is that they predict staffing demand based upon mean values (i.e., average conditions), rather than recognizing that staffing demand per shift may be significantly greater (or less) than average values due to stochastic factors such as multiple failures. 17 A deterministic model is a function of multiple inputs such as the type of equipment and as goodman the nature of the walter character task to be performed. Law and in young goodman brown walks Kelton (2000) provides fundamentals on how to go about addressing many stochastic situations and incorporating them into practical model designs. The committee that wrote the 2006 staffing report noted that a deterministic model can provide sufficient predictive power to yield “fairly straightforward answers to a number of key staffing questions.” While the Roles in Shakespeare's of the and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the complexity and cost of a stochastic model can be high, it is important to incorporate some stochastic elements that more accurately reflect reality. “It is brown brown, important to recognize that both the stochastic model and the deterministic model can produce useful expected values for an outcome” (National Research Council, 2006:31, footnote). Thus, to address the immediate concerns of ATSS staffing, the creation of an initial series of deterministic algorithms should be followed by development of robust simulations and queuing models to fully assess stochastic elements of the ATSS job. Stochastic models provide a better notion of the www tutor2u net potential staffing risk associated with unusual events, such as multiple failures.

In the ATSS staffing situation, stochastic modeling may incorporate, for brown as goodman brown walks, example, the probability that the appropriate number of ATSS specialists will be available to www tutor2u net meet the goodman demands of required maintenance, because it will take into account queuing issues (e.g., surges and unscheduled multiple maintenance demands) and the stochastic nature of factors driving the need for services or repairs. 18 Hecht and Handal previously developed and demonstrated a prototype model they called SMART 4, which explored relationships between maintenance staffing, mean time between outages, mean time to restore, facilities, and other key ratios (Hecht and Handal, 2001; Hecht et al., 1998, 2000). Hecht and Handal’s pioneering work may be a good starting point for bridging from standard deterministic models (such as ratio unit time equations per equipment or service and evolving support) and stand-alone powerful modeling and of Gender Roles The Taming of the Shrew and Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun simulation tools for NAS resource allocation analysis. They also noted that these powerful simulation tools have been possible to create for brown walks, some time, but their practical application has been bounded by the cost and complexity of implementation (Hecht et al., 2000). The ideal model for computing ATSS would likely contain both deterministic and stochastic features. Consider the Eumenides Critical Data Required for Analysis or That Drive Workforce Demand. The 2006 report on aviation safety inspector staffing explained the in young goodman brown as goodman brown data required for analysis or for driving workforce demand; that explanation is reproduced here with added wording where applicable: [T]he distinction between the Essay on The Eumenides underlying predictive model and in young goodman brown as goodman walks the data needed to make predictions using the model is critical. Www Tutor2u Net? A model is created on the basis of the inherent properties of the system that drive its behavior.

In the case of the aviation safety inspection system [maintaining the integrity of the NAS systems and services,] this includes factors that drive demand for [ATSS] resources and how these [ATSS] resources are deployed in response to that demand. However, even if these relationships are understood and well represented in a quantitative model, the model is in young goodman brown, worthless without the data that enable meaningful and realistic predictions. (National Research Council, 2006:32) Modeling the of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's Shrew Hansberry's relationship between staffing levels and the number and type of equipment maintenance needs in the NAS by region requires collecting data by region. Without a reliable baseline count and ongoing accounting or data systems that contain this information, there is no practical way to create such a model. Because modeling and data collection are interdependent, the cost of developing and sustaining data collection systems to feed into modeling must be considered. This is brown brown, not to say that only “easy to collect” data should be used in the model. Key data that have not been readily available in the past should not be ignored, and of Gender Roles A Raisin Sun methods to gather these data in a straightforward, economical manner should be developed. In Young Goodman Brown Brown? Too often, analysts have created an interesting but impractical manpower determination tool because of difficulty in routinely gathering the data required for the model’s input. 18 For a primer on stochastic modeling and simulation concepts relevant to the ATSS maintenance environment, see Beichelt and on terrirism Tittman (2012:Section III). variables.

As noted above, a critical step in the model development process is determining the source of input data and verifying its reliability. Consider Task Duration and in young brown as goodman brown walks Data Validity Issues 19. The utility of a model depends on www tutor2u net the data used to populate the model as well as the goodman brown structure of the model itself. Validity is defined as the extent to which a measure represents the construct being measured. If the data are not valid, then the predictions of the model will be invalid. Walter Mitty Character? For example, a valid measure of the time that Task X will take for completion, will be one that is accurate. If task duration estimates are based on workers who have not fully learned the task or conditions that do not represent the normal environment in which the task is performed, then the time estimates will not be valid measures of the time for completion under usual conditions.

However, such measures may be valid measures of the time to complete a task under those unusual conditions. Another confounding factor in making accurate estimates in as goodman brown task time completion is the bias in human judgments. Walter Mitty Character? Unless time estimations are made by a third party, the judgments may be consciously or unconsciously skewed. Goodman Brown Walks? For example, a tedious task may be perceived by a subject matter expert to have taken longer than it actually did. Alternatively, a subject matter expert who likes to take his/her time in completing certain types of tasks may indicate a longer time than necessary to ensure the work can be completed at the preferred pace. The validity of a measure is limited by its reliability, that is, the extent to which a measure is free from error and repeated measurements of the same entity (e.g., the same task, event, or object) yield similar values. If the reliability is low, then so is the validity. If the essay duration of task i is highly variable, a measure of duration based on the mean will have a large standard deviation. While the brown as goodman brown walks measure may be reliable, it may not be an accurate estimate of task duration in all situations. The actual time for task i could be almost constant, but the measurement process (such as relying on subject matter experts’ estimates) may be error-prone and thus unreliable.

Measurement reliability can be improved by using better methods of data collection; the inherent variability of the task itself is best dealt with by using stochastic models rather than deterministic models. The other issue in collecting and using duration data is that of granularity. For example, the duration of an off-site maintenance task will be composed of at least two components: travel time and core task completion time. These two components will be affected by different variables, that is, travel distance, terrain, weather, and traffic for travel time; task complexity and anglo literature ATSS personnel competence level for core task time. If the two subtasks are separated, simpler models can be built for each.

Times for completion of the component tasks can be added to obtain the in young goodman brown as goodman brown total time for the off-site task. This task decomposition can be taken to The Taming of the Hansberry's in the lower and lower levels, eventually ending at the element level of predetermined motion-time systems. Synthetic time estimates for new tasks can be computed by aggregating the in young brown walks known times for each element in the task. There are three means of collecting data on task duration, each with different levels of reliability, validity, usefulness, and simplicity of use. 1. Subject Matter Expert Estimates.

Asking supervisors or incumbents to estimate durations of tasks that they have performed in the past is mitty, simple and low-cost but generally quite unreliable. Human memory and brown judgment suffer from well-known biases (Kahneman et al., 1982) that potentially affect. 19 For more information, see Kahneman et al. (1982) and Essay on The Eumenides the Bacchae Bisantz and Drury (2004). both reliability and validity of such estimates. Emerging technologies such as mobile devices and other electronic tracking devices may provide ways of obtaining more accurate time estimates in the future. 2. Historical Data. There are existing data bases such as the Remote Monitoring and Logging System and the Labor Distribution Reporting system that capture actual times for task completion contemporaneously and appear to have some relevance for in young goodman as goodman brown, estimating task durations. The data in these data bases were collected for different purposes (Bisantz and Drury, 2004), and so applying them to duration estimation for staffing models may not be reliable. Time information may not be recorded immediately, but at a later time when memory errors become significant.

Typically such data bases only record total task duration rather than more meaningful and www tutor2u net useful components as noted above. Goodman As Goodman? To improve the confidence in essay on terrirism historical data or in subject matter experts’ judgments, their accuracy may be verified by in young, performing checks such as stopwatch measurement of task duration on a sample of the data. 3. Direct Time Study. A third approach is to observe directly the performance of the task and its components and record their durations. Time studies are an expensive proposition if a large amount of data is required, but the results generally have high reliability and validity. Best practices for conducting such time studies cover factors such as how many tasks to time, what degree of component decomposition to use, and how to select tasks and operators for observation and timing. If tasks change appreciably from www tutor2u net time to time and situation to goodman walks situation, then overall task durations will also change, requiring additional data collection and associated expense. If task components are measured and only a few components of the task change, costs can be reduced by only remeasuring that portion of the task that has changed.

Variances: Consider the Model’s Ability to Customize FTE Needs for Special Situations. Www Tutor2u Net? The term “variance” is used here in the sense of deviation, not in the statistical sense of a measure of variability of a distribution. Variances adjust core requirements either by increasing (positive variance) or decreasing (negative variance) earned FTE increments at specified location(s) or situations due to unique mission or environmental differences. Many models are often created to predict the average FTE requirement per various levels of workload demanded. In Young Goodman? Such models thus seek to capture the manpower required to do work that is common to essay all applicable locations. However, in in young brown walks actual work settings, certain processes or work activities are frequently not performed at all locations. Moreover, operational conditions at a location are not always the “average” conditions depicted within the model. If relevant and walter character significant, these conditions can be addressed through calculation of positive or negative variances for the given location and situation. For instance, a mission variance can add or subtract hours for location-specific required work that is not addressed in the work site description (a positive variance) or work identified in the work site descriptions but not performed (a negative variance). These differences in work should be documented, evaluated, and approved at appropriate level(s) as a matter of policy, not just through a local team leader’s preference. An environmental variance adjusts hours for in young goodman brown, required tasks that are addressed in The Significance of Gender Shrew A Raisin in the Sun a work site description but are affected by environmental differences among locations (i.e., mountainous territory or snow).

The need for environmental variances in NAS maintenance may be based on challenges related to snow removal, need for de-icing of equipment, effects of a marine/salty environment on required corrosion control activities, effects of geographical separation on travel times, presence of remote versus on-site equipment or service monitoring capability, etc. For example, Technical Operations locations that maintain “inside the as goodman brown walks fence” systems may earn a normalized FTE requirement for the equipment maintenance. tasks, while locations that maintain similar equipment at remote sites may receive a positive environment variance. In such circumstances, a “calculator” may be built into the model to compute the variance for travel time based upon number of times the team must go to the remote site. It is usually not cost-effective to pursue and mitty character document variances that drive small adjustments. When building staffing models for small organizations, a half-FTE change may be worth documenting; however, for large organizations, the study team may establish a larger FTE value threshold for including variances in the model. Consider Various Components of Total Staff Time. Ideally, any advanced modeling effort needs to address various components of total staff time, including direct productive time, indirect productive time, nonallowed time, nonavailable time, and on-call time and other work situations (U.S. Air Force, 1995a:53-58).

Productive time is time workers spend doing work that is essential to achieve their mission. There are two categories of productive work activities: direct work and in young brown indirect work. Walter Character? Direct work activities are required by goodman, guidance, technical orders, or directives; are essential to and directly support the anglo saxons work site’s mission; and can be identified with a particular service or end product. Direct work activities are considered productive work that must be accomplished as part of the organization’s primary mission. The time required for direct work tasks should be documented by in young as goodman brown walks, task, whereas indirect work may be quantified either through similar means or by applying a previously computed and agreed upon indirect allowance factor to the total direct hours. Essay On Terrirism? 20. In contrast, indirect work consists of necessary but supporting activities.

Indirect work is in young goodman brown walks, performed in support of the versus function, does not add value to a particular end product, and may not be readily identifiable with a specific output or service. Common examples of indirect work include participating in human resource activities, giving management direction, preparing reports for higher level review, attending meetings, and housekeeping activities. If indirect work is not measured independently, then the in young goodman brown walks analysts need to create an allowance factor and apply that factor as part of the model algorithm by crediting the www tutor2u net measured hours of direct work with a percentage increase based on the indirect allowance factor. The design of measures of critical data such as time to complete tasks and the careful collection of in young goodman brown as goodman that must neither omit measurement of some kinds of saxons literature data nor double count them. In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman Walks? In particular, work dimensions such as travel, training, and supervisory tasks need to be carefully and consistently accounted for to ensure inclusion without double or triple counting.

For example, if the www tutor2u net enterprise-wide mean travel time associated with preventive maintenance of a specific type of navigational aid were credited to in young goodman as goodman brown walks the task “maintains navigational aid type X” and www tutor2u net included in the total average direct process time, then travel for such activities should not be re-counted as a separate indirect activity. Brown As Goodman? As discussed above, substantial location-specific deviations from the mean travel time could potentially be computed as a positive or negative environmental variance. Similarly, the hofstede's dimensions model should not credit travel at each subcomponent of the task “maintains navigational aid type X” because the as goodman travel occurred only one time. Nor should travel be counted for saxons literature, all tasks performed when a worker made only one trip but performed preventive maintenance checks on all of the in young goodman equipment at the remote location. 20 U.S. Air Force requirements determination analysts sometimes choose not to perform indirect task measurement for every function, as the Air Force has created separate standard indirect allowance task descriptions and factors (U.S. Air Force, 2011). Nonavailable time is time that is anglo saxons literature, directed and approved by management. During this time, the worker is not available to in young brown as goodman brown walks perform direct or indirect productive tasks. Examples of nonavailable time include approved leave, medical appointments, additional, directed duties such as serving as a voting liaison or office security officer, and time spent in character approved education and training.

To determine a realistic FTE staffing requirement, nonavailable time must be factored into the algorithms for the staffing model. When accounting for nonmandatory leaves such as annual leave or medical leave in a staffing model, the actual documented use of leave and not the maximum days allowed should be used; otherwise, the model results may be artificially inflated. Allowances for days off, holidays, leave, and medical absences need to be decided on and approved (U.S. Air Force, 1995a). The original FAA modeling efforts dating from the 1980s and 1990s took many of these into account, and Order 1380.40C documents the treatment of the different dimensions (FAA, 1992). Categories of allowable time, such as Labor Distribution Reporting (006), Watch Schedules (031), Working Hours (032-036), Holidays (038), Annual Leave (040), Sick Leave (041), Family and Medical Leave (043), Leave for Special Circumstances (044-045), and other such factors are specifically defined in the current labor agreement between the Professional Aviation Safety Specialists (PASS) and the FAA, signed on in young goodman brown brown December 16, 2012 (Professional Aviation Safety Specialists, 2012). Other considerations such as allowed time for Eumenides, meals, breaks, and rest should be considered and carefully defined. It should be noted that some of the goodman walks variances in allowances will be stochastic.

Personal, fatigue, and delay (PFD) factors may be incorporated into a staffing model to Essay on The Eumenides versus account for necessary breaks, trips to the restroom, or other realistic and valid activities. In Young Brown? 21 PFD factors may be considered in individual task measurement times or accommodated elsewhere. On-call Time and Other Work Situations. Literature? On-call time is a period of time when an off-duty worker is available for work at a specified off-duty location and can be reached by telephone or other means. When authorized work is required and cannot be deferred to the next shift or work day, a work measurement effort should credit the work site with productive time expended and the travel time needed to goodman brown as goodman brown walks get to the job site and return to the off-duty location. Off-duty time spent waiting for a call is not usually measured or accommodated in a model (U.S. Air Force, 1995a). However, because the FAA agreement with PASS regarding ATSS personnel contains a provision for Compensated Telephone Availability, such time should be considered in the model design process to essay on terrirism optimize shift schedule requirements for meeting peak outages or demands (Professional Aviation Safety Specialists, 2012).

Often, the term “standby time” is used to in young brown as goodman explain the time a worker is awaiting work. For example, people who monitor equipment systems may have substantial standby time waiting to repair equipment when it breaks. A study team can measure and include standby time in a model when such duty is required and no other productive work (direct or indirect) can be accomplished. Workers who are loaned to perform another function’s tasks should generally not be accounted for or included in a model for The Significance Roles The Taming of the and Lorraine A Raisin, their own function. Brown Walks? 21 For more information, see Lehto and Landry (2013).

Consider Incorporating Shift Profile Analysis into the Model Development Approach and Model Application Tools. In Shakespeare's The Taming Of The A Raisin? Maintaining equipment and providing services for goodman brown, a robust and safe NAS can require ATSS workers to be at work, available, or on call for long periods of a day. Coverage of the NAS components 24 hours a day, 7 days a week is www tutor2u net, not uncommon in many locations. Normal work hours in a traditional week schedule are 8.5 hours per day, including a meal break, for 5 days each week, with exceptions for alternate work schedules such as 10 hours per goodman as goodman, day for 4 days a week, or for hofstede's value, overtime and Compensated Telephone Availability. In Young Goodman Brown Walks? In addition, workers are not always available for their entire scheduled shift. Activities such as annual leave, sick leave, military leave, training, and travel to remote sites all result in Essay on The versus compensated workers who are not available to perform the tasks assigned to them during their shift. A careful analysis of the shift scheduling and the work performed during shift can help optimize the total system workforce requirements for an organization. For example, the Air Force uses shift profile analysis to determine the amount of time its maintenance workers are available for direct work.

Consider Potential Indicators of Staffing Sufficiency Issues Before and After Model Implementation. Seasoned work analysts often check three indicators of staffing sufficiency: (1) use of overtime, (2) level of work site backlog, and (3) use of shortcuts to goodman brown walks accomplish work. Examination of data in each of these areas can help to reveal the extent of understaffing or overstaffing. Www Tutor2u Net? Use of Overtime. Overtime can be useful for addressing greater needs for personnel due to peak work demands or temporary loss of personnel. In Young Brown Walks? However, excess use of overtime (or of www tutor2u net borrowed workers from other organizations and contract workers) may indicate that the threshold staffing levels or shift schedule designs are not optimal within a work site. Steady use of large amounts of overtime can signal shortfalls in available “regular shift” FTEs, either from in young goodman as goodman brown walks inaccurate staff targets, poor allocation, or inadequate fill action. In addition, high overtime utilization may indicate less than ideal management practices, which may lead to fatigue or vigilance problems not conducive to high levels of walter mitty job performance nor ultimately to effective maintenance of the safety of the NAS. Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown? 22.

Work Backlogs. For many organizations, work backlog, work “in the queue,” or work in progress is entirely acceptable, desirable, and logical. For the ATSS enterprise, it appears logical that periodic maintenance inspections and preventive maintenance activities would be pending for some period of time, but not necessarily postponed for The Significance of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the, an extended time. Presumably, the longer the brown as goodman brown period of time these activities are deferred beyond some limit, the higher the inherent risk to the NAS. Some work associated with almost any activity can be deferred, but work deferred indefinitely can be a sign of insufficient resources to meet the work demands. An important question for modelers to explore is whether or not the backlogs are reasonable and growing or decreasing over www tutor2u net, time, and goodman as goodman brown walks why (Ouvreloeil, 2001). Backlogs of work are not always attributable to staffing deficits. Many modern inventory control practices have, to a significant extent, reduced or removed the presence of large inventories of spare components. Some maintenance delays may be attributed to the unavailability of parts, not the unavailability of skilled ATSS workers to of Gender The Taming of the and Lorraine A Raisin Sun perform the in young brown walks work. Roles The Taming And Lorraine In The Sun? The Air Force, for example, tracks metrics associated with the nonavailability of parts in in young goodman brown as goodman brown order to analyze and improve logistics for aircraft maintenance processes (U.S.

Air Force, 2009). 22 For more information on overtime considerations, see Capshaw (2011). Www Tutor2u Net? Use of Shortcuts. The FAA operates within a formal Safety Management System that has available an array of tools and in young as goodman walks resources to prevent, identify, and analyze risk, including risk management through maintenance policy and walter mitty procedure changes (FAA, 2007a). Nevertheless, on-scene work measurement or expert workshop review of tasks and times for many other maintenance-related fields have shown that a work site may occasionally employ shortcuts or deviations from standard practices that are not permitted or described in technical guidance in as goodman walks order to provide a service or maintain the required systems. Employing these shortcuts could be a valid innovation if properly studied and approved, but may unfortunately create a hidden level of risk within the system and long-term negative effects overall. Www Tutor2u Net? In the brown as goodman modeling arena, if the time required for Essay on The versus, procedures officially documented in the Technical Operations guidance is accurately measured, but in practice the work site operates differently from the guidance for whatever reasons, the time estimates are likely to be inaccurate. If these deviations are useful and should be approved, then the guidance should be revised after safety and effectiveness have been reviewed. The underlying rationale for the use of shortcuts may, however, relate to perceptions of time pressure, poor training, or a lack of updated guidance. In Young As Goodman Walks? Regardless of the reason, deviations from standard practices should be examined and appropriate steps taken. The 2006 study of Aviation Safety Inspector staffing identified five important quality factors related to predictive models: relevance, scalability, transparency, usability, and validity (National Research Council, 2006).

Box 3-1 defines these five factors, which were used by the current committee as criteria when reviewing the FAA’s current and hofstede's value planned modeling efforts for ATSS personnel. In Young Brown Walks? The 2006 report emphasized the importance of validity in assessing the value of a model: Validity is the final and, in many respects, the most critical feature. The extent to www tutor2u net which the predictions of the model correspond to the actual, real-world outcomes constitutes its validity. Indeed, the most powerful means of evaluating a model’s worththe ultimate proof of the puddingis the direct comparison of predicted with observed outcome (criterion) measures when such measures are obtainable. It is often the case that the ultimate criterion (i.e., [NAS] safety) is not directly measurable in any practical sense, so the model’s predictive validity must be estimated against surrogate criterion measures. (National Research Council, 2006:33) The prediction of outcomes associated with alternative levels of in young goodman brown staffing is hofstede's dimensions, a necessary condition for the model to be testable and its validity assessed. A model that makes no actual or implicit predictions cannot be properly validated in the scientific sense. All of the five qualities described above should be considered in the evaluation or development of an ATSS staffing model. They apply equally to models that the FAA has used or is using as well as to any future modeling effort it may undertake. (National Research Council, 2006:34) A starting point for developing or assessing a staffing model is to review the nature of the work, the environment under which the goodman brown as goodman work is conducted, and the manner in which the of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew and Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun work is accomplished. The committee’s assessment of the in young goodman as goodman work and the environment suggested that a viable staffing model for www tutor2u net, ATSS should.

Relevance capture right level of detail. Relevance concerns the as goodman extent to which the model addresses the important portions of the issues for of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming Shrew and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin, which it is designed and, equally important, the extent to which it excludes extraneous or marginally relevant issues or data. Does the model capture all of the important ATSS workload drivers? Does it operate at the right level of detail? Scalability usefulness for aggregation at higher levels, or predicting ATSS staffing needs by brown as goodman walks, type of organization/facility, division or geographical region, or by required skill or discipline? Transparency ease of understanding, or the extent to which the hofstede's value model can be explained and understood by users of the model and those affected by decisions based on model implementation. Usability ease with which the model can be implemented and enhanced to make the predictions for which it was designed.

Does it have an interface that is sufficiently intuitive to brown brown enable the model users to enter data efficiently and accurately? Is it appropriate to the skills and preferences of the intended users? Are the results presented in ways that support decision making? Can the www tutor2u net model easily be updated to reflect changes in the ATSS work requirements and environment or changes in FAA policy? Validity predictions match actual real-world needs (should be tested in various stages, first, with initial model selection, then through VVA process). SOURCE: Committee’s definitions, adapted from National Research Council (2006:33). As Goodman Brown? • capture the full extent of the NAS, the geographic diversity across facilities, and the staffing implications of travel time for equipment in remote areas; • clearly distinguish and quantify domain disciplines required in achieving workload demand; and. • include performance measures or outcomes, both final (ultimate) and intermediate, in order to provide predictions regarding the outcomes of a given staffing plan. A staffing model for ATSS should be “sufficient” in that it estimates staffing necessary to essay on terrirism accomplish a given workload and is not simply a model that allocates a predetermined level of staffing across work sites.

Moreover, because the nature of the brown as goodman walks workload itselfrepairing equipment that failshas an inherent stochastic component, serious consideration should be given to developing a stochastic staffing model. Furthermore, the of Gender The Taming of the and Lorraine Hansberry's Sun model should be able to in young as goodman predict consequences associated with staffing at various levels, and these predicted outcomes should closely relate to what is walter, actually observed at actual staffing levels. Chapter 3 has discussed the in young brown walks potential criteria for model evaluation. On Terrirism? Chapter 4 will review the past and present FAA models used for the ATSS workers and in young brown as goodman brown walks examine how these models compare to dimensions some of the modeling philosophies that this chapter has explained. It also provides further recommendations that incorporate considerations introduced in this chapter. Drawing on the previous discussion of the ingredients for successful modeling (i.e., a logical design process, key model considerations, and vigilance in seeking to attain the five quality factors), the committee created a checklist or set of criteria, shown in Box 3-2, with which to evaluate past models, models in progress, and other potential modeling approaches for the ATSS workforce. This checklist is intended as an aid to a modeler considering the criteria to use when designing a model for ATSS employees of the FAA. Potential Criteria for Model Evaluation. Area 1. Goodman Brown Walks? Logical Design Process. o Measurement Designcomprehensive plan with steps documenting study approaches, objectives, means to mitty gather and interpret the data, well-considered sample sizes and sites, amount of information to goodman as goodman brown be harvested, with testing and refinement elements included.

o Data Type/Sourceslogging and tracking of data such as equipment serviced, task, frequency, duration, outages, availability, reliability (per ATSS reporting); requirements for task performance (per specifications in rules and manuals); hours, overtime, shift; travel; allowances (per human resources data systems) o Data Collection Issuesmethods (e.g., use of existing or subject matter experts’ estimates, historic data, or data from essay on terrirism conducting direct time study), availability of necessary data, cost and ease of data collection, level of in young brown rigor in the data (e.g., viability, utility, standardization of organizational data), amount of data to www tutor2u net collect. o Analysis/Model Development and Selectionbuilding person-hour to workload relationships that are statistically valid and useful, creating electronic workbooks and Web systems to use and feed various reports. o Implementation/Maintenanceinclude model utilization in policy documents, incorporate into in young brown as goodman brown budget cycle, refine Web platform, continuous cycle for update, addition of new products/services and retirement of legacy elements, etc. o Model verification, validation, and Eumenides acceptance procedures defined and goodman brown brown carried out. Www Tutor2u Net? • Stakeholder input (adequate consideration of brown as goodman factors from Chapter 2 should be evident) Area 2. Structural Detail of Model. o Deterministic and/or stochastic components. o Based upon documenting an accurate foundational work site description, or a process-oriented description, of The Significance Roles in Shakespeare's Shrew and Lorraine Hansberry's Sun work tasks. In Young? o Documents standard and unique work conditions and environment components to allow for variances to www tutor2u net normal situation in brown walks terms of walter mitty additives, exclusions, deviations based upon mission, environment, or technological differences. o Modular features for ease of update/inclusion of in young goodman brown brown walks NextGen and legacy system changes. o Direct and indirect tasks captured and considered. o Allowances and Nonavailable TimePersonal, Fatigue, Delay, Sick, Leave, Holidays, etc. o Treatment of travelwithout double counting. Essay? o Standby Timethoughtful capture and analysis. Walks? o Fixed requirements such as specifications and/or dictated crew size (e.g., usually safety-driven, as in the “two person” rule) o Detail of shift analysis and post staffing, to www tutor2u net include treatment of in young brown as goodman walks peaks to value dimensions handle contingency-based work, risk, identification of standby time, along with review of flexibility to do training and deferrable tasks within the in young goodman as goodman standby. o Estimates needed for entire workforce or subcategories; types of organization, skills, and totals by location, facility, or other category. o Not only mitty character, gross FTE estimates but also ability to predict workforce needs by in young brown as goodman brown, skill area. Area 3. Quality Factors. Area 4. Performance. • Estimate expected availability rate as function of on terrirism staffing. • Estimate the in young brown as goodman cost of various levels of service or risk. • Estimate changes in levels of service and www tutor2u net consequence. • Review and address these three issues: • Examine NAS redundancies. • Link to the agency’s performance metrics. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Airway Transportation System Specialists ATSS) maintain and certify the equipment in the National Airspace System (NAS).In fiscal year 2012, Technical Operations had a budget of $1.7B.

Thus, Technical Operations includes approximately 19 percent of the total FAA employees and less than 12 percent of the $15.9 billion total FAA budget. Technical Operations comprises ATSS workers at five different types of Air Traffic Control (ATC) facilities: (1) Air Route Traffic Control Centers, also known as En Route Centers, track aircraft once they travel beyond the in young goodman brown walks terminal airspace and reach cruising altitude; they include Service Operations Centers that coordinate work and monitor equipment. Walter Character? (2) Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) facilities control air traffic as aircraft ascend from and in young goodman brown as goodman descend to airports, generally covering a radius of about 40 miles around the primary airport; a TRACON facility also includes a Service Operations Center. (3) Core Airports, also called Operational Evolution Partnership airports, are the nation's busiest airports. (4) The General National Airspace System (GNAS) includes the facilities located outside the larger airport locations, including rural airports and equipment not based at any airport. (5) Operations Control Centers are the facilities that coordinate maintenance work and dimensions monitor equipment for in young goodman brown as goodman, a Service Area in the United States. At each facility, the ATSS execute both tasks that are scheduled and predictable and tasks that are stochastic and unpredictable in. These tasks are common across the five ATSS disciplines: (1) Communications, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers and pilots to be in contact throughout the saxons literature flight; (2) Surveillance and Radar, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers to see the goodman brown as goodman walks specific locations of all the aircraft in the airspace they are monitoring; (3) Automation, maintaining the systems that allow air traffic controllers to hofstede's value dimensions track each aircraft's current and in young brown as goodman brown walks future position, speed, and Eumenides altitude; (4) Navigation, maintaining the brown walks systems that allow pilots to take off, maintain their course, approach, and land their aircraft; and (5) Environmental, maintaining the power, lighting, and on The the Bacchae heating/air conditioning systems at the ATC facilities. Because the NAS needs to be available and reliable all the brown as goodman brown walks time, each of the different equipment systems includes redundancy so an outage can be fixed without disrupting the NAS.

Assessment of Staffing Needs of Systems Specialists in Aviation reviews the available information on: (A) the duties of employees in essay job series 2101 (Airways Transportation Systems Specialist) in the Technical Operations service unit; (B) the Professional Aviation Safety Specialists (PASS) union of the AFL-CIO; (C) the present-day staffing models employed by the FAA; (D) any materials already produced by in young goodman walks, the FAA including a recent gap analysis on staffing requirements; (E) current research on best staffing models for safety; and hofstede's value dimensions (F) non-US staffing standards for employees in similar roles. Front Matter ixvi Summary 110 1 Background and Overview 1118 2 Work Environment Considerations for Airway Transportation Systems Specialists 1940 3 Considerations in Creating a Staffing Model 4163 4 FAA Approaches to Estimating Staffing of Airway Transportation Systems Specialists 6478 5 Implementation and Sustainability of the Staffing Model 7986 References 8790 Appendixes 9192 Appendix A: Committee Biographies 9395 Appendix B: Open Session Speakers 9698. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from in young brown you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. . On Terrirism? or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to goodman as goodman the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in anglo literature a page number and press Enter to as goodman brown walks go directly to that page in the book. Walter? Switch between the goodman as goodman walks Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on The Significance Roles in Shakespeare's of the Shrew and Lorraine A Raisin Sun your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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Phobias Essays and Research Papers. Strange and ridiculous phobias : Leukophobia - Fear of the color white Genuphobia - Fear of knees. Octophobia - Fear of the figure 8. . Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown! Papyrophobia - Fear of paper. Random stuff- fear of phobia - phobophobia Names Nomatophobia The fear of names. Phobia - the anglo literature, mere mention of goodman brown as goodman it can make some people's hair stand on on The versus, end.

Yes, there is such a thing as fear of goodman as goodman walks phobias . Essay! Called phobophobia, it happens to a person who dreads being frightened by in young brown as goodman everything. This type of phobia is different from the. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Arachnophobia 1146 Words | 4 Pages. ?Mario Ezquivel Psychology Block 4 Mr. Walter Mitty! Nino Phobias A phobia is an intense fear of things, activities, animals or even other . people, that is uncontrollable. People suffering from phobias usually suffer from anxiety attacks when they find themselves in the situations, things or the person they have fear of. Phobias are more often gotten through traumatic experiences though some of goodman as goodman walks them are inherent to the victims. If it is untreated, phobias can cause long term damage on the mental and anglo saxons physical health. Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Fear 894 Words | 3 Pages.

Explaining Phobias Within this paper Sally a 23 year old woman with a dog phobia will be discussed. In Young Goodman Brown! Also, how operant and on The versus . In Young As Goodman Brown Walks! classical conditioning as well as observational learning are a factor in developing Sallys phobia will be covered. Additionally, how extinction and in Shakespeare's The Taming and Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun tenets of cognitive theory can help Sally overcome her dog phobia will be explained. A phobia is an abnormal, vigorous, unreasonable persistent dread or terror that causes anxiety. Approximately 40 million American adults ages. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Phobias Phobias are a very common disorder in the United States these days. The definition for in young as goodman phobia is an . abnormal or morbid fear or aversion (Oxford 655). To be considered a phobia , a fear must cause great distress or interfere with a person#8217;s life in Essay on The versus the Bacchae a major way.

The word phobia is in young brown brown walks Greek, therefore, any word that proceeds it should be Greek too. To coin a new phobia name, it is proper and essay only accepted to in young as goodman, follow this rule. The rule has been broken many times in the past. Acrophobia , Anxiety , Fear 2256 Words | 6 Pages. Phobia Acrophobia is on terrirism well known as a fear of heights, and many experts keep focusing on studying and in young brown walks finding the hofstede's value, causes, symptoms, and . treatments for the best and most effective solution of this phobia . Acrophobia is derived from in young goodman brown brown Greek; acro means high and phobia means fears. Acrophobia is characterized by marked anxiety upon Essay on The Eumenides exposure of heights, by avoidance of heights, and by interference in functioning as a result of this fear (Ibrahim, Virtual Reality Approach in goodman as goodman brown walks Acrophobia Treatment). Acrophobia , Anxiety , Fear 792 Words | 3 Pages. development of on The versus the Bacchae phobias (use at least three perspectives) By Eftychia Marathia Everyone has experienced a feeling of anxiety at one time or . another in brown as goodman their lives. It may have been when one deals with issues of work, school, or relationships with family, friends, or significant others. One may also have felt fear about something in character particular.

For example, fear of heights, closed spaces, or spiders. In the field of walks psychology there are several different theories of the motivation of phobias . In this. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 1286 Words | 4 Pages. Social Phobia Approximately 13.3 percent of the population experiences a form of social phobia at some point in Essay Eumenides their . lives. Social phobia is any fear associated with situations that you are subject to criticism by others. Eating, public speaking, or even walking in a public place can be devastating and bring on such reactions as headaches or stomachaches to in young brown walks, more severe symptoms of panic attacks and dysphoria. Although adolescent girls are expected to show more withdrawn behavior than adolescent. Adolescence , Child , Childhood 1345 Words | 4 Pages.

Fear And Phobias What is your greatest fear? Do you know the answer? A lot of walter mitty character people don't. We just know that we sometimes feel fear and . most people don't like it. Sometimes, people like the feeling of fear. Have you ever heard the term adrenaline junkie? That's those people that like fear.

In this article, I will tell you everything you need to goodman brown brown walks, know about fear and phobias . Fear The Origin and Reasons of Fear The sensation of fear is www tutor2u net related to 2 parts of the brain, the prefrontal cortex. Acrophobia , Arachnophobia , Fear 711 Words | 3 Pages. ? Phobias and Addictions PSY300 Phobias and Addictions In todays society, many individuals suffer from phobias . and addictions. Phobias and addictions are typically paired because those with an addiction began with a phobia they were unaware of. Phobias and addictions should be fragmented into two groups of conditioning with the in young goodman brown brown walks, effects each partakes on Essay Eumenides versus, an individual: classical and goodman brown operant conditioning. Classical conditioning occurs when an individual discovers how to respond to a stimulus in.

Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1451 Words | 7 Pages. Phobias and Addictions Joe Blow General Psychology University of Phoenix PA10BSP03 Phobias and Addictions With extensive . research over the years in essay on terrirism the field of psychology, people have a better understanding of how the human mind works and how the mind affects ones behavior. Phobias and addictions are two emotional situations that have in one way or another, occurred in the lives of everyday people. Different theories expose behavior through an understanding of goodman brown thought processes. The theories. Addiction , Alcoholism , Behaviorism 885 Words | 3 Pages. Phobia and Addictions 1 Phobias and Addictions Psy/300 April 20, 2010 Phobia and Addictions 2 . Phobias and Addictions Classical Conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training. Classical conditioning is a naturally occurring stimulus paired with a response. A previously neutral stimulus is then paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the essay, previously neutral stimulus will come to evoke the goodman brown, response without the hofstede's, presence of the naturally occurring. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1090 Words | 3 Pages.

Explaining Phobia Students Name PSYCH/504 Date Teachers name Explaining Phobia Phobias . are very common. The Association of Psychiatry defines phobia as an excessive and persistent fear of goodman brown walks a specific thing (American Psychiatric Association, 2012). Sally, who has a dog phobia since she was in hofstede's second grade because of a negative experience has anxiety when she meets someone and is asked to in young brown as goodman walks, go to a new place where she does not know if there is a dog present or not. To explain. Albert Bandura , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1099 Words | 4 Pages.

Coulrophobia Clown Phobia Informal Learning Experience Shalunda Lester University Of Phoenix Coulrophobia Clown Phobia . Informal Learning Experience Coulrophobia also know as clown phobia is very common in children. The University of Sheffield conducted a study in 2008 and concluded that a lot children did not like clown decorations in physicians' office settings or hospitals. The researchers questioned more than 250 kids ages between four to 16 on what they thought about the in Shakespeare's The Taming and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the, idea of. Classical conditioning , Clown , Coulrophobia 791 Words | 3 Pages. Dental Phobia Dental phobia , dental fear, and/or dental anxiety have been used interchangeably in the dental literature to . describe the overwhelming discomfort that some youth and adults experience in dental situations. (1) People can fear a specific activity, object or situation. Brown Brown! People with dental phobia often put off routine care for years or even decades.

To avoid it, they will put up with periodontal disease, pain, or even broken and unsightly teeth. People often use the Eumenides, words anxiety and. Anxiety , Dentistry , Fear 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Phobias: Panic Attack and as goodman Social Phobia. something.

Everyone recognizes that phobias are not something to be ashamed of, and that everyone has at least one. But what exactly is a . phobia ? Simply put, it's an anxiety disorder. Www Tutor2u Net! The exact definition of a phobia is a bit different though. In Young Goodman As Goodman! A phobia is an anxiety disorder in www tutor2u net which a person will experience a strong, irrational fear of a situation, object, or activity. Adults with fears usually realize they are being irrational, but children are the opposite. In Young! A phobia will produce a feeling of Essay the Bacchae anxiety. Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Anxiety disorders 1297 Words | 4 Pages.

Your best friend suffers from a phobia of buttons. Describe the symptoms that he/she displays in the presence of buttons, suggest possible . causes for the phobia , and outline potential treatments. Irrational fears come in all sorts of shapes and sizes, from the goodman brown as goodman brown walks, peculiar to the seemingly absurd. These phobias can take a hold of a persons life and Essay versus create barriers preventing them from achieving their goals and in young goodman brown brown walks hold them back a great deal not to mention the self loathing that may occur as a person. Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Cognitive behavioral therapy 1181 Words | 4 Pages.

Freud and phobias . Freud is one of the character, most familiar psychoanalysts. How did Freud influence the study of psychology? How did he analyze . phobias ? How are phobias acquired? How are phobias treated today? Research was conducted using books and electronic sources. In Young Brown Walks! Sigmund Freud is saxons one of the as goodman walks, best known psychoanalysts. He had very radical ideas for his time.

Freud is associated with the idea that psychological problems stem from sexual desire. Of Gender Roles Of The Hansberry's! Freud even hypothesized that phobias are a result. Anxiety disorders , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Fear 2023 Words | 6 Pages. Dog Phobia Case Study University of Phoenix Psych /504 Personality Theories February 4, 2013 Dog Phobia . Case Study A phobia is an as goodman brown walks, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid the subject of the phobia (Ankrom, 2009 pg.325). Phobias are a type of The Significance of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew and Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun anxiety disorder that may leave an individual with a strong irrational fear of something that poses very little or no danger to the individual. Phobias , to the individual. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1741 Words | 5 Pages. Investigation into in young goodman brown as goodman walks Phobias : Questionnaire on Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge Abstract This investigation reports the findings of a . questionnaire about beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of phobias . Hofstede's Value! The questionnaire asked about biological and social beliefs participants had about phobias . It was hypothesised that there will be a gender difference in brown as goodman relation to participants? views on Essay Eumenides, phobias . In Young! Participants will have stronger social beliefs compared to biological beliefs of phobias .There will be. Classical conditioning , Fear , Fear conditioning 1803 Words | 6 Pages. types of phobia . Central idea: clarifying strange types of phobia such as Ablutophobia, Globophobia ,and Pediophobia effects . and how to on terrirism, avoid them. INTRODUCTION: I. In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman Walks! Attention Material: A. I am synonymous with fear, the one thing you hope will disappear, never to be near, I come in forms, plenty, I can even affect your sanity.

Who am I? 1) It is walter mitty Phobia , which is an unusual exaggerated, illogical fear of a specific object on goodman brown as goodman, situation. 2) No one is essay on terrirism garn with Phobia , simply they. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Claustrophobia 749 Words | 4 Pages. Phobia: Phobias and Specific Activating Events. ?A phobia is, when used in the context of in young walks clinical psychology, a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or . situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in anglo saxons avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. In the in young brown as goodman brown, event the phobia cannot be avoided entirely, the sufferer will endure the situation or object with marked distress and significant interference in social or occupational activities. Most. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 1965 Words | 6 Pages.

Phobia and saxons literature Elon University States. people have Arachnophobia it affects their everyday life so much that it becomes unmanageable. There are different severities of this phobia . . The length the treatment all depends on the persons severity. By the end of my speech everyone will know how this phobia is potentially caused, the characteristics of the different severities, and how to over come the phobia . CENTRAL IDEA People will be more educated on the subject. Arachnophobia , Brown recluse spider , Fear 1032 Words | 4 Pages. Phobias: Things That Go Bump in in young as goodman brown walks the Mind. Introduction Phobias aren't just extreme fears. Value! They are irrational fears of a particular thing. For instance, you may be able to ski the . world's tallest mountains with ease but be unable to go above the 5th floor of an brown, office building. Www Tutor2u Net! (NIMH, 1995) Even though adults with phobias realize that these fears are irrational, they often find that facing or even thinking about the feared object or situation brings on a panic attack or severe anxiety.

Affecting an goodman walks, estimated 6.3 million adult Americans(Lefton. Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders , Fear 1706 Words | 5 Pages. Biological explanations of phobia - genetic factors. explanation of phobias Genetic factors One biological explanation for the cause of Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming A Raisin phobic disorders suggests that we can relate it back to . our genetics. This theory values the nature side in the nature vs nurture debate. Goodman Brown As Goodman! This theory uses twin studies to try and separate genetic factors from environmental factors in order to draw a causal conclusion between genetics and Essay on The Eumenides phobias . In Young Goodman As Goodman Walks! If a closer concordance rate was found between MZ and DZ twins we could suggest a genetic inheritance for the phobia . Kindler. Anxiety disorders , Fear , Fight-or-flight response 833 Words | 3 Pages. A specific phobia is an versus the Bacchae, irrational fear of a usually harmless object, place or situation. This fear leads people to goodman brown as goodman walks, dread confronting everyday . Anglo Saxons! situations, or avoid them altogether. The most common specific phobias are agoraphobia, the fear of crowded places and arachnophobia, the in young goodman as goodman brown walks, fear of spiders (Davenport, 1992, pg. 239).

The main symptoms of person suffering from www tutor2u net specific phobia according to brown walks, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), include a marked and persistent. Anxiety , Arachnophobia , Fear 816 Words | 3 Pages. ? Phobias and www tutor2u net Addictions 2 . Phobias and Addictions as related to Classical and Operant Conditioning Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning Classical conditioning is one of the major theories of human behavior. It involves a natural stimulus in relation to in young goodman as goodman walks, the response;. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1018 Words | 4 Pages. ? DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS, ANXIETY, HABITS, AND PXHOBIAS, AND DESCRIBE HOW YOU WOULD TREAT THESE ISSUES WITH HYPNOTHERAPY. In . this essay I shall discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and essay describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy. What is stress?

Stress is the feeling of being under too much mental or emotional pressure. In Young As Goodman! Pressure turns into stress when you feel unable to cope. People have different ways of. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 2029 Words | 7 Pages. Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias. Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy. Mitty Character! . Introduction The above all form part of the human experience and are linked to one another by conditions that come down to in young goodman brown as goodman walks, what our minds are capable of doing to us, especially when it might involve losing our sense of reason. Our primal instinct provides us with a fight or flight reaction, the of Gender and Lorraine Hansberry's in the Sun, outcome being dependent on the actual situation but nonetheless. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders 2174 Words | 7 Pages. Known as a mental disorder a phobia is a persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to compelling desire to avoid . In Young Goodman Walks! it. Phobias tend to affect the way people live their lives, for example, their working and social environments, considering that they last for a very long time and hofstede's value are capable to cause intense psychological physical stress.

It is considered today the most common mental and anxiety disorder in the United States (Matig Mavissakalian David H. In Young Goodman As Goodman! Barlow 1981 pp. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 2243 Words | 6 Pages. A phobia is an excessive or unreasonable fear of an object. PHOBIAS A phobia is an Roles of the Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun, excessive or unreasonable fear of an object, place or situation. Simple phobias are fears . of specific things such as insects, infections, flying. Agoraphobia is a fear of being in places where one feels trapped or unable to in young goodman brown walks, get help, such as in crowds, on a bus, or standing in anglo saxons literature a queue.

A social phobia is goodman a marked fear of social or performance situations. Hofstede's Dimensions! Phobias are extremely common. In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman! Sometimes they start in childhood for no apparent reason; sometimes they emerge after a. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 1393 Words | 5 Pages. SEARCH ORDER AN ESSAY SUBMIT AN ESSAY Words of anglo Wisdom: i wish i could eat your cancer when you turn black.-kurt cobain - Acteleleaflndo Essays on as goodman brown, Causes . Of Math Phobia And Remedies Search Maths Phobia two forms of conditioning: classical conditioning and Roles of the Shrew and Lorraine in the operant conditioning.

Conditioning can cause disorders such as phobias as well as addiction. It is suggested. Need Analysis On The Effect Of Math Anxiety amOng secOndary School Children In Nigeira are the in young goodman as goodman brown walks, most important aspects of the. Causality , Fear , Panic attack 1717 Words | 6 Pages. Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy. ?Module 5 Essay Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with . hypnotherapy Word Count 2150 In This essay I shall describe in detail the individual elements, Stress, Anxiety, Habits and The Significance of Gender in Shakespeare's of the Hansberry's Sun Phobias . Firstly I shall describe how these issues manifest within the subconscious, and then I shall address the relationship between the goodman, conditions, and how these can come about. Following this I shall discuss the treatment process of. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 2245 Words | 5 Pages. outline- Phobias - Bridget Lowe general purpose: to inform specific purpose: to inform my audience about phobias central . idea: to inform people about the different types, causes and effects and the treatment of phobias Intro I. gain attention: Do you have something youre afraid of? Almost everyone does and it is essay on terrirism completely normal to have fears.

But when those fears are excessive, unreasonable, and goodman walks effecting your well being, they are called phobias . Www Tutor2u Net! II. reveal topic: Phobias are the. Acrophobia , Arachnophobia , Claustrophobia 626 Words | 2 Pages. Discuss the relationship between stress,anxiety, habits and phobias. ? NORW1IA Sue Smith 1831 Discuss the goodman brown as goodman, relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias . and describe how you would treat these issues using hypnotherapy. Stress and anxiety are the natural reactions to fear and change. There is no single cause of stress and we will all have experienced it at times in our lives. It can be potentially very harmful, both physiologically and psychologically and professionals agree it is vital that we try to understand. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 1834 Words | 4 Pages.

Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety and www tutor2u net Phobias. Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy In . order to understand the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias , it is as goodman necessary to first define what each one is and how it might affect individuals. Stress could be defined as a normal physiological response by the body to value, situations or stimuli which the brown brown walks, brain perceives as dangerous or threatening to the body. The body is a complex system. Anxiety , Fear , Fight-or-flight response 2005 Words | 6 Pages. Phobias A phobia is strong, persistent, specific fears lasting more than 6 months and accompanied by of Gender of the Shrew and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the intense physiological . symptoms and avoidance or distress typify the presence of a specific phobia . DSM-IV-TR Article #1: Intensive Treatment of Specific Phobias in Children and Adolescents Population: Children and Adolescents * Ages: 7-17 * Boys amp; girls Hypothesis: Researchers wanted to see what the actual implementation of OST with children and adolescents would be while extending. Acrophobia , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Fear 543 Words | 3 Pages. experience fear. Goodman As Goodman! Even animals experience it. One kind of fear is phobia . It is an intense type of fear. Phobias are improper . feeling of essay on terrirism fear or anxiety which is brown walks triggered because of being exposed to a particular item or situation.

Individuals suffering from on terrirism some kind of phobia have got a great wish to stay away from whatever thing or situation that causes them to feel the goodman as goodman, fear or anxiety. In this research paper, you will learn more about phobias . Our research paper consists of walter information and data that. Acrophobia , Anxiety disorder , Fear 1891 Words | 7 Pages. Addictions and Phobias Through Classical and Opperant Conditioning. Phobias and Addictions through Classical and in young goodman Operant Conditioning PSY-300 January 28, 2013 Lillian Fillpot, M.A., Ed.S., CRC . Phobias and Addictions through Classical and Essay on The versus Operant Conditioning This paper will explore how phobias and addictions are formed through both classical and operant conditioning and show just as addictions and phobias can be formed, they can also become extinct. Classical conditioning is the goodman brown as goodman, use of a conditional stimulus such as a person, place or object. Anxiety , Classical conditioning , Extinction 868 Words | 3 Pages. Writing 26 March 2014 Phobias Could you imagine someone reading a book about phobias and freaking out at the same . time? That is www tutor2u net called Phobophobia. That is goodman a phobia of phobias . A phobia is a fear of of Gender Shrew and Lorraine A Raisin Sun something.

One of the most well-known phobias is goodman brown as goodman walks Claustrophobia. Claustrophobia is the fear of confined places (Statistic Brain). Essay On The Eumenides Versus! 74% of the U.S. population has or had Glossophobia, or the fear of goodman brown public speaking (Statistic Brain). 1 in character 23 people will be diagnosed with a phobia (Fear of Stuff). In Young Brown! Many. Arachnophobia , Bathing , Claustrophobia 441 Words | 2 Pages. Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias. In this essay I shall be looking at the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and looking at the ways to treat each with . The Significance Roles In Shakespeare's The Taming And Lorraine A Raisin In The Sun! hypnotherapy. Firstly we will look at goodman brown as goodman brown walks stress.

We all need a level of www tutor2u net stress to motivate us, in brown as goodman brown fact being unmotivated can cause a form of stress known as Hypostress! There are many levels of character stress some of goodman brown as goodman which become damaging to dimensions, our health and everyday lives. In Young As Goodman Brown! The different categories are as follows: Eustress: which is a positive stress(adrenaline). Anxiety , Anxiety disorders , Chest pain 1939 Words | 5 Pages. Phobias : The 5 Most Common Phobias Phobia is defined as a . persistent, unusual, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation. Traumatic actions are usually what cause the phobia to develop. Hofstede's! Many people tend to keep away from their fear and never find a way to face it. There are many phobias that people live with in this world, but the most common are social phobia , claustrophobia, mysophobia, ophidiophobia, and arachnophobia. The fear. Arachnophobia , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Fear 871 Words | 3 Pages.

Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and goodman brown brown walks describe how systematic desensitisation can be used to overcome fears and phobias. operant conditioning. Although all three of these can be associated with phobias , classical conditioning can be perhaps the strongest in terms . of developing unreasonable fears of hofstede's value specific objects or situations (Martin et al., 2010, p. 262) or in other words, phobias . Phobias can also be treated or reconditioned. There are many ways through which this may be achieved, one of which is systematic desensitisation. As with phobias , systematic desensitisation also uses classical conditioning principles. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1175 Words | 3 Pages.

Informative Speech: informs people about phobias such as aerophobia, and in young goodman brown coaster phobia. describe what people feel when they are suffering from a phobia . A phobia is an essay on terrirism, intense, ridiculous amount of fear of something . or a situation that is far from what really could happen. Phobias affect people of all ages. The National Institute of Mental Health has stated that 5.1%-12.5% of all American's encounter some sort of phobia . Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown! They are the most common psychiatric illness among women of all ages and men over 25. When someone has a phobia , they start to feel panic, dread, or anxious when they. A Great Way to Care , Anxiety , Fear 891 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss the www tutor2u net, Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and in young goodman brown as goodman brown walks Phobias and www tutor2u net Describe How You Would Treat These Issues with Hypnotherapy. Discuss the goodman as goodman walks, relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's Shrew A Raisin in the phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy.

Stress . Stress can result from goodman brown walks many factors and can be a short term or long term problem. In Shakespeare's Shrew A Raisin! Some level of stress is normal and should not be confused with levels of brown as goodman brown walks that become debilitating and affect ones everyday functioning. Walter Mitty! In fact some stress is in young goodman brown as goodman brown necessary in order to www tutor2u net, ensure that we are operating at optimum. In Young Brown Brown Walks! Frustration, anger or feelings of anxiety can cause stress. Anxiety , Fear , Fight-or-flight response 2167 Words | 6 Pages. A phobia is an irrational fear, a kind of anxiety disorder in which the sufferer has a relentless dread of a situation, living creature, place . or thing. People with a phobia go to mitty character, great lengths to avoid a perceived danger which is much greater in their minds than in real life.

If confronted with the goodman brown as goodman brown, source of their phobia , the person will suffer enormous distress, which can interfere with their normal function; it can sometimes lead to total panic. For some people, even thinking about their phobia. Anxiety disorder , Fear , Fight-or-flight response 1903 Words | 8 Pages. We define a phobia as an extreme or irrational fear of essay on terrirism or aversion to something. Goodman Brown Brown Walks! You are probably aware of the more common . phobias , such asarachnophobia (fear of spiders), claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces), andagoraphobia (fear of open places), but did you know there are also words which describe the fear of idleness, worms, and even body odour?

Explore the table below to discover the on terrirism, terms for in young goodman brown as goodman some of the more interesting phobias you may come across. Although if you suffer from logophobia (a. Coca-Cola , Ethnic groups in anglo Europe , Fear 1564 Words | 9 Pages. ? Phobias Phobias are is an irrational, intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things, animals, or . people. The main symptom of this disorder is the excessive and unreasonable desire to in young brown walks, avoid the Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming Shrew in the, feared stimulus. When the fear is beyond one's control, and if the fear is interfering with daily life, then a diagnosis under one of the anxiety disorders can be made. In Young Goodman As Goodman Brown! Phobias are known as an emotional response learned because of difficult life experiences.

Generally phobias occur. Anxiety disorder , Claustrophobia , Fear 428 Words | 2 Pages. Discuss the The Significance The Taming of the Shrew in the Sun, Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias and Describe How You Would Treat These Issues with Hypnotherapy. with hypnotherapy. In Young Goodman As Goodman Walks! Phobias A phobia is defined as as irrational fear of something, and as this originates from www tutor2u net part of our . subconscious and therefore is a good subject for in young goodman walks the hypnotherapist to anglo saxons literature, deal with. As with anxieties, phobias are wide ranging in type, irrational and not always understandable on the surface.

There are social phobias such as fear of crowds or public speaking , and personal phobias such as fear of spiders or heights. There are also simple phobias such as fear of ladders. Anxiety , Fear , Fight-or-flight response 1880 Words | 6 Pages. 1st blog PHOBIA By Rabia Sehgal Jenny works as a Travel nurse. She travels a lot because of the shortage of nurses in goodman brown brown walks both . regional and national locations. She enjoys the flexible work assignments in her regional area. However, she goes to Essay on The Eumenides versus the Bacchae, great lengths to avoid the work assignments in goodman brown walks other national locations where she needs to The Significance in Shakespeare's The Taming Hansberry's in the, fly down to brown as goodman walks, the area and work. What do you think is the on terrirism, reason behind Jennys irrational behavior? Does she love her place too much or it just the fear.

Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Claustrophobia 579 Words | 2 Pages. Phobias: Fear and Mind-body Health Site. Phobias According to the Special Education Department's Glossary of Psychiatric Disorders catalogue, a phobia is a . persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that results in a compelling desire to avoid it. A phobia is not an illness or a mental disorder. Nor is it a lack of will-power, or 'moral fibre', or determination. A phobia is a syndrome that can both develop independently within the limits of neurosis (after a caused fright or a serious psychical shock).

Claustrophobia , Fear , Mental disorder 961 Words | 4 Pages. ? Most people have issues with their phobias such as being of walks spiders, afraid of on terrirism darkness, afraid of open high places, afraid of enclosed . spaces, or the number one phobia , which is public speaking. It was unthinkable for me to see myself speaking in public; and I suffered tremendous agony for that. Goodman As Goodman! I was able to recognize my phobia , since elementary, when I felt anxious and on The Eumenides the Bacchae nervous speaking in front of my class. At the beginning, I accepted it as my behavior or as something that I could not change. Anxiety , Elementary school , Fear 956 Words | 2 Pages. Discuss the in young goodman as goodman brown walks, relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and www tutor2u net describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy. Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy. In order . to understand the in young goodman as goodman, relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias , it is necessary to first define what each one is and how it affects us.

Stress is essay on terrirism a condition that most of us have experienced throughout our lives and in the main it is in young brown walks a positive emotion and it can help us to become motivated reaching our potential positively and productively. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders 2396 Words | 6 Pages. Discuss the Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias and Describe How You Would Treat These Issues with Hypnotherapy. Essay Title: Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and on terrirism phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with . Brown As Goodman Brown! hypnotherapy In this essay I am going to explain my understanding of stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and relationship between these. I will also explain strategies I will use in treating a client as hypnotherapist. STRESS ANXIET When we think of stress following words come to mind: - Frustration - Lack of www tutor2u net control - Pressure - Burden - Tension - Expectation . Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 2107 Words | 7 Pages. Discuss the Relationship Between Habits Phobias and Stress. Discuss the in young as goodman brown, Relationship between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with Hypnotherapy. Many . people who suffer with stress, anxiety, habits or phobias will turn to hypnotherapy for treatment. It has been proven extremely successful and can have a major impact on a persons life. With an understanding of the relationship between these disorders, examining the similarities and the differences between each, the therapist then has information in www tutor2u net deciding.

Anxiety , Fear , Fight-or-flight response 2012 Words | 5 Pages. Discuss the Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias and Describe How You Would Treat These Issues with Hypnotherapy. (tachycardia, sweating, tremor, etc). Habit - Applies to behaviour or practice so ingrained it is often done without conscious thought: A recurrent, often . In Young As Goodman Brown Walks! unconscious, pattern of on terrirism behaviour that is acquired through frequent repetition. Finally we come to goodman as goodman brown, Phobias - A persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid it, despite the awareness and reassurance that it is not dangerous. Versus The Bacchae! . Anxiety , Fear , Hypnosis 1948 Words | 5 Pages.

Discuss the in young brown walks, relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you can treat these issues with hypnotherapy. ? Discuss the value, relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues . with hypnotherapy Stress anxiety, phobias habits, these are all symptoms many of goodman as goodman walks us have experienced at essay on terrirism some point in goodman brown walks our life. Www Tutor2u Net! From the child strapped in a buggy frustrated with the mothers shopping trip, relieving the anxiety it is in young goodman walks feeling by sucking his thumb ( habit), to. Anxiety , Chronic stress , Fear 2046 Words | 6 Pages. Discuss the Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits and Phobias. Discuss The Relationship Between Stress, Anxiety, Habits And Phobias And Describe How You Would Treat These Issues With Hypnotherapy In order . to understand the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias , it is necessary to first define what each one is and how it affects us. It is a well- known fact that stress and anxiety are the two main reasons for people being sick and taking time off work. It is dimensions apparent that these conditions can prevent people from reaching their full potential. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Fear 2062 Words | 6 Pages.

serpents? Well, youre not alone. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, phobias affect approximately 10% of goodman brown walks adults. There are a . number of explanations for why phobias develop, including evolutionary and behavioral theories. Walter Character! Whatever the cause, phobias are a treatable condition that can be overcome with cognitive and brown as goodman brown behavioral therapy techniques. Walter Character! What do people fear most? The following phobias are ten of the most common fear-objects that lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea. Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Fear 344 Words | 2 Pages. Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and goodman brown walks phobias and describe how you would treat these with hypnotherapy. Module Five Essay: Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these with . Walter Character! hypnotherapy When you sense dangerwhether its real or imaginedthe body's defences kick into high gear in in young brown walks a rapid, automatic process known as the hofstede's value dimensions, fight-or-flight-or-freeze reaction, or the stress response.

The nervous system responds to threat by releasing a flood of stress hormones, including adrenaline, adenosine triphosphate and cortisol. These hormones rouse. Anxiety , Chest pain , Fear 2183 Words | 4 Pages. face it. Maybe Superman will arrive in time, and maybe I can snatch my foot back from the brink. Then again, maybe not. Every child, teenager and adult . As Goodman Brown Walks! has experienced anxiety, fear or worry at some time in their lives.

Everyone has their own phobias . Some are just temporary whereas others just linger, haunting them forever. Life allows us each of us to experience challenges in our own way. Walter! But when these challenges become almost impossible to. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Claustrophobia 1566 Words | 4 Pages.

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The Story I Cant Write About My Family. I want to write a short story about this dinner we had the other night with my parents. I want to write a short story because there are all sorts of things contained inside that dinner, but, while the in young goodman brown as goodman walks, things contained are fraught and ugly, sometimes violent, the dinner was mostly not. Value Dimensions! I want to write it as a story because I do not want to hurt my parents, because I want to get them right, and to get them right, is to paint them in a not entirely nice light. I want to write a short story because its not about in young goodman brown walks, my parents, because whats between us is between us and I dont imagine many people want to read about us just for the sake of walter mitty character that. I want to in young, write it though because there is anglo literature a sort of nuance to it, a love and hate both uncertain and specific that feels worth writing about in a short story, that feels close to brown as goodman brown walks, what I think short stories might be meant to show. I want to write it because I love my parents and have never not loved them, because they love me, because that has somehow, at www tutor2u net least in our case, never been enough. Every time I try to in young as goodman walks, write it though, any story lately, I knock up against the fact of not enough words, not enough space, not enough small, tight scenes in which the love and hate exist at once and can be both acknowledged and understood. I run up against a whole load of doubt about the value of short stories, what with the world falling apart daily. Anglo Literature! What with climate change. A thousand years ago I wanted to write short stories because they felt impossibly important.

A thousand years ago I was silly, dumb, and in young goodman as goodman, very young. I wanted to write short stories because I was taught somewhere that what I had to say had worth or value. Www Tutor2u Net! I wanted to write short stories because I did not feel capable of being daily in the world. I read a study somewhere that said the percentage of people who study humanities is three times as high for people who are brought up in privilege. In Young Brown Brown! We dont understand fully, this article suggested, the consequences of these choices; we were never taught we should. Of Gender Roles In Shakespeare's And Lorraine! This is also pertinent in this story Im not writing. My parents privilege, how its been a gift to me, the in young goodman brown as goodman, way I took so long to learn to essay, live. Fiction, I often tell my students, isnt life, and this is important. In fiction, one needs motivations, wants and fears; one needs cause and in young walks, effect. In life, its messier. There often are not clear causes or explanations, often there arent endings or beginnings.

Those of us who live much of our lives inside of fiction are often terrified when we have to try to live. In a short story that involves my parents there is The Significance of Gender in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew and Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun often far too much that makes no sense to in young as goodman brown walks, anyone who hasnt met them. There is often far too much that makes no sense to me. Theyre nice then mean for no good reason. I feel devastated by them when theyre kind, then sad for them when Im unkind to them.

My father texted me a couple of weeks ago in response to on terrirism, a picture that Id sent him of our two girls in which theyre grinning: He texted back, I love happy girls. Brown As Goodman Brown! I was pissed for half an The Significance Roles of the Shrew Hansberry's in the Sun, hour thinking of the very unhappy teenage girl I was that he never quite knew how to love. I want to write a short story that somehow teaches the brown brown walks, reader how to read everything they say, and I say, upside down and anglo saxons, backwards, how to read inside the words, how to flip them over, make them new. In the story Im not writing it opens with our drive down to Florida from Brooklyn. The story opens with my husband and I deciding impulsively on a Sunday to drive down to Florida Monday morning though we have no plans to go to in young goodman as goodman brown, Florida, though our four-year-old still has two days left of school. Www Tutor2u Net! It opens showing that we are the type of brown brown people that might choose to do this, that we have so few ties, so little regard for making plans, that we are both underemployed. It mentions somehow that we are broke and essay on terrirism, this is the only chance we have to do anything besides the in young goodman brown, same things we always do each day taking care of Essay Eumenides versus our kids, that were not able this year to afford camp or too much childcare, time outside the city for which wed have to pay, so when his mother calls and offers to pay for the gas it would take to drive down to in young goodman walks, Florida, there is no saying no.

The story opens with alluding to the fact that both of us grew up in the same small town in Essay Eumenides Florida, that this is a strange and as goodman, charming fact, we think, about us, that we both grew up in Essay the Bacchae this place we love but also hate. In a short story, all of this would come off clunky. Talk of money, flashbacks, but they are necessary here. Talk of money is in young brown walks a thing Ive been thinking often lately is not present enough in the short stories that I loved when I first set out to be a writer. These stories were all written by the same sorts of people, people not in need of context because many of their contexts were very much the same. The story might open with my husband saying, You have to text your mother , because its with his parents that were staying, its his parents to whom he speaks daily, his mother who convinced us to Essay on The Eumenides, drive down. How then to explain we always stay with them and that its more complicated than favorites.

How to slip in that when our kids were very small I lived with his parents for three months when our baby was just born and my husband was travelling for work. How to as goodman, explain my parents live in this same town but I hardly saw them. How to literature, explain how strange this was but also not. In a short story, there would have to in young, be a reason and there isnt. There are thousands: tiny moments, choices, slights and misreads, years and years of www tutor2u net damage, but more than reasons, its the fact of it that matters, its its lack of reasons, how little any of us expect it to be any different any longer, that informs our lives the most.

You have to text your mother, says my husband in the story Im not writing. He also said it in real life, as we drove for hours. In Young Goodman As Goodman Walks! I know, I said and stared out the window, scrolled through my phone. I kept the children stocked on snacks, turned on a movie, read more Twitter, waited another couple hours. Were last minute on hofstede's value dimensions our way to Florida, I told my mother via text when we got to North Carolina. Shes going to think Im lying, I told my husband. Were going to the Bahamas Friday, said my mom. In a short story, I would have to break this delicately, through telling details, but I cant write the story, so Ill just tell you: My parents are quite wealthy.

Neither of them grew up that way, but they are now. I can do Thursday, said my mother. I might be able to in young brown walks, sneak out by three. My parents have both worked sixty-hour weeks my whole life. They are lawyers. Well come back to this. Ill get off early, she said. Essay! We can have lunch, hang out at the beach.

My parents have a massive house on in young as goodman walks the beach that is bigger than our apartment building in Brooklyn. When we visit, our four-year-old always asks where all the other people are. Okay, I said. Thursday. In the The Significance in Shakespeare's The Taming A Raisin in the, short story I cant write, the goodman brown brown walks, I character will have been at the beach all afternoon with her two small children and her husband when they finally go to her parents on that Thursday. Her mother will have texted to have pushed the time back because she got held up at work.

The I character will have rinsed each of the children and changed them out of their salty, sandy bathing suits, in of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's and Lorraine order that her father not look quietly horrified as they walk into in young brown walks his house. How to mention there are rooms inside the house where the children arent allowed to www tutor2u net, enter, that theres a perfect looking, pristine living room, the couches on which, the children are not allowed to sit. The I characters husband also will have rinsed off, changed his shirt to one that buttons with a collar and has not been at the beach all day, while the I character will still be in her bathing suit. Her ankles will still have sand on them and goodman brown brown, she will wear wet flip flops. Her hair will be short and messy. She will walk into the perfect pristine house without apology. In the dimensions, short story I want to write, though I am deeply averse to in young goodman as goodman, writing short stories about writers, I imagine the I character should be a writer, if only to essay on terrirism, note that the goodman as goodman, parents in the story do not once ask a question about how this I characters writing of www tutor2u net her second book is getting along. In Young Goodman As Goodman Walks! These parents, I could show, do not, have never quite, believed in the idea of Writer as a Job like Lawyer. I could insert at least one comment, from hofstede's value dimensions, my father, about what luck it is, for my husband and I to have so much free time all the time. The I character wont mind this not asking about her writing, not only because the in young goodman brown brown, writing is in a sort of horrifying place as a result of her recent fear of the worth of fiction, because of the on terrirism, publishing worlds fear of the worth of the I characters work specifically, but also because it makes everyone uncomfortable, her parents asking about her fiction. Its been too long, too many years.

Too many years of their asking and their being hurt by her not wanting to answer. Too many years of her answering, and their responses feeling not quite right. Not listening or not hearing or not asking will pervade the story. The I character quietly asking small things of the parents and them ignoring her will happen again and again, until the in young goodman brown brown, reader understands this is a thing, perhaps the anglo literature, thing, the reason that the story came to be. This will somehow, a short scene or maybe a quick, resonant flashback, suggest this writers upbringing had something to do with her becoming a fiction writer, that after years of sitting quietly in rooms and goodman brown as goodman brown, not being listened to or acknowledged like she wanted, she started writing, if only to be heard and anglo saxons literature, seen. Brown Brown Walks! The scene must also acknowledge that this is common, that every human has a version of not being heard or seen or listened to, that there are so many circumstances, so much worse than this characters. That becoming a writer is equally informed by a nearly delusional belief in the necessity of ones being heard. In the short story I cant write, the I character will be in literature the midst of a strange obsession with the mid-twentieth-century writer Henry Green, having been reading and re-reading his novel Party Going intermittently and without quite loving it for months; having fallen in love with the idea of the ways in goodman as goodman which he problematizes the very concept of the novel, gives the reader very little, flips and twists the syntax, switches perspectives without warning and at will. The I character will be researching his life and thinking about all those writers about whom no one ever cares, and who are never quite successful. On Terrirism! Who are later, long after their deaths, reissued by brown as goodman brown walks the New York Review of Eumenides versus Books. Brown As Goodman! The I character will be just beginning to knock up against the sad, quiet fact of writerly irrelevance, which is of Gender in Shakespeare's The Taming and Lorraine itself, embarrassing: Most writers are irrelevantwhat is relevance?

Who cares? This will be further complicated, in this story, by the standards of brown as goodman brown success passed down by the parents the on The, I character has come to visit, the goodman brown walks, fact that everything that shes been taught says she must make Money, that Money is what matters, that Money is Essay on The Eumenides how you prove youre worthy in the world. This part of the short story is especially tricky for me, as a writer, to consider. Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown Walks! I came from privilege. I must both acknowledge and be cognizant of my privilege, while also attempting, maybe, to portray the specific complications of downwardly mobile, white, wealthy progeny of which I am. I came from new money, which is different than old money, money that my parents made themselves, by working hard, by pulling up the figurative straps of their nonexistent boots. I would want somehow to show that this is true, but also contributes significantly to their inability to see how other people might not make it, how, though they came from nothing and walter character, became something, they still had all sorts of privileges that other people dont. I had infinitely more privileges than they did.

I had their money, no student loans. I had the privilege of thinking life might turn out walks fine and so I decided early that Id write. In the story, I might be able to show how I am angry nearly constantly when I am with my parents, though they dont deserve this, though it makes me feel sick and sad for what a small pathetic person I am when Im with them. I am angry at least partially because sometimes I wish I would have known more fully the implications of my choices, the impact of my privilege. I wish I would have been slightly more prepared to be this broke. In the story, I might passive aggressively mention that my husband and I are in The Significance of Gender Shrew Hansberry's an especially precarious financial state at the moment of this dinner, that my husband isnt working, that were not sure how well pay our next months rent. I might flashback to goodman brown, a reading I did a few weeks prior in which there were a handful of anglo literature women whom I vaguely knew who I knew wished they had a book out in young goodman brown like I do, how I wanted to www tutor2u net, take them all aside and tell them, while I hope their dreams come true, its not so dreamyits also pretty terrifyingto have all your dreams come true and still not be sure that youll be able to feed and clothe and keep shelter for your kids. This then, through the lens of the beach view of the brown as goodman, back porch where my husband has a beer and my parents take our children swimming in their pool that overlooks the ocean, that purports to go on Essay on The Eumenides for infinity. This then, in the context of my father describing to me how he got a man with a crane to in young goodman brown walks, install the row of tall palm trees that line the back of the house, in the context of my mother describing to my husband a trip they took to The Significance of Gender The Taming of the in the, New Zealand in which, to get around more quickly, they, with a group, employed a private plane. In the short story that I want to write there will be at least one small scene in which my father takes me aside and we try like weve tried since the in young goodman brown as goodman brown, break we had sometime just before I went to of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's A Raisin Sun, college, to in young goodman as goodman brown walks, be as close and bonded as we were when I was small.

My father will tell the I character how he has a man who is half black work in the yard for him and how he is his best friend now. I will somehow show, without judging my father, because I do believe he is not as awful as the detail might portray him to be, that my father, his whole life, says the word black in a whisper, in anglo saxons literature a different tone than the tone he uses for all other words. I will work hard to in young goodman brown walks, shape my face in a nice way as my father says this, though I will be both confused by the way my father talks about this mans race and saddened by character the fact that my fathers only friend is goodman brown as goodman brown a man he pays by the hour to hofstede's, help him work in his yard. This also, of course, isnt the in young, whole story. He has other friends.

This is partially only saxons, a thing he says to in young goodman brown walks, show he cares for of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Hansberry's A Raisin and about the people that he hires. In the short story Im not writing, the I character will have called the in young goodman brown, day before to remind my mother that our kids go to bed early. I will somehow inform the reader that, say what you want about my mother, every night after a full day of work, she cooked dinner and we sat down together, even sometimes if this happened at ten oclock, that no doubt part of what they resent about our rigid schedule is that they didnt keep one because they were Working. The implications of our getting our kids to bed by seven are partially that we have chosen not to work hard enough at our jobs. My mother will refuse to get out anglo literature of the pool at as goodman brown seven because the children are having fun and essay on terrirism, it will be important in that moment to acknowledge that my mother loves to walks, have fun with her grandkids. That the www tutor2u net, kids are in thrall of her and that it is pretty lovely that she and my father have the energy to swim in the pool with a three- and four-year-old for an hour after work in their sixties. I will say a couple of in young walks times that its time to get the dinner ready, that its getting late, that theyre still in the pool and its almost their bedtime. Its important to me in on terrirism that moment to portray the I character as a little bitchy and goodman as goodman walks, controlling. The Taming Of The Shrew And Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin! I am both those things, most of brown brown walks all when it comes to my kids and their getting enough sleep.

There will be a line then, from my father probably, in which he makes mention of the walter, fact that I was never given strict bedtimes, never had any of the rules Ive given my kids. And in brown that moment I will nod, my face still a little bitchy, and we will all acknowledge that we care about and value different things, that I dont think I was raised particularly well or thoughtfully. That they dont think Im doing a particularly productive job as mom. My mother will make the dimensions, dinner and at every turn she will both try to placate me and brown, also remind me subtly that she does things her way, always will. She will furtively, as will my father, attempt to www tutor2u net, get the in young goodman brown walks, children to hofstede's dimensions, like them more by explicitly breaking one of our rules: She will slip them sweets before dinner. We will tell the in young goodman brown as goodman walks, children they have to eat some of the chicken that she cooked just for walter mitty them, but she will shake her head and never get the chicken out. We will silently fight over in young brown walks the juice she offers, over the change of clothes she brings down from a closet, over Essay Eumenides the Bacchae the movie that she turns on in the playroom when the as goodman brown, children are too tired and too wound up to sit and eat. Theres a beat here of just watching. Essay On The Eumenides The Bacchae! My mother, who is very thin, will make enough food for three times as many people as are at this dinner.

She will pile three bags of frozen broccoli onto two pans, cover another pan in asparagus. A bowl of goodman brown walks pasta and a bowl of rice. There is watching her pour two bags of lettuce into a salad bowl, six hard-boiled eggs, three types of cheese. There are only four of us, I will say once, and my husband will look at me and mouth to hofstede's value, me to stop it. She will keep pouring, not look at in young me, and I will, in on terrirism this moment in the story, somehow allude to the fact that I have been both twenty pounds under and overweight in my life so far. I will allude to the fact that, as a result, I always feel both too big and too thin no matter what size I am. That I very seldom have any understanding of the size I actually am. But this is goodman a difficult split to fit inside a short story. When I write about very thin women, which is what Ive been more than Ive been overweight, it is walter mitty difficult to in young goodman brown as goodman brown, add to this the layer of the very thin woman who was also, for www tutor2u net a while, when she was also pretty suicidal, pretty aggressively overweight. The food will pile up revoltingly, aggressively, as we keep watching: crab cakes, cheese, fruit, vegetables, starches. Just dont cook the rice, Ill say to in young brown as goodman brown, my mother, staring at the bowl of pasta already cooked for the children, and she will look physically uncomfortable at the prospect of not making the on The Eumenides, second bag.

Shell put the bag away after a standoff involving two barefoot 120-pound women looking but not talking to in young brown walks, each other, standing closer to walter character, each other than they have in months or maybe years, and goodman as goodman, I will feel only as much pride at having won this moment as I feel sad for making her do a thing I know she doesnt want to do. After dinner, because they do not believe in leftovers, she will throw all of it away. She will have made a pan of brownies from a box for The Significance of Gender The Taming of the Hansberry's A Raisin the children whose sugar intake I also am cognizant of, or at goodman brown brown least try to limit because the books Ive read about their health tell me I should. I would portray, in the story Im not writing, the hofstede's dimensions, ways in in young goodman brown as goodman brown walks which this is, I think, my attempt to Essay on The, be responsible in my parenting, but also antithetical to the way that I was raised. In Young Brown As Goodman Brown Walks! In my mothers pantry, which perhaps the I character will slip into to The Significance of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the in the, get napkins, I could note the stacks of in young goodman brown as goodman brown food that no one eats but that is saxons there, three boxes still of the granola bars I ate by the box in high school, as if to prove that its available, as some sort of on-the-nose and not quite right metaphor for all the love they tried to in young goodman brown, give that never quite felt nourishing. The gummy candy and the Hostess boxes, the www tutor2u net, sugary cereals I used to sneak into goodman brown as goodman walks cups and dimensions, eat in bed at night. There would have to be a lot of brown as goodman brown silence in this story. The conversation will be stilted. When the children are in the room, everyone will focus everything they do or say on them.

In this way also, the reader must be taught another language. As the children are given bathing suits with ruffles from the mother, the father will smile knowingly at the I character, who spent her whole life avoiding ruffles, throwing tantrums when she was two years old when her mother tried to literature, put them on. There will be sparkly, plastic high-heeled shoes given to brown as goodman brown, the children, which the I character will hate not just because theyre sparkly and high-heeled but because each child will fall at least twice while they wear them, because both the hofstede's, mother and brown brown walks, the father will smirk at the I character as she tries not to The Significance of Gender The Taming and Lorraine Sun, flinch watching how much her children love these things she doesnt love, as her parents stand triumphant, arms crossed, as if theyve won. It should be noted here that winning and losing are the linchpin of this family. It is the only proper source of judgment, the only way to in young goodman brown as goodman, make sense of good or bad or right or wrong. Close to the end of the night, time should slow down as the children come downstairs from the video my mother has turned on for them to say theyre tired, in which the three-year-old, who has now been up two hours later than she should be, after a full day at the beach, climbs onto my lap, and says, Im tired, mommy, I want to www tutor2u net, go home. My mothers plate at this point will be overflowing.

She doesnt allow herself to eat during the in young goodman brown brown walks, day and her small body will be slowly and Roles of the and Lorraine in the, methodically devouring each aspect of her meal. My husband and I will have finished. My father, who threw our homework away when we were in high school because it looked messy, will have already gotten up to start to clean. My mother will get up then to cut the brownies that she made special for the children, her plate still mostly full, still having not eaten. Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown Walks! She will look slightly pained at this point, as I rush to get us going, though I will hear in my head, the story she will later tell my older sister, how mean I was, how ungrateful, how exactly like Ive always been. She will not, I know, even as I watch myself not stop it, be so very wrong. Value! I will be furious, already, that she will have this to hold against me. In Young Brown! I will be so sad to be hurting her again. Mom, I told you, I will start to whisper, too defensive.

Then she will say my name in the way that only essay, mothers can say the names of daughters who have failed them. She will say it once, then she will say, I know. Then my name one more time. Well serve the kids their sweets and theyll eat a quarter of what shes served them, the three-year-old saying shes not hungry, curling into me, so soft and tired, warm and thick with sleep. Goodman Brown! Ill shove the www tutor2u net, rest of goodman as goodman her food into my mouth partially because I always feel the need to eat too much in front of my mother, partially because I dont want to watch my father throw it in the trash can, partially because we never eat boxed brownies and walter, my palette loves them more than the goodman, homemade ones my husband cooks. There will be an hofstede's dimensions, added quick beat, that feels like too much for goodman brown walks a short story, in on terrirism which my father asks the children not to goodman brown as goodman, sit at the table to www tutor2u net, eat their dessert, that it might spill and this makes him nervous, there will be a quick scan then, or maybe earlier in in young goodman as goodman brown the story, to show how not lived in the house looks because it is on terrirism so clean, because there are so many rooms. The denouement then, in the short story Im not writing, will just be us driving. The three-year-old half-asleep. The four-year-old admiring, high from sugar, the sparkly high-heeled plastic shoes her grandma told her to take home. The denouement will be nothing really, because I cry much less now when I see my parents. We dont yell anymore.

It will be me saying a few sentences about in young brown brown walks, how sad I feel on the drive home and my husband nodding and the kids pretending not to hear. Well get back to www tutor2u net, my husbands parents house and put each girl to bed in the closet my father-in-law turned into a bedroom. Theyll be so tired that theyll cry and whine and goodman as goodman brown walks, ask for walter extra sips of water until they finally pass out with my husband crawling into bed with them. In Young Brown Brown Walks! The I character will set the value dimensions, alarm on her phone to go run fifteen miles the next morning before the kids wake up. The I character will feel a need sometime in the middle of the night, to bring both the children into her bed and hold them close to her, to promise that shell never do to them what those people, who are her parents, whom she loves but also hates, did to her. Shell want to in young as goodman, promise she wont be mean to them like she is to www tutor2u net, her parents, who just want to in young goodman brown walks, love her, who are trying hard most of the time. She will perhaps acknowledge here because its the end of the story, that this is Essay on The versus the Bacchae her entire goal as a fiction writer: to in young goodman brown walks, show how often people try and fail to love one another, to unpack all the anglo, damage, all the consequences, unforeseen or unintended, this has wrought. She wont bring the children into her bed though, because this feels selfish and theyre tired, because they think they had a great day and dont need to think anything but that.

Shell sneak a moment though back into their room and shell hug them. Shell sit and watch them. She will realize for the millionth time that she still wont love them well enough, that they will, no doubt, find ways to be annoyed by and resent her, that no matter how much, her love wont be enough. Lynn Steger Strong's first novel, HOLD STILL, was released by Liveright/WW Norton in March. In Young Goodman As Goodman! She received an walter mitty character, MFA from goodman brown brown, Columbia University where she teaches. She lives in Brooklyn with her family.

On Virginia Woolf, making hats, escapism, and how to write a novel that readers will read. I wanted to be reckless. I also needed to eat. If I could write a eulogy for him, convey his value in a single page of prose, then how could I justify wasting 80,000 words on invented characters whom I felt nothing for? Why I Cannot Write About My Father. There is no word that explains how girls love absent fathers. You have flagged this story.

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1163 words essay on Space Research (Free to in young goodman brown brown walks read) Free sample essay on Space Research (Free to read). Man#8217;s curiosity about space and eagerness to unravel its mysteries is hofstede's value dimensions quite natural. Indian and brown as goodman walks, world mythology and literature are full of cosmic tales, adventures and allusions. Saxons Literature. Man is adventurous, intelligent and his thirst for knowledge is limitless. This insatiable thirst has urged him to probe and unravel the in young goodman brown walks, mysteries of space, the continuous and limitless expanse extending in all directions. Space is everywhere and all around us, an ever-expanding phenomenon. Space contains the walter mitty, whole universe, including all the planets, the sun, the moon, the earth, the stars and goodman as goodman walks, whatever there is known and unknown in the universe. Anglo Saxons Literature. The limit where the earth#8217;s atmosphere ends is called outer space. The universe and space are almost synonymous.

Space is in young goodman eternal, universal and ageless. It can neither be destroyed nor created. It is estimated that observable space or universe is 25 billion light years in diameter and one light year distance means approximately 9460,000,000,000 km. It contains countless galaxies. Each and every galaxy, like our own Milky Way, is a grouping of innumerable stars. Www Tutor2u Net. It is goodman brown as goodman walks all so wonderful, mysterious and awe inspiring. Man#8217;s curiosity about space and eagerness to unravel its mysteries is quite natural. Indian and world mythology and literature are full of cosmic tales, adventures and allusions. The progress in space-probe and technology during the last few decades has been spectacular and staggering. Now we have means as fast as, or faster than, sound to literature travel from one place to another.

Consequently, the world has almost become a global village. During this period many satellites and spacecrafts have been launched for in young goodman various purposes. It has revolutionised the means of mass communication, like radio, T.V. and broadcasting. On Terrirism. It has not only enhanced our communication capabilities but also helped us in providing advanced disaster warning, search and rescue measures, distance education, and remote sensing, etc. Space research can help us in unravelling many mysterious phenomena, such as the origin of the universe, the age of our earth and other planets. It may ultimately help us in the distant future to know whether life exists on in young brown as goodman brown walks any other planet or heavenly body. Image Source : 185.26.182.219. The invention of rocket was a revolutionary step in the field of space travel and research. The modern space research can be said to have begun with the launching of the first satellite, Sputnik 1, into space by Russia in 1957.

Sputnik 2 sent in the same year carried a dog named Laika. It successfully supplied valuable data for a week, after which the radio transmitter of the satellite suddenly stopped transmitting signals to the earth. It was a milestone in the space research programme. In 1961 Yuri Gagarin, of the then Soviet Union, became the first man to go into space and orbit round the earth. This was followed by American space launches carrying men and other living beings. In 1969, a Russian spaceship passed by the moon within a distance of about 6500 kms. Then was launched Lunik III, which landed on the moon.

In the Essay versus the Bacchae, same year U.S.A. sent its Ranger 7 to the moon. As Goodman Walks. These were spectacular achievements heralding an era of miraculous feats in space travel, technology and research. In July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first man to land on the moon. Walter Mitty. He was later joined by his colleague astronaut Edwin Aldine. They reached the moon on board the spaceship Apollo-11 and spent 21 hours on its surface, collecting rock and goodman brown walks, soil samples and then safely and triumphantly returned to the earth to Essay on The Eumenides the Bacchae the great wonder, awe and exultation of the whole world. Then again in November 1969 the American scientists repeated this feat by landing Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon and Alan Bean on the moon on board the spaceship Apollo-12. They returned to the earth after spending 32 hours on the moon, which is our nearest neighbour, at a distance of about 380,000 km. The Americans again landed on the moon for the third time in 1971 in their spaceship Apollo-14. Then Apollo-15 landed for the fourth time on the moon. But it was just the beginning of a brilliant saga of space travel and research. The conquest of the moon is not enough as man#8217;s search into the unknown knows no limits.

And so flights to other planets began. The Americans launched. Pioneer I in March 1972 on a 21-month mission into space past Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. It was the first man-made object to travel the solar system. Since man#8217;s first landing on brown brown walks the moon, there have been scores of space flights by in Shakespeare's The Taming A Raisin, the U.S. and the then U.S.S.R., marking a beginning of a bold, new and dynamic era.

In 1978, the Russian scientists sent the first international crew in in young goodman as goodman brown walks, space, consisting of a Russian and a Czech cosmonaut. In 1979, the Soviet cosmonauts succeeded in growing onion sprouts on board Salyut 6. In 1977, the U.S. Value Dimensions. launched Voyager I to probe the outer space and the solar system. The Voyager II was sent into space the same year, past the planet Saturn. Columbia, the first space shuttle, was launched by America on brown walks April 12, 1981 and returned to the earth after 54 hours in space. Unfortunately, on February 1, 2003 Columbia space- shuttle exploded in mid-air, just minutes before landing while returning from a successful space voyage, killing all its crew members. Columbia was a multipurpose and reusable spacecraft which took-off like a rocket. It could be used both as a satellite and a glider. It was used to launch satellites, contact, retrieve, and repair spacecrafts in the orbit. The U.S. spaceship Pioneer 10 was launched in June 1983 to walter character travel to the stars past the in young goodman walks, planets and Roles in Shakespeare's The Taming of the A Raisin, the sun. In 1984, the space shuttle Challenger became the brown brown walks, first spaceship to retrieve and repair an ailing solar satellite in April, 1984. The end of the Cold War has ushered in a new era of anglo saxons, space co-operation, research and technology.

It has also removed the dangers of space weapons and the star wars to a great extent. Now, the possibilities of world destruction through space weapons like missiles, etc. have receded because of this understanding between the two superpowers of the in young, world. It ensures the use of space for peaceful purposes only, at least, for the time being. On March 16, 1995, the Soyuz capsule launched by the Russians docked with the orbiting Russian space station Mir. This space capsule carried a U.S. astronaut, Norman Haggard. Space station Mir had been in hofstede's, orbit for in young goodman walks 9 years but it was for the first time that an hofstede's value, American astronaut was transported to a Russian space station in a Russian space capsule. Soon the U.S. space shuttle, Discovery, also docked with Mir. This paved the way for the proposed joint mission to Mars in the future. This co-operation in the field of space research between America and Russia is really welcome. It now seems certain that the day is in young walks not far when the combined efforts of on terrirism, Russia and America will achieve the goal of permanent human settlement on the moon and landing of man on Mars. Cooperation in space technology can further boost the unmanned explorations of the solar system and in young brown, beyond.

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Descriptive Writing On Anger Essays and brown as goodman, Research Papers. Descriptive Writing Overview Lesson Overview The students will read a description of a visit to the Belmont Mansion . and then write their own descriptive writing . Topic Descriptive writing Objectives The students will write a piece of descriptive writing . Standards Writing process, summarizing, drawing conclusions, vocabulary, adjectives, graphic organizers Time Required 1 class period Recommended Grade Level 4-8+ Credits Alison Nicole Rager Preparation . Writing , Writing process 309 Words | 3 Pages. DESCRIPTIVE WRITING DESCRIPTIVE WRITING is the clear description of people, places, objects, or . Eumenides! events using appropriate details. An effective description will contain sufficient and in young as goodman walks, varied elaboration of details to communicate a sense of the subject being described. Details used are usually sensory and selected to describe what the writer sees, hears, smells, touches, and tastes.

DESCRIPTIVE PROMPTS 1. Anglo Saxons Literature! Think of an animal you have seen or that you know about. In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown Walks! The animal might be someones. 3OH!3 , Debut albums , Introduction 950 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Writing : To Write A Short Descriptive Piece About War Experiences Of A WWI Soldier. It was June 1916 . and the waves crashed violently towards the boat. The spray from the sea hit the soldiers faces and the icy wind blew down hard. The soldiers were waiting anxiously nervously as they slowly approached the mitty, beach. Peters hands were shaking vigorously as he decided to take a sip of water from the canister, wrapped around his neck. Goodman Brown As Goodman! Just two men in front of Peter the atmosphere was extremely.

Bullet , Sleep , Soldier 1007 Words | 3 Pages. trouble, cried papa. I wont, i promise After exchanging hugs and kisses, the kids went inside. Anglo Saxons! Ade knew that this was the last farewell and she would . never see him again - never. As the in young brown, children were safe now, there was no stopping him in writing against the government. Instead of fearing the walter, government, he became even bitter than before, reflecting his grudge against them. Sadly, it was not long before he fell victim to the governments deadly bullets which was inevitable. With this.

Debut albums , Government , Lip 907 Words | 3 Pages. ?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at hand is to make sure you . know what type of paper you are writing . Brown As Goodman Walks! The descriptive essay is often creative, personal, or simply artistic. On Terrirism! Discuss the assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin. Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five-paragraph or compare-contrast essay, there is still quite a bit of homework to be done.

Here is a list of important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you should . In Young Brown! certainly look for a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and compulsory elements. A writer has to anglo saxons develop chosen topic in such a way, so that reader have no further questions on in young goodman as goodman walks the issue. What are these issues? These may be people, events, facts etc.

Descriptive essay examples will certainly help aspiring writers compose. Emotion , Essay , Essays 738 Words | 3 Pages. Writing Handout E-7: Descriptive Essay Structuring a Descriptive Essay A descriptive essay . simply describes something or someone by appealing to the readers senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and taste. Here are the basic steps to writing an Eumenides effective descriptive essay: 1. In Young Goodman As Goodman Brown Walks! Select a subject Observation is the key to writing a good description. For example, if you are writing about a place, go there and take notes on value dimensions the sights, sounds, and smells. A descriptive essay paints a picture for the. Essay , Figure of speech , Grammatical tense 1171 Words | 4 Pages. If you do not know anything about descriptive essays you should certainly look for descriptive essay examples, which you can find . In Young As Goodman Brown! online, as well as at Professays.com. Why should you look for such examples? Those students with little writing experience can be somewhat puzzled by a descriptive essay. Thus, an essay example will offer much valuable information, regarding both essay form and contents.

The first thing you can learn is descriptive essay topics. Then you can pay attention to essay structure. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 743 Words | 3 Pages. evoke much of the descriptive elements in your essay. * 5 Determine what you want the reader to essay on terrirism feel about in young brown, what you are . Eumenides! writing . As Goodman! What kind of www tutor2u net words or images can convey this feeling? * Use a lot of adjectives. In Young Goodman As Goodman Brown Walks! They're the describing words. * * 6 Make sure there is enough detail in your essay to create a mental image for the reader. * Visualize the hofstede's dimensions, occasion or memory in your mind and describe. More than many other types of essays, descriptive essays strive to. Emotion , Essay , Feeling 910 Words | 4 Pages. ?THINGS TO BE GIVEN IMPORTANCE IN A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY IDENTIFICATION OF THE THINGS TO BE DESCRIBED Descriptive essay focuses on . a person, place, memory, experience or an object.

First, the exact thing that is to be described must be identified. REASON FOR WRITING A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY There will be particular reason for in young goodman brown brown, writing this kind of essay. Roles The Taming Shrew Hansberry's! That reason will help the writer focus his description and imbue his language with a particular perspective or emotion. Goodman Brown Brown! FOCUS ON THE FIVE SENSES Focusing. Essay , Essays , Five senses 1217 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of hofstede's essays, descriptive essays strive to create a deeply involved and . vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and in young brown brown walks, statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay, it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Essay , Odor , Sun 988 Words | 3 Pages.

Descriptive Writing in Literature. Descriptive Writing in essay Literature! November, 01, 2010 Descriptive Writing in Literature! . Literature indulges us in a different world by using descriptive writing that paints a vivid picture in our mind. Every author has a different way to accomplish that, but the main purpose is to in young goodman brown draw the reader into the desired place and time of the literature. I will compare two poems and one story that capture the imagination by dimensions a descriptive writing . First we will take a closer look how these authors. A Great Way to Care , A Story , Emily Dickinson 2049 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Examples Four types of essays exist including: narration, description, exposition, and argument.

Each type has a unique purpose: some tell a story, . In Young Goodman Brown Brown Walks! some are descriptive and others prevent viewpoints. One of the hofstede's value dimensions, best ways to goodman better understand each type of essay is to review examples. Types of anglo literature Essays Narrative Narration is telling a story from a certain viewpoint, and there is usually a reason for the telling. All narrative essays will have characters, setting, climax, and most importantly. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1903 Words | 6 Pages. Descriptive Writing On Satis House.

? Descriptive writing on satis house As I approached Satis house inside of my carriage I could feel the nerves growing inside of . In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman! me. I got close to the rusted gates and stopped I had to get out and walk up to the old withered gates. I felt my feet stick to the ground and I found it quite hard to breath. Anglo! The sounds around me was getting very load like I was standing next to a roaring plane even know I was getting further away I could hear the crows in the background and goodman brown walks, the snorting horses. When. Debut albums , Estella Havisham , Ghost 1386 Words | 2 Pages. English Descriptive Writing I was walking motionlessly scanning the street going to the shops, it was completely dark, the literature, . pavements felt as if they were asleep as it was so quite. As Goodman Walks! I arrived at the shop reached down and anglo, picked up the ice cold milk white as a ghost.

I purchased the milk with a two pound coin, as i was about to leave 4 youths hooded up and covering their faces also entered the shop and i could smell the in young goodman brown brown, overpowering smell of cannabis . Of The Shrew And Lorraine A Raisin In The Sun! I kept a safe distance from them. In Young Brown As Goodman Brown Walks! I walked. Boy , Eye , Genelia D'Souza 995 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays, descriptive essays strive to on terrirism create a deeply involved and . vivid experience for in young goodman brown walks, the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions.

What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay, it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to Essay Eumenides the Bacchae describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Adjective , Creative writing , Essay 2299 Words | 7 Pages. ? Descriptive writing Train I walked up to the main entrance from the usual route I took every morning. The walls of the . Train Station were panelled with clean cut glass there was no brick to be seen only in young brown as goodman large panels of glass and anglo saxons, the occasional clean cut white glossed plates perfectly aligned with one another and reflecting the early morning sun. In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman Brown! The building was contemporary; full of sharp edges, corners and vertical lines cutting through the Essay versus the Bacchae, city vista. As clean and goodman as goodman brown, neat as the building was. The Entrance, New South Wales , Train , Train station 1743 Words | 4 Pages. traditional art media. Examples include electronic forms of traditional methods such as: Graphic art software for illustration and animation 3D . computer graphics for sculpture and 3D animation Word processors and desktop publishing software for writing and page layout Digital photography and digital cinematography for the capturing of photographs and footage Specialized input devices (e.g. variable pressure sensing tablets and on terrirism, touchscreens) to bridge the gap between traditional techniques and.

3D computer graphics , Application software , Computer art 514 Words | 3 Pages. The Descriptive Writing Style of in young brown walks John Steinbeck. happening to walter mitty character many more civilians than the story focus's on. Steinbeck does not leave out a single detail about the Joad family and as goodman, their journey to . California, and that in Essay on The the Bacchae itself is what makes his writing so entertaining. Not only is this a very powerful topic to write about, but the remarkable writing style of author John Steinbeck makes this book a masterpiece. From the intensely vivid descriptions of the land to the true-to-the-heart portrayal of goodman brown as goodman people, Steinbeck makes the words flow right. Dust Bowl , Henry Fonda , John Ford 1122 Words | 3 Pages. ?Isabella 9/13/13 4th period Descriptive Writing I reach my destination just as the hofstede's, sun begins its decent. Sighing . contently, I sit down at the top of the in young goodman as goodman walks, cliff to The Significance of Gender and Lorraine observe the as goodman brown, setting sun. On the left, the town lights up as the sunlight reflects off the shiny rooftops of the shops and business buildings.

The glass windows and doors shine with a brilliance that cannot be seen up close but from www tutor2u net a distance, it is as goodman brown magical. Essay! The pink aura encasing the town seems surreal as my eyes follow the people. Ecliptic , Jun Maeda , Kanon 438 Words | 2 Pages. ? Descriptive Writing She is goodman brown a beautiful young woman, perhaps the most beautiful woman he has ever seen. Mitty Character! Her hair is a midnight . Goodman! black color; it almost reminded him of the value dimensions, color of the goodman as goodman brown walks, night sky as he looks through a window. As he looked at her hair he notice the way the light catches in it and it shimmers as it flows with her every move.

His eyes are drawn to the fact that her hair is essay very lengthy reaching down to the middle of brown brown walks her torso, so long in fact that it almost caresses the small of her back. Color , Hair , IPod Touch 516 Words | 1 Pages. Descriptive writing piece I got off the bus as it came to a slow stop and as I walked past Burger King, the scent of greasy . fast food filled my nostrils. Essay Versus! The bus departed again, crawling along the in young goodman brown as goodman brown walks, road, leaving my sight, as it turned a sharp corner. An elderly man cut across my walking path to use the cash machine on www tutor2u net the corner. As he walked towards it, I could see the growing disappointment on his face, to in young brown brown find it was out of order. The Significance Of Gender In Shakespeare's The Taming Shrew A Raisin In The Sun! I could now see more buses ahead of me, each turning and disappearing. Automobile , Homelessness , Pedestrian 495 Words | 2 Pages. DESCRIPTIVE WRITING | A scene at a concert | - A n i s h a S r i k a r I was starting to realise that concerts and I were a . very bad combination. I had agreed to come here in hopes of in young as goodman brown actually enjoying it.

Except, I was experiencing the exact opposite. While everyone else seemed to enjoy and move their bodies to the the deafeningly loud noise called music, I couldnt help but cringe at the horrible melody bellowing from the speakers. The band playing tonight was some sort of metal rock band. Clothing , Death growl , T-shirt 478 Words | 1 Pages. kids to say and do things that they wouldnt do face-to-face, and saxons, they feel like they wont be held accountable in the same way. Goodman Walks! It gives them a false sense . of security and power. (Simmons, 2) Sometimes children start to cyberbully others because of anger , frustration, and revenge. Others are motivated to cyber bully for laughs and entertainment. (Hunter, 7) These children often feel as if they will not be held responsible for their actions.

Unfortunately, the walter mitty, effects of cyberbullying are harmful. . Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 697 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive writing English Dubai has the tallest buildings and the largest malls, in the night the sparkly skies make me . In Young Goodman Brown Brown! exited like a small child that has sweets, it is the city that never sleeps. At night the moment that the fireworks will bursts in the clear black sky, the people were on every Spot on the ground they were like the suns rays in summer. Suddenly I can see lime green rockets zooming it to a pitch black sky, amongst the twinkling white stars. Everyone looked incredibly.

American films , English-language films , Fireworks 649 Words | 2 Pages. Anger Habits Have you ever felt like your anger level is higher than an average person. If so these are conditions of . anger habits. Anger usually always starts from irritation on a daily basis. This seems to hofstede's value be a problem in todays society but many people never speak on it. Every person is different others are even more complicated than other people. Being one of goodman brown walks these individuals, takes a lot of work and practice to overcome. These individuals usually are mad or upset about literature, something. Aggression , Anger , Emotion 1650 Words | 4 Pages.

Styles of goodman brown brown Anger in Anger Management. ANGER MANAGEMENT Grouping the www tutor2u net, Styles Anger 1. Masked Anger 2. Brown Walks! Explosive Anger 3. Chronic . Anger 1. Masked Anger Anger is essay on terrirism masked when people dont realize that they are angry or when they severely underestimate their anger . 2. Explosive Anger People with explosive anger are know by the quick, exaggerated sometimes dangerous character of their anger . 3. Chronic Anger People with chronic anger stew in their anger for long periods. They cant let go of their anger as easily as those with any. Aggression , Anger , Anger management 2788 Words | 7 Pages. groups or larger societal structures.

II. Body What is in young goodman brown anger ? * It is an emotion characterized by antagonism toward someone or . Www Tutor2u Net! something you feel has deliberately done you wrong. Brown! * Anger can be a good thing. It can give you a way to literature express negative feelings, for example, or motivate you to find solutions to problems. * But excessive anger can cause problems. Increased blood pressure and other physical changes associated with anger make it difficult to think straight and in young goodman walks, harm your physical. Anger , Conflict , Education 1277 Words | 6 Pages.

Writing is an art form created by past experiences, future hopes, fantasies, and on terrirism, limitless imagination. In Young Goodman Brown! It brings feelings, knowledge, . Essay! adventure, mystery, and foreign times and places to life. Writing can be very personal, remedial, cathartic, and affect you in ways that could change your life forever. Participating in Analytical Composition and Literature this year has been a jo urney that has brought about personal growth as a writer and allowed me to in young goodman express my growth in different writing. Better , Composition studies , Creative writing 914 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example Essay 81 - 100 . www.studymode.com/. / descriptive - writing -afro-asian-essay-example-pa. ? * 20+ items - Free Essay about Descriptive Writing Afro Asian Essay Example . question you essay may require -starting point transistor and www tutor2u net, ending condition . time, and in young as goodman brown, a cup of anglo saxons literature coffee you should have no problem. There are many . Goodman As Goodman Brown Walks! 2. Value Dimensions! Afro-Asian Literature - Essay - Warriorjamboy1 - StudyMode.com www.studymode.com Essays Military ? . Afro-Asian , Essay , Expository writing 1436 Words | 6 Pages. ?Christopher Cook English Composition 1 ENC 101 Jul 2014 Writing Description I grew up in in young goodman brown walks a little town known as Preston, Idaho. Most . people know this town because of the movie Napoleon Dynamite. If you were to visit my town, the best time to go would be around the end of anglo July. Another good time would be the beginning on December.

If you dont go either of those times, there are still plenty of in young goodman brown as goodman brown walks good things to do. Versus The Bacchae! If you go to as goodman Preston, Idaho at the end of July one of the saxons, best and in young brown as goodman brown walks, most interesting. Carnival , Christmas , Huckleberry 734 Words | 2 Pages. Dante Addona Observational Writing Assignment E-Block British Literature 11/2/12 When the floodgates open and water pours down from the . sky there is nothing to do other than hope and pray that you are prepared for the storm, and what better a place to go for supplies then a Wal-Mart. People rushed in The Significance of Gender The Taming of the A Raisin in the Sun and out in young goodman walks pushing up against each other like a school of fish swimming in tight quarters. In my sweats and hoodie, I strolled in trying to avoid getting pushed over while I noted a sign that read. Black people , Cart , Glasses 760 Words | 2 Pages. The Five-Step Writing Process for value dimensions, Descriptive Essays Professional writers know one thing: Writing takes work. . Goodman Brown As Goodman! Understanding and following the proven steps of the essay, writing process helps all writers, including students. In Young Goodman Brown As Goodman! Here are descriptive essay writing tips for each phase of the The Significance of Gender in Shakespeare's and Lorraine A Raisin in the Sun, writing process: 1. Prewriting for the Descriptive Essay In the prewriting phase of descriptive essay writing , students should take time to in young brown brown think about Essay Eumenides the Bacchae, who or what they want to describe and why. Do they want to write about. Essay , Perception , Psychology 614 Words | 2 Pages.

?J n jn jn none none torn torn hand hand noon noon Jn jn no no and and into into den den ninth ninth No end an ant near land inne nails one ten F g fg . fg go go gone gone ring ring garage garage Fg fg golf golf eggs eggs eager eager legal legal To go he got to jog to in young brown walks jig the dimensions, fog is to goodman walks golf Ki ed rf tf nj lo de ik jh ft nj fr hg rt His jet an old fort do al long skit she left the An an go go ink ink dig dig sing sing angle angle Log on sign it and gold fine song right angle Do do go go. Haydn and value, Mozart , Joseph Haydn , Ludwig van Beethoven 1094 Words | 3 Pages. 1. As Goodman Brown! Descriptive essay writing An essay is of Gender The Taming of the and Lorraine in the a written composition of in young walks moderate length exploring a . Essay On Terrirism! particular issue or subject. Descriptive essays, derived from the word describe, is a genre of essay that asks the as goodman, student to describe somethingobject, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc. Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay, which reveals meaning through a personal story, the. Emotion , Essay , Meaning of life 794 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anttwon Merriweather When you are trying to write a descriptive piece then it is best to describe everything in anglo literature a very visual way to that . would make the reader use its five senses. Using the five senses in a descriptive writing really elevates your piece and walks, makes it stand out. Essay On Terrirism! Im from goodman brown brown a small city in northern Indiana where not many people visit even actually hardly at in Shakespeare's The Taming Shrew and Lorraine Hansberry's Sun all. The city is off the coast of Lake Michigan which creates a slight cold breeze in middle of December and all of January.

Attention , Chicago , Five senses 409 Words | 1 Pages. Compare and Contrast This type of writing allows the goodman brown as goodman walks, writer to point out similarities and differences about topics, subjects or objects. Anglo! . Compare means to identify how your topics are alike or similar. You state what they have in in young as goodman common. On the other hand, contrast means to identify what is different about your your topic. When contrasting, you state what makes the topic, subject or object unique or one of a kind. Essay On Terrirism! In writing to compare and goodman brown as goodman, contrast, you include both the similarities and Essay on The versus the Bacchae, the. Essay , Rhetorical modes , Writing 2364 Words | 7 Pages.

Essay Writing: Writing with Purpose. effects of floods; if you choose to write a narrative essay, you can narrate a story related to floods; and if you choose to write a . descriptive essay, you can focus on describing floods. In Young Brown As Goodman Brown! Descriptive Essay: WRITING a descriptive essay is perhaps more difficult than writing a narrative essay because it makes more demands on The Significance of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's in the Sun ones use of goodman brown brown walks language. In a descriptive essay, you need to give a detailed description of a person, place, object, experience or memory. Essay On The Versus! Your description must be so effective . Conclusion , Essay , Essays 2047 Words | 7 Pages. TIPS TO WRITE A DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY Write down in in young goodman brown as goodman any order about things that strike you. Put it down in black and white. Depending on . the www tutor2u net, train of thought and goodman brown as goodman brown walks, association which the essay forms itself. Use vivid language that brings out the principle features. Comparing with some other thing will allow the the Bacchae, senses of reader act. Effective time should be used to show change or evolution. Free play of emotions and feelings adds essence to brown brown walks the essay. On Terrirism! Use adverbs and verbs to show.

As You Like It , Essay , Graduation 612 Words | 2 Pages. bitter-sweet, bland, sour, minty SMELL putrid, rancid, acrid, perfumed, alcohol, gasoline, fresh, juicy, scent DO THE FOLLOWING EXERCISES BASED ON THE . SENSORY WORDS IN THE BOX. In Young Goodman Brown Walks! Exercise 1 Use any combination of the sensory words in the box in writing sentences to describe the dimensions, following: 1. fireflies behind the bamboo thicket 2. two angry women on the street 3. Goodman Brown As Goodman Walks! a rotten dead rat 4. the on terrirism, air-conditioned bedroom 5. mangoes and grapes end of goodman brown pages 2-5 . Carl Sandburg , Connotation , Denotation 516 Words | 3 Pages. and Tan show many differences about the Eumenides versus, impact of brown as goodman brown language on their lives, they are extremely similar in their writing styles, in their . approaches, and in their overall theme. One area of similarity of Tannen, Munoz and Tans essays is in their styles of writing . The first writing style that these three authors share is dimensions descriptive . All of the writers share their story using the descriptive approach telling their story with great detail. Goodman Brown Brown Walks! An example of this is when Munoz describes the gate agent in. Communication , English language , Essay 1149 Words | 4 Pages. conditions and test cases from Eumenides versus Use Case, Identification of test cases to be automated for in young as goodman brown walks, regression testing.

Automation of essay on terrirism test cases using Mercury QTP . 8.2/9.2. Use of VB Script, User Defined Functions, Data Driven approach, Recovery Scenarios, Descriptive Programming, FileSystemObject, Excel Object, XML Object and SQL queries (for verifying the database) in the script. Handled Automated Regression Test Execution that involved creation of Regression test suite, Regression Test Execution, creation. Integration testing , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 1390 Words | 6 Pages. story. Goodman Brown Walks! A descriptive essay lets you describe in detail what the essay is all about using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, . see, touch, and taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that describes a person, place, or object.

When I compare the www tutor2u net, authors narrative essay Are the in young goodman brown as goodman, Rich Happy? by Steven Leacock and the authors descriptive essay Sister Flowers by Maya Angelou it is clear that there are many similarities and differences between the two styles of writings . Literature! The narrative. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style they think is goodman brown brown walks . more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to saxons be more excellent writing style then narrative. In Young Brown Brown! I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the two. I prefer Descriptive essays, rather than narrative essays. In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an walter author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Anger - Towards the Author Anger Robert A.F. Thurman Oxford University Press Copyright 2005 125 Pages Reviewed by: Connell . Depatie The book Anger , written by Robert Thurman, belongs to a series of in young brown brown walks books individually written by The Significance of Gender Roles in Shakespeare's of the and Lorraine Sun different authors about the in young goodman as goodman brown walks, Seven Deadly Sins and the different ways to conquer them. This particular book tells the reader what anger really is, with a western definition followed by Essay on The versus the Bacchae an eastern definition, and goes on to tell the reader several steps through which.

Anger , Buddhism , Eastern religion 1114 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Writing Task The aim of this lesson is to write a piece of brown brown walks original writing about a deserted . house. You and your friend have just finished school and on www tutor2u net the way home and you need shelter from the sudden change in weather. You see a deserted house and decide to enter it. Describe in detail the in young brown as goodman, appearance of the house and the path that leads up to the front door. How do you feel as you approach? What type of value door do you enter? Imagine that you have gone through the doorway.

Adjective , Adverb , Door 830 Words | 4 Pages. Quiz: Narrative and goodman brown as goodman, Writing Building Writing. modes used in academic writing . Provide at least two tips for writing each type of rhetorical device. Value! Rhetorical mode Purpose . Explain when or why each rhetorical mode is brown as goodman walks used. Www Tutor2u Net! Structure Explain what organizational method works best with each rhetorical mode. Tips Provide two tips for writing in each rhetorical mode. Narration A method of informing that explains something by recounting events.

The organizational method that works best with narrative writing is chronological order . Copyright , Fiction-writing mode , Grammar 443 Words | 3 Pages. of a persons emotional states anger is the most dangerous emotion that someone can feel. In Young Goodman Brown Brown Walks! Anger can cause a person to do . irreplaceable damage to themselves or others, sometimes resulting in literature death. When someone is brown walks angry it can cause them to think irrationally and make poor decisions. Fortunately, there are ways to control ones anger so that a situation doesnt escalate out of control and cause harm to themselves or others.

A person can learn to control their anger using some valuable techniques described. Aggression , Anger , Anger management 1014 Words | 3 Pages. ANGER / ANGER EXPRESSION Veronica Rutherford Keiser University Dr. Apterbach PSY 532: Health Psychology February 27, 2013 . Anger is an emotion that is saxons caused by past experiences, learned behavior, or emotional problems. Anger is caused by being frustrated and rage. Anger is an emotion that can create psychology problems for adolescent and adult.

There have increased in adolescent anger because of family problems, bulling, psychosocial, and in young brown as goodman walks, other issues. Anger has causes adolescents and. Anger , Anxiety disorder , Anxiety disorders 3955 Words | 10 Pages. This writing sample fulfills the first writing assignment in the course. Walter Mitty! Instructions: According to in young brown as goodman brown walks The Little Seagull . Handbook, A descriptive writing provides specific details to show what something looks likeand perhaps how it sounds, feels, smells, and tastes (Bullock, Brody, and anglo, Weinberg 23).

Descriptive arguments should make a clear dominant impression (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 367) and should prove a point. Goodman Brown! To the best of what you know about anglo literature, college-level writing , write. Essay , Greatest hits albums , Linguistics 795 Words | 4 Pages. Anger Management Anger Management Education, founded in 1994, provided education and psychotherapy to individuals to goodman brown help make . sense of and manage anger in their everyday lives ( Anger Management 1). Anger remains a healthy emotion when expressed appropriately, although devastating effects may still exist.

Anger lies at the root of many personal and saxons, social problems, such as child abuse, domestic and community violence, physical and verbal abuse. Anger also affects our physical health, by goodman brown contributing. Aggression , Anger , Bullying 894 Words | 3 Pages. Four Types of Writing : There are four types of writing or four writing styles that are generally used. Knowing all . these four different types of writing and their usages are important for essay, any writer. A writers style is a reflection of his personality, his unique style, his voice and his way to approach his audience and readers.

Generally there are four different types or styles of goodman as goodman brown walks writing . Roles In Shakespeare's Hansberry's A Raisin In The Sun! Following are their names and details: 1. Expository Writing : Expository writing is in young brown brown a subject-oriented. Fiction , Style , Writing 629 Words | 3 Pages. ? Descriptive versus Narrative This essay is to essay on terrirism compare-contrast a narrative and descriptive essay The essays I chose were, Are . the Rich Happy? written by Stephen Leacock (1916) for the narrative essay and Homeless written by Anna Quindlen (n.d.) for the descriptive essay. In Young Goodman Walks! The title of both essays is anglo saxons literature what caught my eye and the reason why I read them. Although, I enjoyed reading both essays, I felt the goodman, descriptive essay Homeless had more value and was the better read. Therefore, in this essay. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1545 Words | 4 Pages. ?Formats for Writing Formal Letter Senders address LAL Date LAL Addressees Address LAL Salutation/Greeting Subject: Body of the letter LAL . Essay On Terrirism! Subscription Sign Name Informal Letter Senders address LAL Date LAL Salutation/Greeting Content +expression LAL Subscription Article Writing Title (underline or highlight) LAL Body (Usually in three paras ie 1st Intro, 2nd Main Content, 3rd Conclusion) Include your personal opinion LAL By xyz and designation.

Amit Kumar , Formal , Literature 557 Words | 5 Pages. Conversation Questions Anger What causes anger ? What are various ways people respond to anger ? . Is anger ever justified? If so, how can we determine whether it is? Are there better and worse ways to in young brown as goodman brown respond to one's own anger ? How do you decide what to do when you get angry? Is anger ever a bad thing? If so,when? Why? Do you think men and essay on terrirism, women show their angry differently? What makes you angry? When was the last time you got.

Anger , Anger management , Control 2064 Words | 6 Pages. lesson plan on Teaching a Descriptive Writing. ?Teaching a Descriptive Writing Gender: Grade :5 Date:25.Nov.2013 Time:45 minutes General Goal(s): ? students will learn . the in young goodman as goodman brown walks, elements of descriptive writing . In Shakespeare's And Lorraine A Raisin In The! ?They will understand the parts of in young brown walks a descriptive paragraph ?will be able to generate a descriptive paragraph. Teacher Instructions Objectives: ? Students will identify the anglo saxons, elements of in young as goodman walks descriptive writing . ? Students will write to describe using all five senses. Outcomes: At the end of class student are expected to on terrirism be. Creative writing , Error , Five senses 430 Words | 2 Pages. Anger Management PSY 1012, Richard Bender Aristotle had a famous quote Anyone can become angry that is easy. But to in young goodman brown walks be angry with the . right person, to www tutor2u net the right degree, at in young brown walks the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way that is not easy. Anger is dimensions one of the worst and the most devastating emotions we can have. Anger , as it is defined by most psychologist, is an emotional state consisting of in young goodman brown as goodman feelings that vary in intensity from mild irritation or annoyance to intense fury and.

Aggression , Anger , Anger Management 1985 Words | 5 Pages. ? Writing Skills Improving your writing skills Make an effort to write regularly Read regularly and as widely as possible. . Roles In Shakespeare's! Expand your vocabulary Look for different approaches to writing . In Young Goodman As Goodman Brown! Different structures or styles, a variety of tones and rhythms Take notice of the small, funny, interesting things that happen around you Re-read what you write to see if you have expressed yourself clearly Be open to criticism and feedback The style of writing will depend on the purpose of your writing . Creative writing , Essay , Grammar 884 Words | 3 Pages. wizard in hofstede's English class to in young goodman brown as goodman learn how to write outstanding five paragraph essays. Practice makes perfect and The Significance of Gender Roles The Taming of the A Raisin, with some basic skills and a lot of practice, any . Brown Brown! student can be writing proper essays in no time. The five paragraph essay is hofstede's of utmost importance because it is the chosen standard for measuring a student's writing skills and proficiency. Most grade schools use the five paragraph essay for class assignments and in young as goodman brown walks, standardized testing.

Mastering the patterned format of this essay will help. Conclusion , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1005 Words | 4 Pages. Expository Writing What is it? Expository Writing is the most straightforward genre of writing that you . do. It is versus the Bacchae also one of the most flexible genres. It can take a variety of forms: it can instruct, inform, report on as goodman an experience, or explore an idea. Expository writing conveys information to the reader in such a way as to bring about of Gender of the Shrew and Lorraine in the Sun, understanding, whether it is a process, procedure, information or the writers ideas on a concept.

Well-written exposition has a clear, central presentation. Essay , Featured articles , Formal system 882 Words | 5 Pages.